|State of India
Estado da Índia
|Colonial State and Overseas province of the Portuguese Empire|
Portuguese India evolution
|Capital||Nova Goa (Cochin to 1530)|
|Political structure||Colonial State and Overseas province of the Portuguese Empire|
|Head of state|
|Manuel I of Portugal|
|-||1505–9 (first)||Francisco de Almeida|
|-||1827–35 (last)||Manuel de Portugal e Castro|
|-||1509–15 (first)||Afonso de Albuquerque|
|-||1958–62 (last)||Manuel António Vassalo e Silva|
|-||Fall of Sultanate of Bijapur||15 August 1505|
|-||Indian Annexation||19 December 1961|
|Currency||Portuguese Indian rupia (INPR)
Portuguese Indian escudo (INPES)
The Portuguese State of India was established in 1505 as a viceroyalty of the Kingdom of Portugal, six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and India, to serve as the plenipotentiary governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. The first viceroy was Francisco de Almeida, who established his headquarters in Cochin (Cochim, Kochi). Subsequent Portuguese governors were not always of vice-roy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa. Until the 18th Century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau, Solor and Timor, and its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar coast of India.
At the time of British India's independence in 1947, Portuguese India included a number of enclaves on India's western coast, including Goa proper, as well as the coastal enclaves of Daman (Portuguese: Damão) and Diu, and the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which lie inland from Daman. The territories of Portuguese India were sometimes referred to collectively as Goa. Portugal lost the last two enclaves in 1954, and finally the remaining three in December 1961, when they were taken by India after military action (although Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime).
Early history 
Vasco da Gama lands in India 
The first Portuguese encounter with India was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Anchored off the coast of Calicut, the Portuguese invited native fishermen on board and immediately brought some Indian items. One Portuguese accompanied the fishermen to the port and met with a Tunisian Muslim. On the advice of this man, Gama sent a couple of his men to Ponnani to meet with ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin. Over the objections of Arab merchants, Gama managed to secure a letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's Hindu ruler. But, the Portuguese were unable to pay the prescribed customs duties and price of his goods in gold.
Later Calicut officials temporarily detained Gama's Portuguese agents as security for payment. This, however, annoyed Gama, who carried a few natives and sixteen fishermen with him by force.
Nevertheless, Gama's expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo that was sixty times the cost of the expedition.
Pedro Álvares Cabral 
Pedro Álvares Cabral sailed to India, officially discovering Brazil on the way, to trade for pepper and other spices, negotiating and establishing a factory at Calicut, where he arrived on 13 September 1500. Matters worsened when the Portuguese factory at Calicut was attacked by surprise by the locals, resulting in the death of more than fifty Portuguese. Cabral was outraged by the attack on the factory and seized ten Arab merchant ships anchored in the harbor, killing about six hundred of their crew and confiscating their cargo before burning the ships. Cabral also ordered his ships to bombard Calicut for an entire day in retaliation for the violation of the agreement. In Cochin and Cannanore Cabral succeeded in making advantageous treaties with the local rulers. Cabral started the return voyage on 16 January 1501 and arrived in Portugal with only 4 of 13 ships on 23 June 1501.
Vasco da Gama sailed to India for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on October 30, 1502, where the ruler was willing to sign a treaty. Gama this time made a call to expel all Muslims (Arabs) from Calicut which was vehemently turned down. He bombarded the city and captured several rice vessels, cutting off the crew's hands, ears and noses. He returned to Portugal in September, 1503.
The Portuguese built the Pulicat fort in 1502, with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler.
Francisco de Almeida 
On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore, Cochin and Quilon. Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men.
On 13 September, Francisco de Almeida reached Anjadip Island, where he immediately started the construction of Fort Anjediva. On 23 October, with the permission of the friendly ruler of Cannanore, he started building St. Angelo Fort at Cannanore, leaving Lourenço de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships.
Francisco de Almeida then reached Cochin in 31 October 1505 with only 8 vessels left. There he learned that the Portuguese traders at Quilon had been killed. He decided to send his son Lourenço de Almeida with 6 ships, who destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbor of Quilon. Almeida took up residence in Cochin. He strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin.
The Zamorin prepared a large fleet of 200 ships to oppose the Portuguese, but in March 1506 Lourenço de Almeida (son of Francisco de Almeida) was victorious in a sea battle at the entrance to the harbor of Cannanore, the Battle of Cannanore, an important setback for the fleet of the Zamorin. Thereupon Lourenço de Almeida explored the coastal waters southwards to Colombo, in what is now Sri Lanka. In Cannanore, however, a new ruler, hostile to the Portuguese and friendly with the Zamorin, attacked the Portuguese garrison, leading to the Siege of Cannanore.
In 1507 Almeida's mission was strengthened by the arrival of Tristão da Cunha's squadron. Afonso de Albuquerque's squadron had, however, split from that of Cunha off East Africa and was independently conquering territories in the Persian Gulf to the west.
In March 1508 a Portuguese squadron under command of Lourenço de Almeida was attacked by a combined Mameluk Egyptian and Gujarat Sultanate fleet at Chaul and Dabul respectively, led by admirals Mirocem and Meliqueaz in the Battle of Chaul. Lourenço de Almeida lost his life after a fierce fight in this battle. Mamluk-Indian resistance was, however, to be decisively defeated at the Battle of Diu.
Afonso de Albuquerque and later governors 
In the year 1509, Afonso de Albuquerque was appointed the second governor of the Portuguese possessions in the East. A new fleet under Marshal Fernão Coutinho arrived with specific instructions to destroy the power of Zamorin's Calicut. The Zamorin's palace was captured and destroyed and the city was set on fire. But the king's forces rallied fast to kill Marshal Coutinho and wounded Albuquerque. Albuquerque nevertheless was clever enough to patch up his quarrel and entered into a treaty with the Zamorin in 1513 to protect Portuguese interests in Malabar. Hostilities were renewed when the Portuguese attempted to assassinate the Zamorin sometime between 1515 and 1518. In 1510, Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the Bijapur sultans with the help of Timayya, on behalf of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). The Southern Province, also known simply as Goa, was the headquarters of Portuguese India, and seat of the Portuguese viceroy who governed the Portuguese possessions in Asia.
There were Portuguese settlements in and around Mylapore. The Luz Church in Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) was the first church that the Portuguese built in Madras in 1516. Later in 1522, the São Tomé church was built on the grave of Saint Thomas.
These possessions became the Northern Province of Portuguese India, which extended almost 100 km along the coast from Daman to Chaul, and in places 30–50 km inland. The province was ruled from the fortress-town of Baçaim.
From the 16th century, the Portuguese meddled in the church affairs of the Syrian Christians of Malabar. The Udayamperoor Synod (1599) was a major attempt by the Portuguese Archbishop Menezes to Latinize the Syrian rite. Later in 1653, Coonan Cross Oath led to the division of the local church into Syrian Catholics and Syrian Christians (Jacobites).
Bombay (present day Mumbai) was given to Britain in 1661 as part of the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza's dowry to Charles II of England. Most of the Northern Province was lost to the Marathas in 1739, and Portugal acquired Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1779.
In 1843 the capital was shifted to Panjim, then renamed "Nova Goa", when it officially became the administrative seat of Portuguese India, replacing the city of Velha Goa (now Old Goa), although the Viceroys lived there already since 1 December 1759. Before moving to the city, the viceroy remodeled the fortress of Adil Khan, transforming it into a palace.
The Portuguese also shipped over many Orfãs del Rei to Portuguese colonies in India, Goa in particular. Orfãs del Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status.
Thus there are Portuguese footprints all over the western and eastern coasts of India, though Goa became the capital of Portuguese Goa from 1530 onwards until the annexation of Goa proper and the entire Estado da Índia Portuguesa, and its merger with the Indian Union in 1961.
After India's independence 
Imperial Entities of India
|Portuguese India 1505–1961|
|Casa da Índia||1434–1833|
|Portuguese East India Company||1628–1633|
|British India 1612–1947|
|East India Company||1612–1757|
|Company rule in India||1757–1858|
|British rule in Burma||1824–1948|
|Partition of India||
After India's independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to accede to India's request to relinquish control of its Indian possessions.
On 24 July 1954 an organisation called "The United Front of Goans" took control of the enclave of Dadra. The remaining territory of Nagar Haveli was seized by the Azad Gomantak Dal on 2 August 1954. The decision given by the International Court of Justice at The Hague, regarding access to Dadra and Nagar Haveli, was an impasse.
From 1954, peaceful Satyagrahis attempts from outside Goa at forcing the Portuguese to leave Goa were brutally suppressed. Many revolts were quelled by the use of force and leaders eliminated or jailed. As a result, India closed its consulate (which had operated in Panjim since 1947) and imposed an economic embargo against the territories of Portuguese Goa. The Indian Government adopted a "wait and watch" attitude from 1955 to 1961 with numerous representations to the Portuguese Salazar regime and attempts to highlight the issue before the international community.
In order to facilitate the transport of people and goods to and from the Indian enclaves, the Portuguese established an airline, Transportes Aéreos da Índia Portuguesa, and airports at Goa, Daman and Diu.
Eventually, in December 1961, India militarily invaded Goa, Daman and Diu, where they were faced with insufficient Portuguese resistance. Portuguese armed forces had been instructed to either defeat the invaders or die. Only meager resistance was offered due to the Portuguese army's poor firepower and size (only 3,300 men), against a fully armed Indian force of over 30,000 with full air and naval support. The Governor of Portuguese India signed the Instrument of Surrender on 19 December 1961, ending 450 years of Portuguese rule in India.
Status of the new territories 
Dadra and Nagar Haveli existed as a de facto independent entity from its independence in 1954 until its merger with the Republic of India in 1961.
Following the annexation of Goa, Daman and Diu, the new territories became Union Territories within the Indian Union, now separately as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Goa, Daman and Diu. Maj. Gen. K. P. Candeth was declared as military governor of Goa, Daman and Diu. Goa’s first general elections were held in 1963.
In 1967 a referendum was conducted where voters decided whether to merge Goa into the neighbouring state of Maharashtra. The anti-merger faction won, but full statehood was not conferred immediately. On 30 May 1987 Goa became the 25th state of the Indian Union. Daman and Diu was separated from Goa and continues to be administered as a Union territory.
The most drastic changes in Portuguese India after 1961 were the introduction of democratic elections, as well as the replacement of Portuguese with English as the general language of government and education. However the Indians allowed certain Portuguese institutions to continue unchanged. Amongst these were the land ownership system of the comunidade, where land was held by the community and was then leased out to individuals. The Indian government left the Portuguese civil code unchanged in Goa, with the result that Goa today remains the only state in India with a common civil code that does not depend on religion.
The Citizenship Act of 1955 granted the government of India the authority to define citizenship in the Indian union. In exercise of its powers, the government passed the Goa, Daman and Diu (Citizenship) Order, 1962 on 28 March 1962 conferring Indian citizenship on all persons born on or before 20 December 1961 in Goa, Daman and Diu.
Indo-Portuguese relations 
The Salazar regime in Portugal refused to recognise Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until 1974. Following the Carnation Revolution that year, the new government in Lisbon restored diplomatic relations with India, and recognised Indian sovereignty over Goa, Daman and Diu. Portugal continued to give the citizens of Portuguese India automatic citizenship.
Postage stamps and postal history 
Early postal history of the colony is obscure, but regular mail is known to have been exchanged with Lisbon from 1825 on. Portugal had a postal convention with Great Britain, so much mail was probably routed through Bombay and carried on British packets. Portuguese postmarks are known from 1854, when a post office was opened in Goa. An extraterritorial British post office also was located in Damaun, selling British Indian postage stamps, between 1854 and November, 1883. British Indian stamps were available from the Portuguese post office at Goa, as well, from 1854 until 1877. A Portuguese post office opened at Diu in 1880.
The first postage stamps of Portuguese India were issued 1 October 1871 for local use. These were issued for local use within the colony. Portugal had a postal convention with Great Britain, so mail was routed through Bombay and carried on British packets. Stamps of British India were required for overseas mail.
The design of the 1871 stamps simply consisted of a denomination in the centre, with an oval band containing the inscriptions "SERVIÇO POSTAL" and "INDIA POST". In 1877, Portugal included India in its standard "crown" issue and from 1886 on, the pattern of regular stamp issues followed closely that of the other Portuguese colonies, the main exception being a series of surcharges in 1912 produced by perforating existing stamps vertically through the middle and overprinting a new value on each side.
During the World War I Portugal joined the Allies, which resulted in confiscating 6 merchant vessels (5 German and 1 Austrian) anchored in Marmugao port in Goa. The sailors were provided the status of "War Internees" and were allowed to correspond with their families via postal mail system, with a caveat of censorship of mails, both ways. These "War Internee" covers (Mid 1916 up to end of 1919) bearing censorship marks of Portuguese and French military authorities are considered Portuguese India philatelists' delight.
The last regular issue for Portuguese India was on 25 June 1960, for the 500th anniversary of the death of Prince Henry the Navigator. Stamps of India were first used 29 December 1961, although the old stamps were accepted until 5 January 1962. Portugal continued to issue stamps for the lost colony but none were offered for sale in the colony's post offices, so they are not considered valid stamps.
Dual franking was tolerated from December 22, 1961 until January 4, 1962. Colonial (Portuguese) postmarks were tolerated until May 1962. Portuguese India stamps were available for sale up to December 28, thus the period up to January 4 was an attempt to use up stocks in private hands. After January 4, Portuguese India stamps were completely invalid or demonetised.
Outstanding stocks of charity tax stamps were overprinted for fiscal use, but not used. Portuguese India fiscals were overprinted in early 1962 in paisa and rupees and extensively used.
Portuguese India philately started with combination covers (British India) and ended with combination covers (Sovereign India).
See also 
- Portuguese Empire
- Estado Novo (Portugal)
- List of colonial heads of Portuguese India
- Portuguese Indian Rupia
- Portuguese Indian Escudo
- Goa liberation movement
- Portuguese Goa State
- Cuncolim Revolt
- Narayanan.M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Publications
- . The incident is mentioned by Camões in The Lusiads wherein it is stated that the Zamorin "showed no signs of treachery" and that "on the other hand, Gama's conduct in carrying off the five men he had entrapped on board his ships is indefensible".
- Sreedhara Menon.A, A Survey of Kerala History(1967),p.152. D.C.Books Kottayam
- Malabar manual by William Logan p.312
- Goa's Freedom Movement
- International Court of Justice Case Summaries, Case Concerning Right of Passage Over Indian Territory (Merits), Judgment of 12 April 1960
- Rear Admiral Satyindra Singh AVSM (Ret.), Blueprint to Bluewater, The Indian Navy, 1951–65
- Lambert Mascarenhas, "Goa's Freedom Movement," excerpted from Henry Scholberg, Archana Ashok Kakodkar and Carmo Azevedo, Bibliography of Goa and the Portuguese in India New Delhi, Promilla (1982)
- Government Polytechnic of Goa, "Liberation of Goa"
- ' "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites,'
- Jagan Pillarisetti, "The Liberation of Goa: 1961" Bharat Rakshak, a Consortium of Indian Military Websites
- Liberation of Goa, Maps of India
- "Gangadhar Yashwant Bhandare vs Erasmo Jesus De Sequiria". manupatra. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- Robson Lowe, Encyclopedia of British Empire Postage Stamps, v.III, London (1951), p. 288
- Gilbert Harrison and Lt. Francis H. Napier, Portuguese India, with Notes and Publishers' Prices Stanley Gibbons Philatelic Handbooks, London (1893)
- Further reading
|About Portuguese India|
- Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664). Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimilie edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.
- The GoaMog Information Resource Portal
- Summary of the judgment of the International Court of Justice in the Right of Passage over Indian Territory (Portugal vs. India) case
- Dutch Portuguese Colonial History Dutch Portuguese Colonial History: history of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Ceylon, India, Malacca, Bengal, Formosa, Africa, Brazil. Language Heritage, lists of remains, maps.