State-funded schools (England)

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State-funded schools in England are schools in England which provide education to pupils between the ages of 3 and 18 without charge. Approximately 93% of English schoolchildren attend such schools.[citation needed] These include Academy schools, Community schools, Foundation schools, Voluntary Aided schools and Voluntary Controlled schools; a small number are state boarding schools and three are City Technology Colleges. A significant minority are faith schools, which are attached to religious groups, most often the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church.

All of these are funded through national taxation. A number of state-funded secondary schools are specialist schools, receiving extra funding to develop one or more subjects in which the school specialises. State schools may request payment for extracurricular activities such as swimming lessons and field trips, provided these charges are voluntary.

History[edit]

Until 1870 all schools were charitable or private institutions, but in that year the Elementary Education Act 1870 permitted local governments to complement the existing elementary schools, to fill up any gaps. The Education Act 1902 allowed local authorities to create secondary schools. The Education Act 1918 abolished fees for elementary schools.

This table give a simplified overview of how the compulsory provision of education by the state (yellow) and compulsory education (purple) developed since 1870, and also how the types of schools used for this purpose evolved. Use some caution with this table which gives a simplified view based on changing policies and legislation, the reality on the ground changed more slowly and is more complex.

Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Notes
1870 Elementary school Schools must be established
1880 Elementary school Compulsory education from ages of 5 to 10
1893 Elementary school Compulsory education raised to 11
189? Elementary school and then to 13
1900 Elementary school Higher elementary school Distinct Higher elementary schools created
1902 Primary school
Infant school Junior school
Secondary school Local Education Authorities created, and new Primary schools
1921 Primary school Secondary school, Central school Responsibility for secondary schools passed to the state
1947 Primary school Secondary modern, Grammar school, Secondary Technical School Tripartite System and Eleven plus exam
1960s First school Middle school Upper school, grammar school Strong move towards Comprehensive schools
1973 Primary school Comprehensive school, grammar school Phasing out of Middle schools
2014 Primary school, Academy school, Free school Comprehensive school, Academy school, Free school School leaving age increased to 17.

Types of state school[edit]

Since 1998, there have been six main types of maintained school in England:[1][2][3]

  • Academy schools, established by the 1997-2010 Labour Government to replaced poorly-performing community schools in areas of high social and economic deprivation. Their start-up costs are typically funded by private means, such as entrepreneurs or NGOs, with running costs met by Central Government and, like Foundation schools, are administratively free from direct local authority control. The 2010 Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government expanded the role of Academies in the Academy Programme, in which a wide number of schools in non-deprived areas were also encouraged to become Academies, thereby essentially replacing the role of Foundation schools established by the previous Labour government. They are monitored directly by the Department for Education.[4]
  • Community schools (formerly county schools), in which the local authority employs the schools' staff, owns the schools' lands and buildings, and has primary responsibility for admissions.
  • Free schools, introduced by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition following the 2010 general election, are newly established schools in England set up by parents, teachers, charities or businesses, where there is a perceived local need for more schools. They are funded by taxpayers, are academically non-selective and free to attend, and like Foundation schools and Academies, are not controlled by a local authority. They are ultimately accountable to the Secretary of State for Education, and are conceptually based on similar schools found in Sweden, Chile, New Zealand, Canada and the United States, where they are known as Charter schools. Free schools are an extension of the existing Academy Programme. The Academies Act 2010 authorises the creation of free schools and allows all existing state schools to become Academy schools. The first 24 free schools opened in Autumn 2011.
  • Foundation schools, in which the governing body employs the staff and has primary responsibility for admissions. School land and buildings are owned by the governing body or by a charitable foundation. The Foundation appoints a minority of governors. Many of these schools were formerly grant maintained schools. In 2005 the Labour government proposed allowing all schools to become Foundation schools if they wished.
  • Voluntary Aided schools, linked to a variety of organisations. They can be faith schools (often the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church), or non-denominational schools, such as those linked to London Livery Companies. The charitable foundation contributes towards the capital costs of the school, and appoints a majority of the school governors. The governing body employs the staff and has primary responsibility for admissions.[5]
  • Voluntary Controlled schools, which are almost always church schools, with the lands and buildings often owned by a charitable foundation. However, the local authority employs the schools' staff and has primary responsibility for admissions.

In addition, 3 of the 15 City Technology Colleges established in the 1980s still remain, the rest having converted to academies. These are state-funded all-ability secondary schools which charge no fees but which are independent of local authority control.

There is also a small number of state-funded boarding schools, which typically charge for board but not tuition. Boarding fees are limited to £12,000 per annum.[6]

School years[edit]

Children are normally placed in year groups determined by the age they will attain at their birthday during the school year.[7] In most cases progression from one year group to another is based purely on chronological age, although it is possible in some circumstances for a student to repeat or skip a year. Repetition may be due to a lack of attendance, for example from a long illness, and especially in Years requiring standard tests. A child significantly more advanced than their classmates may be forwarded one or more years.

State-funded nursery education is available from the age of 3, and may be full-time or part-time, though this is not compulsory. If registered with a state school, attendance is compulsory beginning with the term following the child's fifth birthday. Children can be enrolled in the reception year in September of that school year, thus beginning school at age 4 or 4.5. Unless the student chooses to stay within the education system, compulsory school attendance ends on the last Friday in June during the academic year in which a student attains the age of 16.[8]

In the vast majority of cases, pupils progress from primary to secondary levels at age 11; in some areas either or both of the primary and secondary levels are further subdivided. A few areas have three-tier education systems with an intermediate middle level from age 9 to 13.

Years 12 and 13 are often referred to as "lower sixth form" and "upper sixth form" respectively, reflecting their distinct, voluntary nature as the A-level years. While most secondary schools enter their pupils for A-levels, some state schools have joined the independent sector in offering the International Baccalaureate or Cambridge Pre-U qualifications instead.

Some independent schools still refer to Years 7 to 11 as "first form" to "fifth form", reflecting earlier usage. Historically, this arose from the system in public schools, where all forms were divided into Lower, Upper, and sometimes Middle sections. Year 7 is equivalent to "Upper Third Form", Year 8 would have been known as "Lower Fourth", and so on. Some independent schools still employ this method of labelling Year groups.

The table below describes the most common patterns for schooling in the state sector in England.

Age at birthday during school year[7] Year Curriculum Stage State Schools
4 Nursery Foundation Stage Nursery School
5 Reception Infant School Primary School First School
6 Year 1 Key Stage 1
7 Year 2
8 Year 3 Key Stage 2 Junior School
9 Year 4
10 Year 5 Middle School
11 Year 6
12 Year 7 Key Stage 3 Secondary School or
High School
Secondary School
with Sixth Form
13 Year 8
14 Year 9 Upper School
15 Year 10 Key Stage 4

GCSE

16 Year 11
17 Year 12 (Lower Sixth) Key Stage 5 / Sixth Form

A-level, BTEC, International Baccalaureate, Cambridge Pre-U, etc.

Sixth Form/FE College
18 Year 13 (Upper Sixth)

Curriculum[edit]

All maintained schools in England are required to follow the National Curriculum, which is made up of twelve subjects.[9]

Under the National Curriculum, all pupils undergo National Curriculum Tests (NCTs, commonly still referred to by their previous name of Standard Attainment Tests, or SATs) towards the ends of Key Stage 2 in the core subjects of Literacy, Numeracy and Science, but not in the foundation subjects such as Geography, History and Information & Communication Technology where individual teacher assessment is used instead. Pupils normally take GCSE exams in the last two years of Key Stage 4, but may also choose to work towards the attainment of alternative qualifications, such as the GNVQ. Former tests at the end of Key Stage 3 were abandoned after the 2008 tests, where severe problems emerged concerning the marking procedures. Now at the end of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 3, progress is examined via individual teacher assessment against the National Curriculum Attainment Targets for all subjects.

The core subjects—English, Mathematics and Science—are compulsory for all students aged 5 to 16. A range of other subjects, known as foundation subjects, are compulsory at one or more Key Stages:

In addition, other subjects with a non-statutory programme of study in the National Curriculum are also taught, including Religious education in all Key Stages, Sex education from Key Stage 2, and Career education and Work-related learning in Key Stages 3 and 4.[9] Religious education within community schools may be withdrawn for individual pupils with parental consent. Similarly, parents of children in community schools may choose to opt their child out of some or all sex education lessons.

Inspections[edit]

All state-funded schools are regularly inspected by the Office for Standards in Education, often known simply as Ofsted. Ofsted publish reports on the quality of education at a particular school on a regular basis. Schools judged by Ofsted to be providing an inadequate standard of education may be subject to special measures, which could include replacing the governing body and senior staff.

Test results for schools are published, and are an important measure of their performance.[10][11]

Selection and attainment[edit]

English secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, except in a few areas that retain a form of the previous selective system (the Tripartite System), with students selected for grammar school by the eleven plus exam. There are also a number of isolated fully selective grammar schools, and a few dozen partially selective schools. Specialist schools may also select up to 10% of their intake for aptitude in the specialism, though relatively few of them have taken up this option. The intake of comprehensive schools can vary widely, especially in urban areas with several local schools.[12]

Sir Peter Newsam, Chief Schools Adjudicator 1999–2002, has argued that English schools can be divided into 8 types (with some overlap), based on the ability range of their intake:[13][14]

  1. "super-selective": almost all of the intake from the top 10%. These are the few highly selective grammar schools, such as Manchester Grammar School, that dominate school performance tables.
  2. "selective": almost all of the intake from the top 25%. These include grammar schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives.
  3. "comprehensive (plus)": admit children of all abilities, but concentrated in the top 50%. These include partially selective schools and a few high-status faith schools in areas without selection.
  4. comprehensive: intake with an ability distribution matching the population. These schools are most common in rural areas and small towns with no nearby selection, but a few occur in urban areas.
  5. "comprehensive (minus)": admit children of all abilities, but with few in the top 25%. These include comprehensive schools with nearby selective schools "skimming" the intake.
  6. secondary modern: hardly any of the intake in the top 25%, but an even distribution of the rest. These include non-selective schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives.
  7. "secondary modern (minus)": no pupils in the top 25% and 10–15% in the next 25%. These schools are most common in urban areas where alternatives of types 1–5 are available.
  8. "sub-secondary modern": intake heavily weighted toward the low end of the ability range.

This ranking is reflected in performance tables, and thus the schools' attractiveness to parents. Thus, although schools may use the phrase 'comprehensive' in their prospectus or name, the schools at the higher end of the spectrum are not comprehensive in intake. Indeed, the variation in the social groupings in school intake, and the differences in academic performance, are enormous.

Funding[edit]

Almost all state-funded schools in England are maintained schools, which receive their funding from local authorities, and are required to follow the National Curriculum. In such schools, all teachers are employed under the nationally agreed School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Document.

Legislation[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Categories of Schools – Overview". GovernorNet. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 5 September 2003. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  2. ^ "The Composition of Schools in England" (PDF). Department for Children, Schools and Families. June 2008. 
  3. ^ Types of School, Citizens Advice Bureau.
  4. ^ "What are Academies?". Standards Site. Department for Children, Schools and Families. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  5. ^ "Voluntary Aided Schools". Teachernet. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 8 January 2008. 
  6. ^ Jeevan Vasagar (31 January 2012). "State boarding school boom: surge in pupils living away from home". Guardian. 
  7. ^ a b Education Act 2002, s.82.
  8. ^ "School attendance and absence: the law". Directgov. 
  9. ^ a b "National curriculum". Teachernet. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008. 
  10. ^ "National Curriculum teacher assessments and key stage tests". DirectGov website. H M Government. 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008. 
  11. ^ "School and college achievement and attainment tables". DCSF website. Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008. 
  12. ^ Clyde Chitty (16 November 2002). The Right to a Comprehensive Education. Second Caroline Benn Memorial Lecture. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  13. ^ Peter Newsam (2003). "Diversity and Admissions to English Secondary Schools", Secondary Heads Association, 28 June 2002, revised and reprinted in 'Forum 45:1'". pp. pp17–18. 
  14. ^ Tim Brighouse (2003). "Comprehensive Schools Then, Now and in the Future: is it time to draw a line in the sand and create a new ideal?". Forum. pp. 3–11.