Stavropol

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For other uses, see Stavropol (disambiguation).
Stavropol (English)
Ставрополь (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Stavropol centre.JPG
Stavropol city center
Map of Russia - Stavropol Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Stavropol Krai in Russia
Stavropol is located in Stavropol Krai
Stavropol
Stavropol
Location of Stavropol in Stavropol Krai
Coordinates: 45°03′N 41°59′E / 45.050°N 41.983°E / 45.050; 41.983Coordinates: 45°03′N 41°59′E / 45.050°N 41.983°E / 45.050; 41.983
Coat of Arms of Stavropol (1994).png
Stavropol flag.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of July 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Stavropol Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Stavropol[1]
Administrative center of Stavropol Krai,[1] city of krai significance of Stavropol[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2010)
Urban okrug Stavropol Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Stavropol Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed] Georgy Kolyagin[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 276.689 km2 (106.830 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census) 398,539 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 47th
Density 1,440 /km2 (3,700 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
Founded October 22, 1777[citation needed]
Previous names Voroshilovsk (until January 12, 1943)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 355000
Dialing code(s) +7 8652[citation needed]
Official website
Stavropol on WikiCommons

Stavropol (Russian: Ставрополь; IPA: [ˈstavrəpəlʲ]) is a city and the administrative center of Stavropol Krai, Russia. Population: 398,539 (2010 Census);[4] 354,867 (2002 Census);[8] 318,298 (1989 Census).[9]

History[edit]

Stavropol was founded on October 22, 1777 following the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 as a military encampment and designated as a city in 1785.[citation needed] Prince Grigory Potemkin, who founded Stavropol as one of ten fortresses built between Azov and Mozdok at the request of Catherine the Great, played a leading role in the creation of the city. Don Cossacks, particularly those from the Khopersky Regiment, settled the area in and around the cities of Stavropol and Georgiyevsk with a mission to defend borders of the Empire.[10]

The name "Stavropol" is a Russian rendition of a fictitious Greek name, Stauropolis (historically the name of an unrelated archbishopric in Caria, a Roman province in present Anatolia), meaning "the city of the cross". According to a legend, soldiers found a huge cross made out of stone when they were building the fortress in the future city location.[citation needed]

Alexander I in 1809 invited several Armenian families to settle by the fortress, in order to encourage trade in the region.

Stavropol's strategic location aided in the Russian Empire's conquest of the Caucasus. By the early 19th century the city grew into a busy trade center of the North Caucasus. In 1843, an Episcopal see of the Russian Orthodox Church was established in Stavropol and in 1847 the city became the seat of Stavropol Governorate.[11]

During the Russian Civil War the city changed hands several times and finally was captured by the Red Army from the Volunteer Army of general Anton Denikin on January 29, 1920. The city was renamed Voroshilovsk on May 5, 1935, after Kliment Voroshilov, but the original name was restored in 1943. The Great Patriotic War took a heavy toll on the city and between August 3, 1942 and January 21, 1943 Stavropol was occupied by the Germans. Since 1946, natural gas has been extracted near the city; later on, a pipeline to supply Moscow was built.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Stavropol is the administrative center of the krai.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one rural locality, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Stavropol—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Stavropol is incorporated as Stavropol Urban Okrug.[2]

Modern city[edit]

Stavropol has a theater and an association football team called FC Dynamo Stavropol.

The main educational institutions of the town include Stavropol State University, North-Caucasus State Technical University, Agrarian University, and Stavropol State Medical University.

The area of Russia in which Stavropol resides is very mountainous, placing the city in the midst of the northern Caucasus mountain range. The city has one of the biggest and best city parks in Russia.[citation needed]

Stavropol's economy focuses on the production of automobiles, furniture, and construction equipment and materials. The city relies on air transport (Shpakovskoye airport), rail, and highway connections to other Russian cities.

Stavropol's population includes a significant number of refugees escaping the strife or instability of the Russian border regions and Caucasus nations to the south.

Climate[edit]

Stavropol experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with short but cold winters (though mild for Russia) and hot summers. Precipitation is rather low, with a 556 millimeters (21.9 in) annual average.

Climate data for Stavropol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
(59)
18.9
(66)
24.2
(75.6)
31.0
(87.8)
31.0
(87.8)
34.8
(94.6)
38.6
(101.5)
39.7
(103.5)
37.3
(99.1)
33.0
(91.4)
22.9
(73.2)
22.0
(71.6)
39.7
(103.5)
Average high °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
0.6
(33.1)
5.9
(42.6)
14.2
(57.6)
18.4
(65.1)
24.0
(75.2)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
21.4
(70.5)
14.3
(57.7)
6.4
(43.5)
3.0
(37.4)
13.5
(56.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.7
(27.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
2.1
(35.8)
9.6
(49.3)
14.1
(57.4)
19.3
(66.7)
22.0
(71.6)
21.5
(70.7)
16.3
(61.3)
9.7
(49.5)
2.8
(37)
−0.1
(31.8)
9.3
(48.7)
Average low °C (°F) −5.0
(23)
−5.4
(22.3)
−0.8
(30.6)
5.7
(42.3)
10.2
(50.4)
15.2
(59.4)
17.5
(63.5)
16.7
(62.1)
12.0
(53.6)
6.5
(43.7)
0.3
(32.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −27.8
(−18)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−16.7
(1.9)
−8.0
(17.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
2.8
(37)
9.0
(48.2)
7.6
(45.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
−12.0
(10.4)
−20.0
(−4)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−28.3
(−18.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.14)
28
(1.1)
34
(1.34)
44
(1.73)
66
(2.6)
80
(3.15)
58
(2.28)
43
(1.69)
47
(1.85)
49
(1.93)
45
(1.77)
33
(1.3)
556
(21.89)
Avg. precipitation days 6 6 7 7 9 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 85
Source #1: Weather and Climate [12]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) [13]

Notable people[edit]

Well-known Russians who have visited or resided in Stavropol include: Generals Alexander Suvorov, Alexey Yermolov and Nikolay Raevsky, the poets Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov, who were in political disfavor, the surgeon Nikolay Pirogov, Alexander Griboyedov, Leo Tolstoy, and the national poet of Ossetia, Kosta Khetagurov.[14]

The first and only executive president of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, was born in Stavropol Krai (region) and spent several years working in the city of Stavropol as the head of the Krai's administration. Gorbachev's chief mentor, long-time friend and predecessor Yuri Andropov was also born in Stavropol Krai.

International relations[edit]

A government building

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Stavropol is twinned with:[15]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Resolution #63-p
  2. ^ a b c Law #88-kz
  3. ^ Паспорт города (на 01.01.2012)
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ Pogoda.ru.net. [3]. Retrieved on: August 19, 2014.
  13. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Stavropol'". United Nations. Retrieved January 1, 2011. 
  14. ^ Stavropol - City
  15. ^ Twin-city relations with the cities of non-CIS states
  16. ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Ставропольского края. Постановление №63-п от 4 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края», в ред. Постановления №361-п от 23 сентября 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края, утверждённый Постановлением Правительства Ставропольского края от 04 мая 2006 г. №63-п». Вступил в силу с 4 мая 2006 г.. Опубликован: "Сборник законов и других правовых актов Ставропольского края", №17, ст. 5609, 10 июля 2006 г. (Government of Stavropol Krai. Resolution #63-p of May 4, 2006 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Resolution #361-p of September 23, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai Adopted by Resolution #63-p of the Government of Stavropol Krai of May 4, 2006. Effective as of May 4, 2006.).
  • Государственная Дума Ставропольского края. Закон №88-кз от 4 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований Ставропольского края статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №46-кз от 1 июля 2010 г «О преобразовании муниципального образования города Будённовска Ставропольского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ставропольская правда", №216, 6 октября 2004 г. (State Duma of Stavropol Krai. Law #88-kz of October 4, 2004 On Granting the Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District to the Municipal Formations of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Law #46-kz of July 1, 2010 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formation of the Town of Budyonnovsk of Stavropol Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]