State of Syria (1924–30)

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State of Syria
État de Syrie
دولة سورية
French Mandate

 

1924–1930


Flag

Capital Damascus
Languages Arabic · French
Kurdish · Armenian
Syriac · Turkish
Religion Islam · Christianity
Judaism · Yezidism
Political structure French Mandate
President
 -  1922–1925 Subhi Barakat
 -  1926 François Pierre-Alype
 -  1926–1928 Damad-i Shariyari Ahmad Nami Bay
 -  1928–1930/1931 Taj al-Din al-Hasani
Historical era Interwar period
 -  Federation declared 1922
 -  State declared 1924
 -  Great Syrian Revolt 1925–1927
 -  Republic declared 1930
Currency Syrian pound
Today part of  Syria
 Turkey

The State of Syria (French: État de Syrie, Arabic: دولة سوريا Dawlat Suriya) was a French Mandate state declared on 1 December 1924 from the union of the State of Aleppo and the State of Damascus. It was the successor of the Syrian Federation (French: Fédération Syrienne, الاتحاد السوري Al-Ittihad Al-Souriy) which had been created by providing a central assembly for the State of Aleppo, the State of Damascus and the Alawite State. The Alawite State did not join the State of Syria.

Background[edit]

In 1920, an independent Arab Kingdom of Syria was established under King Faisal of the Hashemite family, who later became the King of Iraq. However, his rule over Syria ended after only a few months, following the clash between his Syrian Arab forces and regular French forces at the Battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the League of Nations put Syria under French mandate.

History of Syria under the Mandate[edit]

Initial civil administration[edit]

Following the San Remo conference and the defeat of King Faisal's short-lived monarchy in Syria at the Battle of Maysalun, the French general Henri Gouraud established civil administration in the territory. The mandate region was subdivided into six states. The drawing of those states was based in part on the sectarian make up on the ground in Syria. However, nearly all the Syrian sects were hostile to the French mandate and to the division it created.

The primarily Sunni population of Aleppo and Damascus were strongly opposed to the division of Syria.

Syrian Federation (1922–24)[edit]

In July 1922, France established a loose federation between three of the states: the State of Damascus, the State of Aleppo and the Alawite State under the name of the Syrian Federation. Jabal Druze and Greater Lebanon were not parts of this federation. The autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta was added to the state of Aleppo in 1923. The Federation adopted a new federal flag (green-white-green with French canton), which later became the flag of the State of Syria.

State of Syria[edit]

On January 1, 1925, the Alawite state seceded from the federation when the states of Aleppo and Damascus were united into the State of Syria.

General revolt[edit]

Main article: Great Syrian Revolt

In 1925, Syrian resistance to French colonial rule broke out in full scale revolt, led by Sultan Pasha el Atrash.

The revolt broke out in Jabal Druze but quickly spread to other Syrian states and became a general rebellion in Syria. France tried to retaliate by having the parliament of Aleppo declare secession from the union with Damascus, but the voting was foiled by Syrian patriots.

Despite French attempts to maintain control by encouraging sectarian divisions and isolating urban and rural areas, the revolt spread from the countryside and united Syrian Druze, Sunnis, Shiites, Alawis, and Christians. Once the rebel forces had besieged Damascus, the French military responded with brutal counter-insurgency techniques that prefigured those that would be used later in Algeria and Indo-China. These techniques included house demolitions, collective punishments of towns, executions, population transfers, and the use of heavy armor in urban neighborhoods. The revolt was eventually subdued in 1926-27 via French aerial bombardment of civilian areas, including Damascus.[1]

Republic of Syria[edit]

On May 14, 1930, the State of Syria was declared the Republic of Syria and a new constitution was drafted.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Provence. The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab Nationalism. University of Texas, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]