State within a state
State within a state (also Latin: imperium in imperio or status in statu) is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("Deep State"), generally from the armed forces, intelligence agencies, or police, does not respond to the civilian leadership.
Sometimes, the term refers to state companies that, though formally under the command of the government, act de facto like private corporations. Sometimes, the term refers to companies that, though formally private, act de facto like "states within a state".
Certain political debates surrounding the separation of Church and State revolve around the perception that if left unchecked, the Church might turn into a kind of State within a State, an illegitimate outgrowth of the State's natural civil power.
Alleged cases of “state within a state”
- United States's NSA
- Imperial Japan's Army and the Kwantung Army
- Nazi Germany's Schutzstaffel
- Weimar Republic's Reichswehr
- German Empire's Deutsches Heer
- Francoist Spain's military forces
- Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
- The Ottoman Empire's Janissaries
- Safavid Persia's Qizilbash
- Cameroon's Cameroon Development Corporation
- British Guiana's Booker-McConnell
- Lebanon's PLO (see PLO in Lebanon)
- Lebanon's Hezbollah
- Mamluks (Seljuk Turks, Ghaznavid Empire, Ayyubid Empire, Abbasid Empire)
- The Zollverein within the German Confederation
- Ivan the Terrible's Oprichnina
- Islamic Emirate of Waziristan
- Turkey's "Deep State"
- South Vietnam's-ARVN
- Iran's IRGC
- Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood
- Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
- USSR's KGB
- PDVSA in pre-Chávez Venezuela
- Algeria's Department of Intelligence and Security
- United States Intelligence Community
- Civilian control of the military
- Deep state
- Fifth column
- Monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force
- from Baruch de Spinoza: Tractatus politicus, Caput II, § 6.
- Daniel de Leon: "Imperium in imperio" in: Daily People, June 4, 1903.
- Cf William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, IV, c.4 ss. iii.2, p. *54, where the charge of being imperium in imperio was notably levied against the Church
- "Great Seal of Ohio". Ohio History 10: 392–393.
- Knabenshue, S. S. "The Great Seal of Ohio". Ohio History 10: 489–490.
- Who Controls Pakistan's Powerful ISI?, Radio Free Europe, August 14, 2008
- "Pakistan's shadowy secret service, the ISI". BBC News. 3 May 2011.
- Ambinder, Marc; Grady, D.B. (2013). Deep State: Inside the Government Secrecy Industry. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118146682.
- Priest, Dana; Arkin, William M. (2011). Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316182214. Lay summary – The Quiet Coup: No, Not Egypt. Here. (07/09/2013).
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