State within a state

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For sovereign states whose territory is surrounded by another sovereign state, see Enclave and exclave#Enclaved countries.
"Deep State" redirects here. For the alleged Turkish system, see Deep state.

State within a state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("Deep State"), such as the armed forces, intelligence agencies, or police, does not respond to the civilian leadership. The term, like many in politics, derives from the Greek language (κράτος εν κράτει, kratos en kratei, later adopted into Latin as imperium in imperio[1] or status in statu).

Sometimes, the term refers to state companies that, though formally under the command of the government, act de facto like private corporations. Sometimes, the term refers to companies that, though formally private, act de facto like "states within a state".[2]

Certain political debates surrounding the separation of church and state revolve around the perception that if left unchecked, the Church might turn into a kind of State within a State, an illegitimate outgrowth of the State's natural civil power.[3]

Imperium in imperio was also the first state motto of Ohio, reflecting its great size and influence within the early United States. The motto proved unpopular and was replaced two years later.[4][5]

List of entities called a "state within a state"[edit]

Group State Operation Ref
Forces Nouvelles  Côte d'Ivoire 2002 - present [6]
Egyptian Armed Forces  Egypt 2011 - present [7][8]
Propaganda Due  Italy 1976 - 1981 [9]
Inter-Services Intelligence  Pakistan 1948 - present [10][11]
Deep state  Turkey Unknown [citation needed] [12]
Intelligence Community  United States 1981 - present [13][14][15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ from Baruch Spinoza: Tractatus politicus, Caput II, § 6.
  2. ^ Daniel De Leon: "Imperium in imperio" in: Daily People, June 4, 1903.
  3. ^ Cf William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, IV, c.4 ss. iii.2, p. *54, where the charge of being imperium in imperio was notably levied against the Church
  4. ^ "Great Seal of Ohio". Ohio History 10: 392–393. 
  5. ^ Knabenshue, S. S. "The Great Seal of Ohio". Ohio History 10: 489–490. 
  6. ^ "COTE D'IVOIRE: A changing of the guard". IRIN Africa. April 6, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2014. WA longstanding concern of Gbagbo supporters and neutrals has been the existence of a state within a state, whose sovereignty has gone largely unchallenged. 
  7. ^ Reuters (November 28, 2013). "Egypt's new constitution strengthens army's 'state within a state' status". Haaretz. Retrieved December 2, 2014. 
  8. ^ Barry Lando (July 4, 2013). "Egypt's Military State Within a State". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2014. That turbulence was threatening not just the survival of Egypt, but, more to the point, it was menacing the vast state within a state that Egypt's military presides over. 
  9. ^ BBC On This Day: May 26, 1981
  10. ^ Who Controls Pakistan's Powerful ISI?, Radio Free Europe, August 14, 2008
  11. ^ "Pakistan's shadowy secret service, the ISI". BBC News. 3 May 2011. 
  12. ^ Türköne, Mümtaz'er (2005-04-29). "Derin devlet ve Kuvva-yı Milliye". Zaman (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-22. Bu korkunun arkasında ise Osmanlı Devleti'nin dağılması var. Cumhuriyeti kuranlar ordu mensupları ve Demirel onlarda bu korkunun hakim olduğunu söylüyor. Bu korkuya "hufre-i inkıraz" (uçurumun kenarına gelme korkusu) veya "pençe-i izmihlal" (çöküşün pençesinde olma) deniyormuş. Osmanlı Devleti'nin çöküş hikayesinden hafızalara kazınan bu korku devletteki işlerin önemli faktörlerinden biri. Demirel, adeta bir paranoya halini anlatıyor.
  13. ^ Ambinder, Marc; Grady, D.B. (2013). Deep State: Inside the Government Secrecy Industry. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118146682. 
  14. ^ Priest, Dana; Arkin, William M. (2011). Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316182214. Lay summaryThe Quiet Coup: No, Not Egypt. Here. (07/09/2013).  Check date values in: |laydate= (help)
  15. ^ Scott, Peter Dale (March 10, 2014). "The State, the Deep State, and the Wall Street Overworld". The Asia-Pacific Journal 12 (10, No. 5).