In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas. Some countries have a country-wide floral emblem; others in addition have symbols representing subdivisions. Different processes have been used to adopt these symbols – some are conferred by government bodies, whereas others are the result of informal public polls. The term floral emblem, which refers to flowers specifically, is primarily used in Australia and Canada. In the United States, the term state flower is more often used.
- 1 National flowers
- 1.1 Africa
- 1.2 Asia
- 1.2.1 Bangladesh
- 1.2.2 Bhutan
- 1.2.3 Brunei
- 1.2.4 Cambodia
- 1.2.5 India
- 1.2.6 Indonesia
- 1.2.7 Iran
- 1.2.8 Iraq
- 1.2.9 Jordan
- 1.2.10 North Korea
- 1.2.11 South Korea
- 1.2.12 Kuwait
- 1.2.13 Laos
- 1.2.14 Malaysia
- 1.2.15 Maldives
- 1.2.16 Myanmar
- 1.2.17 Nepal
- 1.2.18 Pakistan
- 1.2.19 The Philippines
- 1.2.20 Singapore
- 1.2.21 Sri Lanka
- 1.2.22 State of Israel
- 1.2.23 Republic of China and Taiwan
- 1.2.24 Thailand
- 1.2.25 Vietnam
- 1.3 Eurasia
- 1.4 Europe
- 1.4.1 Albania
- 1.4.2 Austria
- 1.4.3 Belarus
- 1.4.4 Belgium
- 1.4.5 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 1.4.6 Bulgaria
- 1.4.7 Croatia
- 1.4.8 Czech Republic
- 1.4.9 Estonia
- 1.4.10 Faroe Islands
- 1.4.11 Finland
- 1.4.12 France
- 1.4.13 Germany
- 1.4.14 Gibraltar
- 1.4.15 Greece
- 1.4.16 Hungary
- 1.4.17 Iceland
- 1.4.18 Ireland
- 1.4.19 Italy
- 1.4.20 Latvia
- 1.4.21 Lithuania
- 1.4.22 Macedonia
- 1.4.23 Malta
- 1.4.24 Monaco
- 1.4.25 The Netherlands
- 1.4.26 Norway
- 1.4.27 Poland
- 1.4.28 Portugal
- 1.4.29 Romania
- 1.4.30 Serbia
- 1.4.31 Slovakia
- 1.4.32 Slovenia
- 1.4.33 Spain
- 1.4.34 Switzerland
- 1.4.35 Ukraine
- 1.5 North America
- 1.5.1 Antigua and Barbuda
- 1.5.2 The Bahamas
- 1.5.3 Barbados
- 1.5.4 Belize
- 1.5.5 Bermuda
- 1.5.6 Canada
- 1.5.7 Costa Rica
- 1.5.8 Cuba
- 1.5.9 Dominica
- 1.5.10 Dominican Republic
- 1.5.11 El Salvador
- 1.5.12 Guatemala
- 1.5.13 Honduras
- 1.5.14 Jamaica
- 1.5.15 Mexico
- 1.5.16 Nicaragua
- 1.5.17 Panama
- 1.5.18 Saint Kitts and Nevis
- 1.5.19 Trinidad and Tobago
- 1.5.20 United States
- 1.6 Oceania
- 1.7 South America
- 2 Subnational flowers
- 3 Unofficial flowers
- 4 References
- 5 External links
|Afghanistan||Tulip||Genus Tulipa gesneriana|
|Egypt||White Egyptian water lily||Nymphaea lotus|
|Ethiopia||Calla lily||Zantedeschia aethiopica|
|Lesotho||Aloe polyphylla||Aloe polyphylla|
|Liberia||Black pepper||Piper nigrum|
|Libya||Pomegranate blossom||Punica granatum|
|Nigeria||Costus spectabilis||Costus spectabilis|
|Sikkim||Noble orchid||Cymbidium goeringii|
|South Africa||King protea||Protea cynaroides|
|Zimbabwe||Gloriosa superba||Gloriosa superba|
- Bhutan – Blue poppy (Meconopsis grandis)
Cambodia formally adopted the romduol (Khmer: រំដួល) as it's national flower in the year 2005 by a royal decree. The royal decree designates the taxon as Mitrella mesnyi, however this is a taxonomically illegitimate synonym for Sphaerocoryne affinis Ridley.
Kerala's state floral emblem is the tree Cassia fistula. Tamil Nadu's floral emblem is Glory lily. Water-lily is the state flower of Andhra Pradesh. Bihar's floral emblem is kachnaar and that of Uttarakhand is the rhododendron (locally buransh).
There are three types of floral emblems that symbolize Indonesia:
- the puspa bangsa (national flower) of Indonesia is melati (Jasminum sambac)
- the puspa pesona (flower of charm) is anggrek bulan (Moon Orchid, Phalaenopsis amabilis)
- the puspa langka (rare flower) is padma raksasa rafflesia (Rafflesia arnoldii).
All three were chosen on World Environment Day in 1990. and enforced by law through Presidential Decree (Keputusan Presiden) No. 4 1993, On the other occasion Bunga Bangkai (Titan arum) was also added as puspa langka together with Rafflesia.
Melati (jasminum sambac), a small white flower with sweet fragrance, has long been considered as a sacred flower in Indonesian tradition, as it symbolizes purity, sacredness, graceful simplicity and sincerity. For example, on her wedding day, a traditional Indonesian bride's hair is often adorned with arrangements of jasmine, while the groom's kris is often adorned with a lock of jasmine. However, jasmine is also often used as floral offering for spirits and deities, and also often present during funerals which gave it its mystical and sacred properties. Moon Orchid was chosen for its beauty, while the other two rare flowers, Rafflesia arnoldii and Titan arum were chosen to demonstrate uniqueness and Indonesian rich biodiversity.
- Iraq – Rose
- Jordan – Black iris (Iris nigricans)
- South Korea – Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus)
- Kuwait – Rhanterium epapposum
Plant symbols include: Poet's Jasmine (national flower), Rhododendron ponticum (state flower of Jammu and Kashmir), the chinar (state tree of Jammu and Kashmir), deodar (national tree), mango (national fruit),
For thousands of years, the jasmine plant has been cultivated not only for the beauty of its small, white, star-like flowers, but it has also been prized for its intoxicating scent. Originating in the foot hills of the Western Himalayas and the Indus Valley plains of the Punjab, the plant was cultivated and brought to the rest of the Indian subcontinent, China, the Middle East and other regions of Asia. From there, it spread into France, Italy and the Mediterranean, and eventually it was introduced to the rest of Western Europe and Britain. Today, jasmine is grown and cultivated all over the world in its many varieties. Since jasmine has been cultivated all over the world for its flowers and scent, there are different varieties, and each type of jasmine is associated with different meanings. In Pakistan, Jasmine is a very common plant and one can find it in any garden. Because of its attractive scent, the white jasmine symbolizes attachment and represents amiability and modesty.
The national flower for Singapore is the orchid Vanda Miss Joaquim.
This beautiful aquatic flower appears in the Sigiriya frescoes and has been mentioned in ancient Sanskrit, Pali and Sinhala literary works. Buddhist lore in Sri Lanka claims that this flower was one of the 108 auspicious signs found on Prince Siddhartha's footprint.
State of Israel
Republic of China and Taiwan
The national flower was officially designated as the plum blossom by the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China on July 21, 1964. The plum blossom, known as the meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum trees often bloom most vibrantly even during the harshest winters. The triple grouping of stamens represents Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People, while the five petals symbolize the five branches of the government.
- Armenia – No plant or flower seems to be among the current official symbols. Some flowering plants from the area include Althaea armeniaca, Armenian Basket, Muscari armeniacum, Armenian Poppy, Armenian vartig (vargit), and Tulipa armena.
- Cyprus – Cyprus cyclamen
- Turkey – Tulip
The floral emblem of Albania is the red and black poppy. The poppy can be found everywhere in the country, though they originate from Anatolia. Poppies are recognized for their beauty, medicinal value, and seeds. Its colors are red and black, just as in the flag of Albania.
- Red poppy
Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Bosnia and Herzegovina – Bosnian lily Lilium bosniacum
- Bulgaria – Rose
- Czech Republic – Tilia cordata
- Estonia – cornflower
- Faroe Islands – Marsh Marigold
- Gibraltar – Candytuft (Iberis gibraltarica)
- The shamrock (or trefoil) is widely used as an official symbol for Ireland.
All three of them appear on the Macedonian coat of arms.
- Monaco – Carnation
- Netherlands - Tulip
- Spain – Carnation
Antigua and Barbuda
- Bermuda – Strict blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium montanum)
The maple leaf is widely used as a symbol for Canada. Many Canadian flags and coat of arms have floral emblems on them. The flag of Montreal has four floral emblems. On the right side of the flag of Saskatchewan overlapping both green and gold halves is the western red lily, the provincial floral emblem. The coat of arms of Port Coquitlam has the City's floral emblem, the azalea displayed on a collar. The coat of arms of Prince Edward Island displays Lady's Slippers, the floral emblem of the Island. The coat of arms of Nova Scotia has the trailing arbutus or mayflower, the floral emblem of Nova Scotia, added when the arms were reassumed in 1929.
- Costa Rica – Guaria morada (Guarianthe skinneri)
- Cuba – Mariposa (Hedychium coronarium)
- Dominica – Caribwood or bois kwaib (Poitea carinalis)
The Dominican Republic's national flower was the flower of the caoba (mahogany tree, Swietenia mahagoni). In 2011, the mahogany was dubbed the national tree, vacating the national flower spot for the Bayahibe rose (Pereskia quisqueyana) in order to bring attention to its conservation.
The national flower of El Salvador is the izote (yucca flower).
- Monja blanca (white Lycaste skinneri)
- Orquídea brassavola (Rhyncholaelia orchid)
- Mexico – Dahlia
Nicaragua's national flower is the sacuanjoche (Plumeria alba) since August 17, 1971. Its name is derived from the Nicarao, a Nahuatl-speaking tribe: xacuan (sacuan) means ‘beautiful yellow petals’ and xochilt (joche) means ‘flower’. The flower can be found in the Masaya Volcano National Park, among other places.
Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Kitts and Nevis – red Royal Poinciana
Trinidad and Tobago
- Trinidad and Tobago – Chaconia (Warszewiczia coccinea)
In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose the floral emblem of the United States. In the United States, state flowers and trees have been adopted as symbols by state legislatures.
The Silver Fern (foliage) is acknowledged as a national emblem in New Zealand. The Kowhai (Sophora spp., native trees with yellow cascading flowers) is usually regarded as the national flower. Other plant emblems are: Koru (a curled fern symbol) and the crimson-flowered Pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa), also called New Zealand's Christmas tree.
The heilala (Garcinia sessilis) is Tonga's national flower. The name of Tonga's beauty pageant, the Heilala Festival, is taken from this flower. Resorts, as well as products, are also often named after this flower, such as the Heilala Lodge and Heilala Vanilla. The flower is also used in Tonga for medicinal and ornamental purposes.
The nation flower of Brazil is the flower of the Golden Trumpet Tree (Handroanthus albus).
- Chile – Copihue (Lapageria rosea)
- Guyana – Victoria regia lily
- Paraguay – Mburucuyá
- Uruguay – Ceibo
- Venezuela – Flor de Mayo (Cattleya mossiae, an orchid)
|British Columbia||Pacific Dogwood|
|New Brunswick||Purple Violet|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||Pitcher plant||The pitcher plant was officially declared as the provincial flower in 1954, but had appeared on the colony's coinage as early as the 1880s. It can be found in the marshlands of the province feeding on insects that fall into its leaves and drown.|
|Northwest Territories||Mountain Avens|
|Prince Edward Island||Pink Lady's Slipper|
|Quebec||Blue Flag Iris||The Blue Flag Iris replaced the Madonna Lily in 1999, since the lily was not native to Quebec.|
|Saskatchewan||Western Red Lily|
|Sweden||Småland||Linnaea borealis||The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus, sw. Carl von Linné (1707–1778), often called the father of taxonomy or "The flower-king", was born in Älmhult in Småland. He gave the Twinflower its Latin name based on his own (Latin: Linnaea borealis), because of his particular fondness of it. The flower has become Småland's provincial flower.|
|China||Hong Kong||Bauhinia blakeana||The blossom, native to the territory was chosen as the logo of the Urban Council in 1965 and was later incorporated into the flag and emblem of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty.|
|Macau||Nelumbo nucifera||A stylised depiction of the flower can be seen in the territory's flag.|
|Pakistan||Islamabad Capital Territory||Paper mulberry (tree)
|The floral emblems of the four constituting provinces of Pakistan; however, they are all unofficial and are not recognised by the new government of Pakistan.|
|Balochistan||Date palm (tree)
Ephedra (genus) (flower)
|Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||Juniperus squamata (tree)
|Punjab||Dalbergia sissoo (tree)
Justicia adhatoda (flower)
|Sindh||Prosopis cineraria (tree)
Water hyacinth (flower)
|Usually along with red poppies|
- Australian Capital Territory – Royal Bluebell (Wahlenbergia gloriosa)
- New South Wales – New South Wales Waratah (Telopea speciosissima)
- Northern Territory – Sturt's Desert Rose (Gossypium sturtianum)
- Queensland – Cooktown Orchid (Dendrobium phalaenopsis)
- South Australia – Sturt's Desert Pea (Swainsona formosa)
- Tasmania – Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus)
- Victoria – Pink (Common) Heath (Epacris impressa)
- Western Australia – Red and Green Kangaroo Paw (Anigozanthos manglesii)
- Lily-of-the-valley was chosen as the county flower of Østfold
- Globe flower is the county flower of Troms
Each of the four countries of the United Kingdom has a traditional floral emblem.
- England - officially the Tudor rose or unofficially the red rose and English Oak.
- Northern Ireland – the flax, orange lily, or shamrock
- Scotland – the Scotch thistle, Scottish bluebell (harebell) or heather
- Wales - the daffodil, leek or sessile oak
County flowers in the United Kingdom
A county flower is a flowering plant chosen to symbolise a county. They exist primarily in the United Kingdom, but some counties in other countries also have them.
One or two county flowers have a long history in England – the red rose of Lancashire dates from the Middle Ages, for instance. However, the county flower concept was only extended to cover the whole United Kingdom in 2002, as a promotional tool by a charity. In that year, the plant conservation charity Plantlife ran a competition to choose county flowers for all counties, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.
Plantlife's scheme is loosely based on Britain's historic counties, and so some current local government areas are not represented by a flower, and some of the counties included no longer exist as administrative areas. Flowers were also chosen for thirteen major cities: Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastele upon Tyne, Nottingham and Sheffield. The Isles of Scilly was also treated as a county (distinct from Cornwall) for the purpose of the scheme. The Isle of Man was included, even though it is not a county, but a self-governing territory outside of the United Kingdom with an existing national flower: the ragwort or cushag. The Channel Islands were not included.
A total of 94 flowers was chosen in the competition. 85 of the 109 counties have a unique county flower, but several species were chosen by more than one county. Foxglove or Digitalis purpurea was chosen for four counties – Argyll, Birmingham, Leicestershire and Monmouthshire – more than any other species. The following species were chosen for three counties each:
- Bog Rosemary Andromeda polifolia (Cardiganshire, Kirkcudbright and Tyrone)
- Cowslip Primula veris (Northamptonshire, Surrey and Worcestershire)
- Harebell Campanula rotundifolia (Antrim, Dumfriesshire and Yorkshire)
- Thrift Armeria maritima (Buteshire, Pembrokeshire and the Isles of Scilly)
And the following species were chosen for two counties:
- Grass-of-parnassus Parnassia palustris (Cumberland and Sutherland)
- Pasqueflower Pulsatilla vulgaris (Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire)
- Common Poppy Papaver rhoeas (Essex and Norfolk)
For most counties, native species were chosen, but for a small number of counties, non-natives were chosen, mainly archaeophytes. For example Hampshire has a Tudor rose as its county flower, even though it is not a native species.
China currently has no official national flower. Traditionally, various regions have different designations where national symbols are concerned.
The puppet state Manchukuo followed Japan's model of dual floral emblems: the "spring orchid" (Cymbidium goeringii) for the Emperor and the imperial household, and the sorghum blossom (Sorghum bicolor) for the state and the nation.
The plum blossom, meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), has also been one of the most beloved flowers in Chinese culture. The Republic of China government named the plum blossom as the national flower in 1964. The plum blossom is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum blossoms often bloom most vibrantly even amidst the harsh winter snow.
The People's Republic of China, which has controlled mainland China since 1949, has no official floral emblem. There have been several petitions in recent years to officially adopt one. However, the government has not taken any action yet. A poll in 2005 showed that 41% of the public supports peony as the national flower while 36% supported the plum blossom. Some scholars have suggested that the peony and plum blossoms may be designated as dual national flowers. In addition, the orchid, jasmine, daffodil and chrysanthemum have also been held as possible floral symbols of China.
Denmark has no official floral emblem. The daisy won an unofficial competition on a national flower in the 1980s, but it was not officially adopted. In 1936, the Danish foreign office responded to Argentina that it would be the red clover, due to its significance in agriculture. The letter is obscure and was soon forgotten. Denmark has never used a floral emblem.
Japan's national government has never formally named a national flower, as with other symbols such as the green pheasant, which was named as national bird (by a non-government body) in 1947. It wasn't until 1999 that the national flag and anthem were officially passed into law.
A de facto national flower for Japan for many is the sakura (cherry blossom), while a stylized picture of a chrysanthemum is used as the official seal of the imperial family. The paulownia blossom was also used by the imperial family in the past, but has since been appropriated by the prime ministor and the government.
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- The Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 9, page-30
- Keputusan Presiden No. 4 Tahun 1993
- North Korea Quarterly. Institute of Asian Affairs. 1988. "...Rose of Sharon is no longer the national flower, as in South Korea, but "mongnan" (magnolia). It is because [the rose of Sharon] cannot be grown for next generations with seeds, while [magnolia] can be."
- Lian, Michelle. "Hibiscus – Malaysia's national pride". AllMalaysia.info.
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- Zeylanica (Nymphaea stellata)
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- 民众呼吁尽快确定国花 梅花还是牡丹引起激辩 (Chinese: The public calls for speedy designation of national flower; debates between plum blossom and peony)
- Danish Nature Agency (Danish)
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- BBC coverage of the county flowers competition
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- National Flowers
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