Confederation of the Rhine

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Confederation of the Rhine
Rheinbund (de)
États confédérés du Rhin (fr)
Confederation of client states
of the French Empire

1806–1813
The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812.
Capital Frankfurt
Languages German, French
Political structure Confederation
Protector
 -  1806–1813 Napoleon I
Prince-Primate
 -  1806–1813 Karl von Dalberg
 -  1813 Eugène de Beauharnais
Legislature Diet of the Confederation
Historical era Napoleonic Wars
 -  Treaty of the Confederation of the Rhine 12 July 1806
 -  Holy Roman Empire dissolved 6 August 1806
 -  Battle of Leipzig 4 November 1813
Today part of  Austria
 Czech Republic
 Germany
 Italy
 Liechtenstein
 Poland

The Confederation of the Rhine (German: Rheinbund; French: États confédérés du Rhin, officially "Confederated States of the Rhine", but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria and Russia in the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine. It lasted from 1806 to 1813.[1]

The members of the confederation were German princes (Fürsten) from the Holy Roman Empire. They were later joined by 19 others, all together ruling a total of over 15 million subjects providing a significant strategic advantage to the French Empire on its eastern front. Prussia and Austria were not members.

Napoleon sought to consolidate the modernizing achievements of the revolution, but he wanted the soldiers and supplies these subject states could provide for his wars. The most important accomplishments include the introduction of the Napoleonic Code, the establishment of religious toleration (especially for Jews), and the abolition of feudal rights. It used a constitution written along French lines. Napoleon required it to supply 63,000 troops to his army. The success of the Confederation depended on Napoleon's success in battle; it collapsed when he lost the battle of Leipzig in 1813.

Formation[edit]

On 12 July 1806, on signing the Treaty of the Confederation of the Rhine (German: Rheinbundakte) in Paris, 16 states in present-day Germany joined together in a confederation (the treaty called it the états confédérés du Rhin, with a precursor in the League of the Rhine). Napoleon was its "protector". On 1 August, the members of the confederation formally seceded from the Holy Roman Empire, and on 6 August, following an ultimatum by Napoleon, Francis II declared the Holy Roman Empire dissolved. Francis' Habsburg dynasty continued as emperors of Austria.

According to the treaty, the confederation was to be run by common constitutional bodies, but the individual states (in particular the larger ones) wanted unlimited sovereignty.[1] Instead of a monarchical head of state, as the Holy Roman Emperor had been, its highest office was held by Karl Theodor von Dalberg, the former Arch Chancellor, who now bore the title of a Prince-Primate of the confederation. As such, he was President of the College of Kings and presided over the Diet of the Confederation, designed to be a parliament-like body though it never actually assembled.[1] The President of the Council of the Princes was the Prince of Nassau-Usingen.

The Confederation was above all a military alliance: the members had to maintain substantial armies for mutual defense and supply France with large numbers of military personnel. In return for their cooperation some state rulers were given higher statuses: Baden, Hesse, Cleves, and Berg were made into grand duchies, and Württemberg and Bavaria became kingdoms. States were also made larger by incorporating the many smaller "Kleinstaaten", or small former imperial member states. As events played out, however, the members of the confederation found themselves more subordinated to Napoleon than they had been to the Habsburgs[citation needed].

After Prussia lost to France in 1806, Napoleon cajoled most of the secondary states of Germany into the Rheinbund. Eventually, an additional 23 German states joined the Confederation. It was at its largest in 1808, when it included 36 states—four kingdoms, five grand duchies, 13 duchies, seventeen principalities, and the Free Hansa towns of Hamburg, Lübeck, and Bremen.[1] Only Austria, Prussia, Danish Holstein, and Swedish Pomerania stayed outside, not counting the west bank of the Rhine and Principality of Erfurt, which were annexed by the French empire.

In 1810 large parts of northwest Germany were quickly annexed to France in order to better monitor the trade embargo with Great Britain, the Continental System.

The Confederation of the Rhine collapsed in 1813, with the aftermath of Napoleon's failed campaign against the Russian Empire. Many of its members changed sides after the Battle of Leipzig, when it became apparent Napoleon would lose the War of the Sixth Coalition.

Member monarchies[edit]

The following table shows the members of the confederation, with their date of joining, as well as the number of troops provided, listed in parentheses.[2]

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Member states of the Confederation of the Rhine, 1806.
Member states of the Confederation of the Rhine, 1808.
Member states of the Confederation of the Rhine, 1812.

The College of Kings[edit]

Flag Member monarchy Year joined Notes
Grand Duchy of Baden 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; former margraviate (8,000)
Kingdom of Bavaria 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; former duchy (30,000)
Grand Duchy of Berg 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; absorbed Cleves, both formerly Duchies (5,000)
Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; former landgraviate (4,000)
Principality of Regensburg 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; formerly Prince-Archbishopric and Electorate; after 1810 the Frankfurt Grand Duchy of Frankfurt (968 of 4,000)
Kingdom of Saxony 11 Dec 1806 Former duchy (20,000)
Kingdom of Westphalia 15 Nov 1807 Napoleonic creation (25,000)
Kingdom of Württemberg 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; former duchy (12,000)
Grand Duchy of Würzburg 23 Sep 1806 Napoleonic creation (2,000)

The College of Princes[edit]

Flag Member monarchy Year joined Notes
Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg 11 Apr 1807 (700)
Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau 11 Apr 1807 (700)
Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen 11 Apr 1807 (700)
Duchy of Arenberg 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; mediatized 13 December 1810 (379 of 4,000)
Principality of Hohenzollern-Hechingen 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder (97 of 4,000)
Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder (193 of 4,000)
Principality of Isenburg-Birstein 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder (291 of 4,000)
Principality of Leyen 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder; former countship or graviate (29 of 4,000)
Principality of Liechtenstein 12 Jul 1806 Co-founder (40 of 4,000)
Principality of Lippe-Detmold 11 Apr 1807 (650)
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 22 Mar 1808 (1,900)
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 18 Feb 1808 (400)
Duchy of Nassau (Usingen and Weilburg) 12 Jul 1806* Union of Nassau Usingen Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Weilburg Nassau-Weilburg, both co-founders (1,680 of 4,000)
Duchy of Oldenburg 14 Oct 1808 annexed by France 13 December 1810 (800)
Principality of Reuss-Ebersdorf 11 Apr 1807 (400)
Principality of Reuss-Greiz 11 Apr 1807 (400)
Principality of Reuss-Lobenstein 11 Apr 1807 (400)
Principality of Reuss-Schleiz 11 Apr 1807 (400)
Principality of Salm (Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg) 25 Jul 1806 Co-founder; annexed by France 13 December 1810 (323 of 4,000)
Duchy of Saxe-Coburg 15 Dec 1806 (Saxon duchies total 2,000)
Duchy of Saxe-Gotha 15 Dec 1806
Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen 15 Dec 1806
Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen 15 Dec 1806
Duchy of Saxe-Weimar 15 Dec 1806
Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe 11 Apr 1807 (650)
Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 11 Apr 1807 (650)
Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 11 Apr 1807 (650)
Principality of Waldeck 11 Apr 1807 (400)

Aftermath[edit]

The allies opposing Napoleon dissolved the Confederation of the Rhine 4 November 1813. After its demise, the only attempt at political coordination in Germany until the creation on 8 June 1815 of the German Confederation was a body called the Central Administration Council (German: Zentralverwaltungsrat); its President was Heinrich Friedrich Karl Reichsfreiherr vom und zum Stein (1757–1831). It was dissolved on 20 June 1815.

On 30 May 1814 the Treaty of Paris declared the German states independent.

In 1815, the Congress of Vienna redrew the continent's political map. In fact, most surviving members had only minor border changes, and the resulting German Confederation consisted more or less of the same members as the Confederation of the Rhine, with the important addition of the two German great powers of Austria and Prussia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hans A. Schmitt. Germany Without Prussia: A Closer Look at the Confederation of the Rhine. German Studies Review 6, No. 4 (1983), pp 9-39.
  2. ^ Creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, 12 July, 1806

Sources and external links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°07′N 8°41′E / 50.117°N 8.683°E / 50.117; 8.683