State university and college (Philippines)
State Universities and Colleges (SUC) in the Philippines, refers to any public institution of higher learning that was created by an Act passed by the Philippine Congress. These institutions are fully subsidized by the national government, and may be considered as a corporate body.
Among the State Colleges and Universities in the country, the University of the Philippines has always been recognized as the nation's premier university and has likewise been strengthened by law (Republic Act 9500)  as the "National University" of the Philippines.
SUCs lamented the Philippine government's inadequate financial aid. For the 2003-2004, SUCs only had PHP 16.8 billion, and about 40 percent of it went to the University of the Philippines and the Mindanao State University. However, in 2008, the Philippine Congress allotted PHP 20.8 billion in subsidy for the operations of state universities and colleges.
Collectively, SUCs have a student population of approximately 865,000, which means that every student is subsidized by an average of PHP 24,000 per school year. Each Filipino family contributes PHP 1,185 a year to run these schools through their tax payments. Of the total amount, PHP 15.4 billion for the salaries of faculty members and employees.
During the growth and restructuring of the state systems, names such as University of the Philippines have changed their meanings over time.
- In these three cases, the unqualified name has become the official name of the multi-campus system that includes the campus which is the original bearer of the name. Examples include:
- University of the Philippines - Its flagship campus in Diliman, Quezon City is better called U.P. Diliman, rather than U.P. The latter refers to the University of the Philippines System.
- University of Rizal System - Its main campus in Tanay is better called URS-Tanay Main than simply URS.
- Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University - Its main campus in Bacnotan, La Union is better called DMMMSU-North La Union than simply DMMMSU.
- In other cases, the unqualified name remains the official name of an individual main campus which is now part of a larger system. Examples include:
SUCs are confronted by similar problems such as poor education spending and annual budget cutbacks. As a result, these schools impose enrolment quotas and increase fees. In recent years, tuition rate and miscellaneous fees in the SUCs have seen the biggest increases.
In 2007, the University of the Philippines hiked its tuition by 300 percent, from PHP 300 to PHP 1,000 per unit, while Eulogio "Amang" Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology implemented a 600 percent tuition hike, from PHP 15 per unit to PHP 100 per unit, resulting in a 50 percent drop in enrollment. During the same period, the Polytechnic University of the Philippines was poised to increase its rate by 525 percent, but because of massive student demonstration the administration had to shelve the plan.
SUCs are also forced to accept only a limited number of students due to budget cuts. In 2007, some 66,000 high school graduates took the UPCAT but only around 12,000 were admitted. The same is true in PUP where only 10,000 to 13,000 are admitted from more than 50,000.
Only 10 percent of college students were in state-run schools in 1980, but this rose to 21 percent in 1994 and to almost 40 percent at present.
List of SUCs per Region
The SUCs are banded together in one organization called the Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC). As of 2004, PASUC's membership comprises 111 SUCs and 11 satellite associations. There are 436 state universities and colleges in the Philippines (including satellite campuses).
- Guadalquiver, Nanette L. "SUCs lament govt's inadequate financial aid" Sun Star Iloilo. July 07, 2004.
- Hachero, Ashzel. "More students expected to transfer to state-run colleges" Malaya Newspaper. June 05, 2008.
- Martin, Sammy. "Congress gives state colleges,universities increased subsidy" The Manila Times. May 29, 2008.