Staszów

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Staszów
Town
Old Town Hall and Market Square
Old Town Hall and Market Square
Coat of arms of Staszów
Coat of arms
Staszów is located in Poland
Staszów
Staszów
Coordinates: 50°33′48″N 21°10′18″E / 50.56333°N 21.17167°E / 50.56333; 21.17167
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Świętokrzyskie
County Staszów County
Gmina Gmina Staszów
Town rights 11 April 1525
Parts of town
Government (as of December 2010)
 • Mayor
 • Town Council
 • Chairman Estate
 • District Council
Area (through the years 2007-2010)[1]
 • Total 26.88 km2 (10.38 sq mi)
Elevation 199 m (653 ft)
Population (31 December 2013 at Census)[1]
 • Total 15,517
 • Density 580/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 28-200
Area code(s) +48 15
Car plates TSZ
Website http://www.staszow.pl
Staszów coat of arms

Staszów[2][3][4] [ˈstaʂuf] is a town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodship (historic province of Lesser Poland), about 54 kilometres (34 miles) southeast of Kielce, and 120 km (75 mi) northeast of Kraków. It is the capital of Staszów County. Population is 15,108 (2010), which makes it 8th largest urban center of the province. The area of the town is 26,88 km2., and its two rivers are the Desta and the Czarna Staszowska. Staszów's coat of arms is the Korab, ancient symbol of several noble families of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This is because Hieronymus Jaroslaw Łaski of Korab coat of arms, founded the town. Staszów remained in private hands until October 1866. It has a rail station, near the town also goes the Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line.

The name of the town comes from ancient Slavic given name Stanisław, which in the 13th and 14th centuries was used in diminutive form Stasz. It is probable that the first owner of the town was a man named Stasz Kmiotko. Staszów is home to a sports club club Pogoń, founded in 1945.

Location[edit]

Staszów is located in southeastern corner of Świętokrzyskie Mountains, in historic Sandomierz Land, which in 1314 turned into Lesser Poland’s Sandomierz Voivodeship. The town remained within borders of this voivodeship for hundreds of years, until 1795 (see Partitions of Poland). Between 1796–1809 it belonged to Austrian Empire, and then to Duchy of Warsaw, which after the Congress of Vienna became Congress Poland, a Russian protectorate. In 1844 Staszów County, which had been created in 1809, was disbanded, and its territory merged with Sandomierz County.

In the Second Polish Republic Staszów belonged to Sandomierz County of Kielce Voivodeship, and during World War II, it was part of Radom District of the General Government. After the war, Kielce Voivodeship was re-created, and in 1954, Staszów County returned. Between 1975 and 1998, the town belonged to Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship. Staszów is surrounded by forests, which make 36% of the county. The town is located between the colder climate of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, and the milder temperatures of the Sandomierz Valley. Winters are cold, summers hot, and autumns warm and long. Average January temperature is −3 °C (27 °F), July 17–18,3 °C (37 °F), while average annual temperature is 7 to 8 °C (45 to 46 °F).

History[edit]

First mention of the town comes from 1241, when, during Mongol invasion of Europe, the village of Staszów was burned, together with its wooden parish church. In 1345, new stone church of St. Bartholomew was built, and in the 1440s, the village of Staszów was mentioned in Jan Długosz’s Liber Beneficiorum Dioecesis Cracoviensis. In the early 16th century, Staszów had a market square with a town hall, surrounded by tenement houses. In 1580 it emerged as one of centers of Protestant Reformation in Lesser Poland, with Polish Brethren active here. The town belonged to several noble families, including the Opaliński and the Tęczyński.

In 1709, a few years after an outbreak of black death, Staszów was captured and destroyed by the Swedes (see: Great Northern War). On May 2, 1718, Staszów’s-then owner, Elżbieta Sieniawska, allowed Jews to settle here, and build a synagogue. In 1731, Staszów belonged to the Czartoryski family, and soon afterwards, August Czartoryski completed the construction of a new town hall with a clock tower. In 1795 Staszów was annexed by Austria to the province of West Galicia, then, during Napoleonic Wars, was part of Duchy of Warsaw, later Russian-controlled Congress Poland. In 1815 for the first time ever Staszów became a seat of the county. Its inhabitants participated in both November Uprising and January Uprising, so Russian government decided that a Russian Imperial Army garrison of 800 was stationed there. By 1900, Staszów emerged as a local trade center, with a brewery, several mills, and other enterprises.

During World War I, Staszów was the area of heavy fighting between the Russians and the Austro-Hungarians. The town changed hands several times, and in November 1918 it was free. Soon afterwards, it became part of Sandomierz County of Kielce Voivodeship, and by 1930, its population was 10,000, half of which was Jewish. Staszów was an important center of anti-German resistance, where the Jędrusie and the Home Army units were active. The Germans retreated in January 1945, after the hostilities and aerial bombardment of the town, 80% of it was destroyed.

Points of interest[edit]

Staszów managed to keep its medieval shape, with a market square, a town hall in the middle, and perpendicular streets. The town was frequently destroyed and burned, its most notable historic building is St. Bartholomew church, built in 1342 - 1343, in the spot where a wooden church had stood, burned by the Tatars in 1241. The church was renovated several times, and its present shape differs from the original. There are 18th and 19th century tenement houses in the market square, and the town hall was built in 1783, with major changes from 1861.

Demography[edit]

According to the 2011 Poland census, there were 15,108 people residing in Staszów town, of whom 48.3% were male and 51.7% were female. In the town, the population was spread out with 19% under the age of 18, 38.2% from 18 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older.[1]

Table 1. Population level of town in 2010 — by age group[1]
SPECIFICATION Measure
unit
POPULATION
(by age group in 2010)
TOTAL 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85 +
I. TOTAL person 15,108 731 697 854 1,039 1,051 1,181 1,130 976 977 954 1,256 1,309 1,168 619 499 330 182 155
of which in  % 100 4.8 4.6 5.7 6.9 7 7.8 7.5 6.5 6.5 6.3 8.3 8.7 7.7 4.1 3.3 2.2 1.2 1
1. BY SEX
A. Males person 7,294 373 346 449 530 521 646 605 488 472 457 573 594 525 266 204 139 73 33
of which in  % 48.3 2.5 2.3 3 3.5 3.4 4.3 4 3.2 3.1 3 3.8 3.9 3.5 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.5 0.2
B. Females person 7,814 358 351 405 509 530 535 525 488 505 497 683 715 643 353 295 191 109 122
of which in  % 51.7 2.4 2.3 2.7 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.3 4.5 4.7 4.3 2.3 2 1.3 0.7 0.8

Figure 1. Population pyramid of town in 2010 — by age group and sex[1]
Table 2. Population level of town in 2010 — by sex[1]
SPECIFICATION Measure
unit
POPULATION
(by sex in 2010)
TOTAL Males Females
I. TOTAL person 15,108 7,294 7,814
of which in  % 100 48.3 51.7
1. BY AGE GROUP
A. At pre-working age person 2,868 1,490 1,378
of which in  % 19 9.9 9.1
B. At working age. grand total person 9,812 5,089 4,723
of which in  % 65 33.7 31.3
a. at mobile working age person 5,768 2,940 2,828
of which in                          % 38.2 19.5 18.7
b. at non-mobile working age person 4,044 2,149 1,895
of which in                          % 26.8 14.2 12.5
C. At post-working age person 2,428 715 1,713
of which in  % 16.1 4.7 11.4

Districts[edit]

City consists of 10 districts:

  • Osiedle Oględowska - Złodziejówka (Thief Village)
  • Osiedle Ogrody (The Gardens)
  • Osiedle Północ (North town)
  • Osiedle Wschód - Pipała (East town)
  • Stare Miasto (Old town alias Downtown)
  • Staszówek
  • Golejów
  • Radzików
  • Pocieszka
  • Małopolskie

The Holocaust in Staszów[edit]

Staszów (pronounced Stash-ouv) is one of the many sites in occupied Poland where Jews were exterminated en masse by Germans. The Sefer Staszów (The Staszów Book) (Sefer Stashev) contains eyewitness accounts of life in the ghetto, the mass extermination on Black Sunday (Nov 8, 1942), and the subsequent horrors.

Cenotaph in memory of Staszów's Jewish saints, killed in The Holocaust, in Holon city's cemetery in Israel

According to Sefer Staszów, the night before Black Sunday, Obersturmfuehrer Schild ordered the Jewish policemen to instruct all the Jews in town to be present by 8 o'clock in the morning at the marketplace. Anybody who did not obey this order would be shot. By 8 o'clock in the morning about 5,000 Jews, young and old, children and grown-ups, had assembled at the market place in order to begin their march to death. At 10 in the morning, Schild gave the order: “March! And so the people started the march and as soon as they filed into Krakowska Street, the murderers shot into the mass of people, strewing the whole road with innocent victims. Blood ran from the Krakowska street down to the river. The march of the Staszów Jews took them through Szczucin and Stopnica to Belzec extermination camp. More than 1,000 Jews reached Stopnica. In Niziny village, 9 km (6 mi) from Staszów, a mass grave was dug for 740 victims.

Those who had not come at 8 AM to the marketplace were bestially murdered in their homes. All those killed in Staszów itself on the day of slaughter were buried in a single mass grave at the Jewish Cemetery. Many more Jews, who were retained for hard labor or who had hidden in bunkers, were subsequently killed or shipped to a concentration camp.

Jewish Cemetery[edit]

Over 175 years old, the Jewish Cemetery was not maintained, and at one point was even replaced without a trace by a playground. The newer Jewish cemetery, 1 km (0.6 mi) from the center of Staszow, was an empty lot. The gravestones had been carted away by the Nazis for use as paving stones on muddy roads and sold to a construction company by municipal authorities after the war when no Jews returned to claim them. An individual living in New York paid to have the grounds spruced up, to have a 3 m (10-foot) Holocaust memorial constructed, to have some 155 Jewish gravestones he discovered in Staszow homes brought back to the cemetery, and to have a marker set up at a Holocaust-era mass grave.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Local Data Bank (Bank Danych Lokalnych) – Layout by NTS nomenclature (Układ wg klasyfikacji NTS)". demografia.stat.gov.pl: GUS. 10 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Bielec, Jan (ed.); Szwałek, Stanisława (1982). Wykaz urzędowych nazw miejscowości w Polsce. T. III: P – Ż [List of official names of localities in Poland, Vol. III: P – Ż] (in Polish). Ministry of Administration, Spatial Economy and Environmental Protection (1st ed.). Warsaw, Poland: Central Statistical Office. 
  3. ^ Sitek, Janusz (1991). Nazwy geograficzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej [Geographical names of the Republic of Poland] (in Polish). Ministry of Physical Planning and Construction, Surveyor General of Poland, Council of Ministers' Office, Commission for Establishing Names of Localities and Physiographical Objects (1st ed.). Warsaw, Poland: Eugeniusz Romer State Cartographical Publishing House. ISBN 83-7000-071-1. 
  4. ^ "Staszów, miasto, gmina Staszów — miasto, powiat staszowski, województwo świętokrzyskie" [Staszów, town, Staszów Commune — urban area, Staszów County, Świętokrzyskie Province, Poland]. Topographical map prepared in 1:10,000 scale. Aerial and satellite orthophotomap (in Polish). Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland, Warsaw. 2011. geoportal.gov.pl. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
Panorama of Staszów

Coordinates: 50°33′51″N 21°10′01″E / 50.56417°N 21.16694°E / 50.56417; 21.16694