States of Colombia
States of Colombia existed from February 27, 1855, in the Republic of New Granada and the Granadine Confederation, were they were called "federal states". In the United States of Colombia they were called "sovereign states" (though they were not at all sovereign states in the modern sense of the word).
Republic of New Granada
The centralist structure that came to be in the Republic of New Granada after the disestablishment of Gran Colombia and that was ratified by the constitution of 1843, was soon challenged; particularly the provinces of Azuero, Chiriquí, Panamá, and Veraguas, who were demanding an autonomous status. The Constitution of 1853 opened the way so that on February 27, 1855 Panamá State could be created within the Republic of New Granada.
Soon others followed suit, regionalism was too strong, and in order to prevent a breakup like the one Greater Colombia had, with Venezuela and Ecuador leaving the union, congress allowed the creation of other federal states:
- The Federal State of Antioquia was created from Antioquia Province on June 11, 1856.
- The Federal State of Santander, which included the provinces of Socorro and Pamplona, was created May 13, 1857.
The Law of June 15, 1857, created the other states that would go on to form the Granadine Confederation:
- The Federal State of Bolívar (Estado Federal de Bolívar), which included the Cartagena Province.
- The Federal State of Boyacá (Estado Federal de Boyacá), which included the provinces of Tunja, Tundama, Casanare, and the cantons of Chiquinquirá and Vélez.
- The Federal State of Cauca (Estado Federal de Cauca), which included the provinces of Buenaventura, Chocó, Pasto Province and Popayán Province and the Caquetá Territory.
- The Federal State of Cundinamarca (Estado Federal de Cundinamarca), which included the province of Mariquita, Bogotá, Neiva, and Tolima Province.
- The Federal State of Magdalena (Estado Federal de Magdalena), which included the provinces of El Banco, Padilla, Santa Marta, Tenerife and Valledupar.
The nation was formed by the union of these Sovereign States which were confederated in perpetuity to form a Sovereign Nation, free and independent under the name of the “Granadine Confederation”.
On July 12, 1861, after raising in arms against the constitutional government of the president Mariano Ospina Rodríguez, the general Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera created the Tolima State, carved out of Cundinamarca State. This was confirmed and legalized by the rest of the states of the Colombian Union, by means of Article 41 of the Pact of the Union on September 20, 1861, reaffirming the legality of the institutionalism of Tolima
Republic of Colombia
- "Law of the Creation of the State of Antioquía". Cervantes Virtual.
- http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01371296677834897430035/p0000001.htm#I_1_ Law of the Creation of the State of Santander
- http://www.loscolombianos.com/departamentos-de-colombia/cundinamarca.html Provinces of The Sovereign State of Cundinamarca
- http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01477398877125528632268/index.htm Constitution for the Granadine Confederation of 1858
- http://www.sedtolima.gov.co/website/actividades/TOLIMA%20CREACION%20Y%20DESARROLLO%20INSTITUCIONAL....doc Tolima, Creation and Institutional Growth