Secretary of State
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Secretary of State or State Secretary is a commonly used title for a senior or mid-level post in governments around the world. The role varies between countries, and in some cases there are multiple Secretaries of State in the Government.
In many countries, a Secretary of State is a mid-level post. It is usually a politically appointed position, although in some countries, such as Germany and Sweden, it can be filled by a member of the executive bureaucracy (civil service) as a political appointment. In the Holy See, there is one Secretary of State, who coordinates all the departments of the Roman Curia (that is, equivalent to a Prime Minister). In the United Kingdom a Secretary of State is a member of the Cabinet appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister (that is, equivalent to a Minister). In the Federal Government of the United States of America, there is one Secretary of State, the most senior political appointee responsible for foreign policy (that is, equivalent to a Foreign Minister).
The Secretary of State (Secretario de Estado) in Argentina (federal government) is a high official with the same rank of a Minister, who is responsible directly to the President. The position must be distinguished from a "Secretary", a lower position, responsible to a Minister.
The official responsible for foreign policy is called Minister of Foreign Affairs (Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores) or "Chancellor" (Canciller).
As in France, a Secretary of State in Belgium is a junior minister who is responsible to a minister or the Prime Minister. For example, Vincent Van Quickenborne was a Secretary of State charged with the simplification of the administration, and in this role he was accountable to the Prime Minister. Secretaries of state do not fall under the constitutional provision that there should be an equal number of French and Dutch-speaking ministers (with the possible exception of the Prime Minister).
The Canadian Cabinet used to have a Secretary of State for External Affairs who acted as the country's Foreign Minister, but this position was abolished in 1993 and a new position of Minister of Foreign Affairs was created. From 1867 to 1993 there was also a Secretary of State for Canada who was a Cabinet minister whose duties varied over time but who was responsible for the Department of Secretary of State until the position was abolished. Since 1993, some junior ministers have been styled Secretary of State, and assigned in specific policy areas to assist Cabinet ministers. However, these junior ministers are not themselves members of Cabinet. A similar role is played by Ministers of State, however Ministers are members of the cabinet.
England and Great Britain 
In the Kingdom of England, icer entitled Secretary of State came into being near the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603), the usual title before that having been King's Clerk, King's Secretary, or Principal Secretary. From 1540 there were sometimes two Secretaries.
From 1660 there were two Secretaries of State, between whom oversight of foreign affairs was divided on a geographical basis while domestic affairs were shared: the Northern Secretary and the Southern Secretary. In 1707, England and Scotland were merged into the Kingdom of Great Britain, and there was a third Secretary of State for Scotland until 1746. A third Secretary of State for the Colonies existed from 1768. In 1782 the system was reformed back to two Secretaries of State: a Home Secretary (including colonial affairs) and a Foreign Secretary, with the addition of a third for War from 1794.
In 1801, Great Britain and Ireland were combined into the United Kingdom (see below).
The Secretary of State (Riigisekretär) directs the State Chancellery. Its mission is to support the Government and the Prime Minister in policy drafting and implementation. It also supports any Ministers without portfolio and helps to ensure good governance. The first Secretary of State was Karl Terras. Before the Soviet re-occupation in 1944, the State Secretary went into exile until the position came back to Estonia in 1992.
A Secretary of State, valtiosihteeri, is the highest official below each minister. Ministers, who lead ministries (government departments), comprise the Finnish Council of State. Each Secretary of State is appointed for the term of the minister, and is responsible to the minister.
This is a new arrangement; during the introduction of this model, a secretary was called "political state secretary" (poliittinen valtiosihteeri). In contrast, previously only two ministries, ministries of finance and foreign affairs, used to have Secretaries of State, who were permanently appointed. One such example is Raimo Sailas.
In France, a Secretary of State is a junior minister, responsible to a minister or the Prime Minister. It is not to be confused with the Minister of State title given to a senior French cabinet minister of particular importance.
The German Staatssekretär is a Beamter (civil servant) who is second only to the minister in a state or federal ministry. The office of Staatssekretär is similar to that of vice minister or deputy minister in other countries. It is a political office, meaning that it is assigned by appointment based on political criteria such as party affiliation, rather than by career progression as a civil servant, although he is the administrative head of the ministry. They depend on the full confidence of their minister and can at any time be posted into provisional retirement with their pension paid in full. This happens usually when the government or the minister changes. De facto such a provisional retirement is lifelong and thus expensive for the taxpayers.
A special case is the Parlamentarische Staatssekretär (parliamentary secretary of state), which is a member of parliament who is appointed to a ministry as a Staatssekretär, in the German Foreign Office and the German Chancellery the official title is Staatsminister (Minister of State). Such posts, which were intended to improve the connection between a ministry and the parliament, have recently become subject of some controversy. Critics claim that parliamentary secretaries of state are usually given little to no influence and responsibility within their ministry. All the while they are paid very generously due to receiving two salaries, both as secretary of state and as member of parliament. For example, when interviewed about his post as a parliamentary minister of state in the German Foreign Office during an investigation into visa abuse, Ludger Volmer claimed that he had been cut off from the workflow within the ministry, and called the Staatsminister office an "Unding" (absurdity).
In 1998, chancellor Gerhard Schröder introduced the new office of Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (Beauftragter der Bundesregierung für Kultur und Medien) at the formal rank of a Parlamentarischer Staatssekretär, hence the office is usually called Kulturstaatsminister ("Minister of Culture") for short - although some of the incumbents did not hold a seat in parliament. The German Parliamentary Commission for Culture and the Media (Ausschuss für Kultur und Medien im Deutschen Bundestag) serves in place of a proper ministry for this department. Since 1998, the office of Kulturstaatsminister has been held by Michael Naumann (1998–2001), Julian Nida-Rümelin (2001–2002), Christina Weiss (2002–2005), and Bernd Neumann (since 2005).
Holy See 
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, or Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Secretariat of State, which is the most important dicastery of the Roman Curia, as it organizes, makes appointments to, and directs the activities of the other dicasteries. The secretariat is also responsible for the Holy See's foreign relations. During a sede vacante, the former Secretary of State (the appointment expires when the pope dies or resigns) assumes some of the functions of the head of state as a part of a temporary commission.
In Indonesia, the Minister-Secretary of State (Menteri Sekretaris Negara) is a Government official of Ministerial rank who heads the Ministry of State Secretariat. The Minister-Secretary of State gives technical and administrational assistance to the President and Vice President in running State affairs. In the President's case, the Minister-Secretary of State also provides assistance for the President in his role as Supreme Commander of TNI. In addition, the State Secretary provides the President and Vice President with their reports, coordinates household matters and protocols, as well as assisting in the drafting of bills and/or Governmental regulations.
The Kuwaiti Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Sheikh Muhammad Al-Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah, is in charge of International relations of Kuwait, and all Kuwaiti representatives abroad. Dr. Al Sabah is a member of the cabinet of ministers, and reports straight to His Highness Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah The Emir of Kuwait. He also is in cahrge to deal with all the diplomatic representatives in Kuwait.
Luxembourgian Secretaries of State (French: secrétaire d'Etat, Luxembourgish: Staatssekretär(in), German: Staatssekretär(in)) are members of the cabinet, and are ranked below ministers. They are given specific briefs, covering the same briefs as the ministers, and help to assist their respective ministers to perform their functions. They often hold more than one brief or assist more than one minister. In the first Juncker-Asselborn cabinet, there was one Secretary of State, Octavie Modert, who is responsible for Relations with Parliament; Agriculture, Viticulture, and Rural Development; and Culture, Higher Education, and Research. There had been two in the previous cabinet, and three between 1984 and 1989.
In Malaysia, Chief Secretary to the Government is the Malaysian secretary of state.
However, every state in Malaysia have their own Secretary of State, except federal territories. Secretary of State is the member of the State Executive Council, appointed by the Governor (in Malacca, Penang, Sabah and Sarawak) or the Sultan (except in Negeri Sembilan, appointed by the Yang DiPertuan Besar; and Perlis, appointed by the King.) The Secretary of State is the head of the public service in his/her state.
A statssekretær in Norway plays more or less the same role as the French or Swedish equivalent. Secretaries of State are connected to specific ministry, and serve as a de facto vice minister. However, the State Secretary cannot attend a Council of State.
Orange Free State 
In the Orange Free State (1854–1902) the Secretary of State was the original the title of the main administrative officer of the State, who worked closely with both the State President as head of state and head of government, and his cabinet, and with the Volksraad, the parliament of the Orange Free State. The title of State Secretary was replaced by that of Government Secretary soon after the formation of the state apparatus and was thereafter never used again.
In Portugal the term Secretário de Estado (plural: Secretários de Estado; feminine: Secretária de Estado) was used to designate the heads of the government departments since the 17th century. In the 19th century, the term Ministro (English: minister) started to be used instead. Curiously the government junior ministers continued to be known as Subsecretário de Estado (English: under-secretary of state). Although in disuse as such, only in 1958 the term Secretário de Estado became the formal meaning of a different post of that of a Ministro (cabinet minister). Since then, the Secretários de Estado are junior ministers, subordinated to a cabinet minister.
The position of State Secretary existed only in certain time periods
- In Russian Empire:
- In Russian Federation:
- Gennady Burbulis, 1991–1992
San Marino 
In the Republic of San Marino a Secretary of State is a senior Cabinet Minister in charge of a State Department. The Secretary of State is a member of the Council of Ministers (Congresso di Stato).
South African Republic 
In the South African Republic the Secretary of State was the main administrative officer of the State, working closely with both the State President as head of state and head of government, and the parliament of the South African Republic.
In present day organisation of the Spanish Government a Secretario de Estado is a junior minister. Each ministry may have one or several Secretaries of State. For example the Secretary of State for Latin America works for the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation.
From 1715 to 1734 the Secretarios de Estado y del Despacho were the heads of different government departments. The Secretary of State usually served as Chief Minister (See List of Prime Ministers of Spain).
In Sweden, a State Secretary (Swedish: Statssekreterare) is a political appointee, second in rank to the Minister (Swedish: Statsråd) in charge of the ministry. Unlike ministers, state secretaries are not members of the cabinet. Typically, there is one State Secretary assigned for each minister in the cabinet, and two for the Prime Minister. For historical reasons, the State Secretary in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs has another title (Swedish: Kabinettssekreterare, in English literally "Cabinet Secretary"). State Secretaries tend to, more often than the Ministers do, hail from a fixed civil servant background or a professional background relevant to the area of responsibility that belongs to their respective ministries.
In the Swiss federal administration, secretaries of state are the most senior career officials. The title is conferred by the Swiss Federal Council on heads of federal offices whose duties entail independent interaction with senior foreign authorities (cf. article 46 of the Government and Administration Organisation Act). In practice, the function of a secretary of state is the same as in France.
United Kingdom 
In the present-day United Kingdom, a secretary of state is a cabinet minister in charge of a government department (though not all departments are headed by a Secretary of State, e.g. HM Treasury is headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer). Secretaries of State are appointed directly by the Prime Minister, and are responsible, along with other Cabinet members, for the collective Government of the UK. There is in theory only one office of Secretary of State, and legislation generally refers only to "the Secretary of State". In practice, there are a number of Secretaries of State, each of whom can exercise some of the functions of the Secretary of State, and are formally titled "Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for ...". These positions can be created without primary legislation.
United States 
Federal government 
In the United States federal government, "Secretary of State" uniquely refers to the official responsible for foreign policy, the analogue of the foreign secretary or foreign minister of a country that has one or the other. The U.S. Secretary of State is head of the United States Department of State.
Six Secretaries of State became presidents (Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan) and four won Nobel Peace Prizes (Frank Kellogg, Cordell Hull, George Marshall and Henry Kissinger).
The now long-established terms "Department ..." and "Secretary of State" were preceded (for two months following the effective date of the Constitution) by the narrower title Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the corresponding departmental name; the change reflected the addition of some miscellaneous domestic responsibilities.
The position is widely regarded as the most senior in the Cabinet. In the presidential line of succession the Secretary of State falls first among Cabinet officers, and fourth overall. The Secretary of State is also, in protocol, the first Cabinet member in the order of precedence, immediately preceding any former presidents and former first ladies, who are followed by the rest of the Cabinet.
President-elect Barack Obama named Hillary Rodham Clinton as his choice for 67th Secretary of State on December 1, 2008. She was confirmed on January 21, 2009, the day after Obama's inauguration and is the third woman to hold the position. On December 21, 2012 President Obama announced his choice for Secretary of State during his second term, Senator John Kerry. His confirmation hearing took place on January 24, 2013, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The committee unanimously voted to approve him on January 29, 2013, and the same day the full Senate confirmed him on a vote of 94–3. On February 1, 2013, Hillary Rodham Clinton resigned as Secretary of State and John Kerry was sworn in as the 68th Secretary of State.
U.S. states 
In most of the individual states of the United States, the Secretary of State is an administrative officer responsible for certain governmental functions. The specific powers and duties of this office depend on the constitution and laws of the particular state, but they often include responsibility for overseeing elections within the state. In three states (Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia), the position is called "Secretary of the Commonwealth". In Connecticut, this office is called the "Secretary of the State".
- Riigisekretäri ülesanded (Estonian)
- Pope John Paul II (1988-06-28). "Pastor Bonus". The Holy See. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- Pope John Paul II (1996-02-22). "Universi Dominici Gregis". The Holy See. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- "Draft Cabinet Manual". Cabinet Office. 14 December 2010. p. 42. Retrieved 19 January 2011.