States and union territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions.
List of states and territories
|Map||Name||ISO 3166-2 code||Date of formation||Population||Area
(if not the capital)
|Population density||Literacy Rate (%)||% of total population that is urban|
|1||Andhra Pradesh||AP||1 November 1956||49,386,799||160,205||Telugu||HyderabadNote 1, VijayawadaNote 2||Visakhapatnam||308||67.41%||29.6|
|2||Arunachal Pradesh||AR||20 February 1987||1,382,611||83,743||English||Itanagar||17||66.95||20.8|
|3||Assam||AS||15 August 1947||31,169,272||78,550||Assamese; Regional: Bodo, Bengali||Dispur||Guwahati||397||73.18||12.9|
|4||Bihar||BR||1 April 1936||103,804,637||99,200||Hindi, Magadhi, Maithili, Urdu||Patna||1,102||63.82||10.5|
|5||Chhattisgarh||CT||1 November 2000||25,540,196||135,194||Chattisgarhi, Hindi||Raipur||189||71.04||20.1|
|6||Goa||GA||30 May 1987||1,457,723||3,702||Konkani||Panaji||394||87.40||62.2|
|7||Gujarat||GJ||1 May 1960||60,383,628||196,024||Gujarati||Gandhinagar||Ahmedabad||308||79.31||37.4|
|8||Haryana||HR||1 November 1966||25,353,081||44,212||Hindi, Haryanvi (regional)||Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
|9||Himachal Pradesh||HP||25 January 1971||6,856,509||55,673||Hindi, Pahari (regional)||Shimla||123||83.78||9.8|
|10||Jammu and Kashmir||JK||26 October 1947||12,548,926||222,236||Dogri, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Urdu||Srinagar (summer)
|11||Jharkhand||JH||15 November 2000||32,966,238||74,677||Hindi||Ranchi||Jamshedpur||414||67.63||22.2|
|12||Karnataka||KA||1 November 1956||61,130,704||191,791||Kannada||Bangalore||319||75.60||34.0|
|13||Kerala||KL||1 November 1956||33,387,677||38,863||Malayalam||Thiruvananthapuram||Kochi||859||93.91||26.0|
|14||Madhya Pradesh||MP||1 November 1956||72,597,565||308,252||Hindi||Bhopal||Indore||236||70.63||26.5|
|15||Maharashtra||MH||1 May 1960||112,372,972||307,713||Marathi||Mumbai||365||82.91||42.4|
|16||Manipur||MN||21 January 1972||2,721,756||22,347||Manipuri||Imphal||122||79.85||25.1|
|17||Meghalaya||ML||21 January 1972||2,964,007||22,720||English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar,||Shillong||132||75.48||19.6|
|18||Mizoram||MZ||20 February 1987||1,091,014||21,081||Mizo||Aizawl||52||91.58||49.6|
|19||Nagaland||NL||1 December 1963||1,980,602||16,579||English||Kohima||Dimapur||119||80.11||17.2|
|20||Odisha (Orissa)||OR||1 April 1936||41,947,358||155,820||Oriya||Bhubaneswar||269||73.45||15.0|
|21||Punjab||PB||1 November 1966||27,704,236||50,362||Punjabi||Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
|22||Rajasthan||RJ||1 November 1956||68,621,012||342,269||Hindi, Rajasthani||Jaipur||201||67.06||23.4|
|23||Sikkim||SK||16 May 1975||607,688||7,096||Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tamang||Gangtok||86||82.20||11.1|
|24||Tamil Nadu||TN||26 January 1950||72,138,958||130,058||Tamil||Chennai||Coimbatore, Vellore, Madurai||480||80.33||44.0|
|25||Telangana||2 June 2014||35,193,978 ||114,840||Telugu, Urdu||HyderabadNote 1||307 ||N/A||N/A|
|26||Tripura||TR||21 January 1972||3,671,032||10,492||Bengali, Tripuri||Agartala||350||87.75||17.1|
|27||Uttar Pradesh||UP||26 January 1950||199,581,477||243,286||Hindi, Urdu||Lucknow||828||69.72||20.8|
|28||Uttarakhand||UK||9 November 2000||10,116,752||53,566||Hindi, Sanskrit||Dehradun (interim)||189||79.63||25.7|
|29||West Bengal||WB||1 November 1956||91,347,736||88,752||Bengali, English||Kolkata||1,029||77.08||28.0|
- ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh has been split into two states on 2 June 2014, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad is to be the joint capital for both states for ten years while new capital for the residual Andhra Pradesh state is decided.
- ^Note 2 On 12 August'14 the Government of Andhra pradesh announced Vijayawada as temporary capital. It said Vijayawada will serve as temporary capital along with Hyderabad till the permanent capital is decided.
|Map||Name||ISO 3166-2 code||Population||Official
|Capital||Population density||Literacy Rate(%)||Percentage of Urban Population to total Population|
|A||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||AN||379,944||English, Hindi||Port Blair||46||86.27||32.6|
|B||Chandigarh||CH||1,054,686||English, Hindi, Punjabi||Chandigarh||9,252||86.43||89.8|
|C||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||DN||342,853||English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi||Silvassa||698||77.65||22.9|
|D||Daman and Diu||DD||242,911||English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi||Daman||2169||87.07||36.2|
|F||National Capital Territory of Delhi||DL||16,753,235||English, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu||Delhi||11,297||86.34||93.2|
|G||Puducherry||PY||1,244,464||French and Tamil;
Telugu and Malayalam
The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)
The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.
Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963. The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November, transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.
Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura on 21 January 1972. The Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.
In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007, was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.
In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government, however this may be difficult due to the opposition to the creation of Telangana.
- Adjectivals and demonyms for states and territories of India
- List of proposed states and territories of India
- Autonomous regions of India
- Emblems of Indian States
- ISO 3166-2:IN
- List of states and union territories of India by population
- List of states in India by past population
- Subdivisions of India
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- The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966[dead link]
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- Snapshot of North Eastern States
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- Goa Chronology
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- Maps of the Historical Territorial Evolution of the States of India
- Official Government of India website: States and Union Territories