States of India
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2011)|
List of states and territories
|Map||Name||ISO 3166-2 code||Population||Area
(if not capital)
|Population density||Literacy Rate(%)||Percentage of Urban Population to total Population||Sex Ratio|
|1||Andhra Pradesh||AP||84,665,533||275,045||Telugu, Urdu, English||Hyderabad||308||67.66||27.3||992|
|3||Assam||AS||31,169,272||78,550||Assamese; Regional: Bodo, Bengali||Dispur||Guwahati||397||73.18||12.9||954|
|4||Bihar||BR||103,804,637||99,200||Hindi, Magadhi, Maithili, Urdu||Patna||1,102||63.82||10.5||916|
|5 Lalit-Parker||Chhattisgarh||CT||25,540,196||135,194||Chattisgarhi, Hindi||Raipur||189||71.04||20.1||991|
|8||Haryana||HR||25,353,081||44,212||Hindi, Haryanvi (regional)||Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
|10||Jammu and Kashmir||JK||12,548,926||222,236||Dogri, Kashmiri, Urdu||Srinagar (summer)
|17||Meghalaya||ML||2,964,007||22,720||English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar,||Shillong||132||75.48||19.6||986|
|20||Odisha  (Orissa)||OR||41,947,358||155,820||Oriya||Bhubaneswar||269||73.45||15.0||978|
(shared, Union Territory)
|23||Sikkim||SK||607,688||7,096||Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tamang||Gangtok||86||82.20||11.1||889|
|26||Uttar Pradesh||UP||199,581,477||243,286||Hindi, Urdu||Lucknow||828||69.72||20.8||908|
|27||Uttarakhand||UT||10,116,752||53,566||Hindi, Sanskrit||Dehradun (interim)||189||79.63||25.7||963|
|28||West Bengal||WB||91,347,736||88,752||Bengali, English||Kolkata||1,029||77.08||28.0||947|
The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)
|This section requires expansion. (January 2010)|
The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[full citation needed] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.
The former French and Portuguese colonies in India were incorporated into the Republic as the union territories of Puducherry (Pondicherry), Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Daman and Diu in 1962.
Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963. The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November, transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.
Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura on 21 January 1972 the Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.
In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007, was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.
As a result of this unilateral decision by the Government of India, several members of Andhra Pradesh's legislature submitted their resignations to protest the creation of the new state owing to the pressure from the people in their constituencies. As of 11 December, at least 117 legislators and many Members of Parliament had resigned in protest of the Government's decision to carve out a new state of Telangana.
Due to the unexpected turn of events, after the parties which promised support to the Telangana state formation on 7 December 2009 in a unanimous all-party meeting at the State level, presided by CM, Rosaiah, and later the party members of these parties made a U-turn on their support bowing to the pressure from the people in their constituency following the 9 December statement (in support of Telangana state process initiation), the federal government made another statement on 23 December to clarify its intention on the process that it would consult with all groups, political and non-political, before moving forward. It then formed the Justice Sri Krishna committee which has been touring the state consulting with different sections of the society. A report recommending a solution suitable to all constituents is expected to be submitted before 31 December 2010.
In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government, however this may be difficult due to the opposition to the creation of Telangana.
- Adjectivals and demonyms for states and territories of India
- List of proposed states and territories of India
- Autonomous regions of India
- Emblems of Indian States
- ISO 3166-2:IN
- List of states and union territories of India by population
- List of states in India by past population
- Subdivisions of India
- "States and union territories". Retrieved 2007-09-07.
- "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- "Official and Regional Languages of India". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
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- Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998.
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- Nagaland History & Geography-Source india.gov.in
- The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966[dead link]
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- Snapshot of North Eastern States
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- Goa Chronology
- "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. 1979-12-19. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- Press Trust of India (10 December 2009). "60 AP MLAs submit resignation to protest Telangana creation". Business Standard. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- "Telangana: Shutdown in Andhra Pradesh, 117 legislators quit". Times of India. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- "Srikrishna report by Dec. 31". Deccan Chronicle. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- "India: Uttar Pradesh assembly backs state division". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- Maps of the Historical Territorial Evolution of the States of India
- Official Government of India website: States and Union Territories