States of India

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India is a federal union of states[1] comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.[1]

List of states and territories[edit]

Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Laccadive Sea Siachen Glacier Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Burma China Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka Tajikistan Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Andhra Pradesh Goa Gujarat Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Assam Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur Mizoram Tripura West Bengal Sikkim Bhutan Bangladesh Bihar Jharkhand Odisha Chhattisgarh Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand Nepal Delhi Haryana Punjab Himachal Pradesh Chandigarh Pakistan Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
A clickable map of the 28 states and 7 union territories of India
States of India
Map Name ISO 3166-2 code[2] Population Area
Capital Largest city
(if not capital)
Population density Literacy Rate(%) Percentage of Urban Population to total Population Sex Ratio
1 Andhra Pradesh AP 84,665,533 275,045 Telugu, Urdu, English Hyderabad 308 67.66 27.3 992
2 Arunachal Pradesh AR 1,382,611 83,743 English Itanagar 17 66.95 20.8 920
3 Assam AS 31,169,272 78,550 Assamese; Regional: Bodo, Bengali Dispur Guwahati 397 73.18 12.9 954
4 Bihar BR 103,804,637 99,200 Hindi, Magadhi, Maithili, Urdu Patna 1,102 63.82 10.5 916[3]
5 Lalit-Parker Chhattisgarh CT 25,540,196 135,194 Chattisgarhi, Hindi Raipur 189 71.04 20.1 991
6 Goa GA 1,457,723 3,702 Konkani Panjim 394 87.40 62.2 968
7 Gujarat GJ 60,383,628 196,024 Gujarati Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 308 79.31 37.4 918
8 Haryana HR 25,353,081 44,212 Hindi, Haryanvi (regional) Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Faridabad 573 76.64 28.9 877
9 Himachal Pradesh HP 6,856,509 55,673 Hindi Shimla 123 83.78 9.8 920
10 Jammu and Kashmir JK 12,548,926 222,236 Dogri, Kashmiri, Urdu[4] Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
124 68.74 24.8 883
11 Jharkhand JH 32,966,238 74,677 Hindi Ranchi Jamshedpur 414 67.63 22.2 947
12 Karnataka KA 61,130,704 191,791 Kannada Bengaluru 319 75.60 34.0 968
13 Kerala KL 33,387,677 38,863 Malayalam Thiruvananthapuram 859 93.91 26.0 1,084
14 Madhya Pradesh MP 72,597,565 308,252 Hindi Bhopal Indore 236 70.63 26.5 930
15 Maharashtra MH 112,372,972 307,713 Marathi Mumbai 365 82.91 42.4 925
16 Manipur MN 2,721,756 22,347 Manipuri Imphal 122 79.85 25.1 987
17 Meghalaya ML 2,964,007 22,720 English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar, Shillong 132 75.48 19.6 986
18 Mizoram MZ 1,091,014 21,081 Mizo Aizawl 52 91.58 49.6 975
19 Nagaland NL 1,980,602 16,579 English Kohima Dimapur 119 80.11 17.2 931
20 Odisha [5] (Orissa) OR 41,947,358 155,820 Oriya Bhubaneswar 269 73.45 15.0 978
21 Punjab PB 27,704,236 50,362 Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Ludhiana 550 76.68 33.9 893
22 Rajasthan RJ 68,621,012 342,269 Hindi Jaipur 201 67.06 23.4 926
23 Sikkim SK 607,688 7,096 Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tamang Gangtok 86 82.20 11.1 889
24 Tamil Nadu TN 72,138,958 130,058 Tamil Chennai 480 80.33 44.0 995
26 Tripura TR 3,671,032 10,492 Bengali, Tripuri Agartala 350 87.75 17.1 961
26 Uttar Pradesh UP 199,581,477 243,286 Hindi, Urdu[6] Lucknow 828 69.72 20.8 908
27 Uttarakhand UT 10,116,752 53,566 Hindi, Sanskrit Dehradun (interim) 189 79.63 25.7 963
28 West Bengal WB 91,347,736 88,752 Bengali, English Kolkata 1,029 77.08 28.0 947

Responsibilities and authorities[edit]

States and union
territories of India

ordered by
Flag of India.svg
Highest point
Tax revenues
Number of voters
Natural growth rate
Sex ratio
Vaccination coverage
Literacy rate
Electricity usage
Media exposure
Origin of name
HIV awareness
Household size
Home ownership
Underweight people
Places of worship
TV ownership
Transport network
Power capacity
Institutional delivery
Life expectancy at birth

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)[7]


Administrative division of India in 1951


The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[8][9][full citation needed] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

After 1956[edit]

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 abandoned the British system of provinces and princely states. In its place, new states were drawn based on ethnicity and language.[citation needed]

The former French and Portuguese colonies in India were incorporated into the Republic as the union territories of Puducherry (Pondicherry), Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Daman and Diu in 1962.[citation needed]

Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960[10] by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963.[11] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November,[12] transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.[13]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh[14] on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura[15] on 21 January 1972 the Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[16] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[17]

In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh,[18] Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007,[19] was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh,[20] and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.[21]


Ahead of the 2009 General Elections in India, all the major parties in Andhra Pradesh supported statehood for Telangana.[dated info][citation needed]

As a result of this unilateral decision by the Government of India, several members of Andhra Pradesh's legislature submitted their resignations to protest the creation of the new state owing to the pressure from the people in their constituencies.[22] As of 11 December, at least 117 legislators and many Members of Parliament had resigned in protest of the Government's decision to carve out a new state of Telangana.[23]

Due to the unexpected turn of events, after the parties which promised support to the Telangana state formation on 7 December 2009 in a unanimous all-party meeting at the State level, presided by CM, Rosaiah, and later the party members of these parties made a U-turn on their support bowing to the pressure from the people in their constituency following the 9 December statement (in support of Telangana state process initiation), the federal government made another statement on 23 December to clarify its intention on the process that it would consult with all groups, political and non-political, before moving forward. It then formed the Justice Sri Krishna committee which has been touring the state consulting with different sections of the society. A report recommending a solution suitable to all constituents is expected to be submitted before 31 December 2010.[24]

In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government, however this may be difficult due to the opposition to the creation of Telangana.[25]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "States and union territories". Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  2. ^ "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Official and Regional Languages of India". Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  5. ^ "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times Of India. 24 March 2011. 
  6. ^ "Uttar Pradesh Legislature". Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  7. ^ Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998.
  8. ^ "Indian History, India History, History of India". Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  9. ^ "History of India, The Great Indian History". Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  10. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, editors, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1995), p89-90
  11. ^ Nagaland History & Geography-Source
  12. ^ The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966[dead link]
  13. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  14. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  15. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States
  16. ^ Sikkim joins Indian Union. 1975-04-26. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  17. ^ Goa Chronology
  18. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". 1979-12-19. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  19. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  20. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  21. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  22. ^ Press Trust of India (10 December 2009). "60 AP MLAs submit resignation to protest Telangana creation". Business Standard. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  23. ^ "Telangana: Shutdown in Andhra Pradesh, 117 legislators quit". Times of India. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  24. ^ "Srikrishna report by Dec. 31". Deccan Chronicle. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010. 
  25. ^ "India: Uttar Pradesh assembly backs state division". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 

External links[edit]