Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1

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Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase)
Identifiers
Symbols SCD ; FADS5; MSTP008; SCD1; SCDOS
External IDs OMIM604031 HomoloGene74538 ChEMBL: 5555 GeneCards: SCD Gene
EC number 1.14.19.1
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6319 20249
Ensembl ENSG00000099194 ENSMUSG00000037071
UniProt O00767 P13516
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005063 NM_009127
RefSeq (protein) NP_005054 NP_033153
Location (UCSC) Chr 10:
102.11 – 102.12 Mb
Chr 19:
44.39 – 44.41 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase[pronunciation?] (delta-9-desaturase) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCD gene.[1]

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 is a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism. It is responsible for forming a double bond in Stearoyl-CoA. This is how the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid is produced from the saturated fatty acid stearic acid.

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; EC 1.14.19.1) is an iron-containing enzyme that catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The principal product of SCD is oleic acid, which is formed by desaturation of stearic acid. The ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation through effects on cell membrane fluidity and signal transduction. Four SCD isoforms, Scd1 through Scd4, have been identified in mouse. In contrast, only 2 SCD isoforms, SCD1 and SCD5 (MIM 608370), have been identified in human. SCD1 shares about 85% amino acid identity with all 4 mouse SCD isoforms, as well as with rat Scd1 and Scd2. In contrast, SCD5 shares limited homology with the rodent SCDs and appears to be unique to primates.[1][2][3]

Role in human disease[edit]

Elevated expression levels of SCD1 is found to be correlated with obesity [4] and tumor malignancy.[5] It is believed that tumor cells obtain most part of their requirement for fatty acids by de novo synthesis. This phenomenon depends on increased expression of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes that produce required fatty acids in large quantities.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase)". Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  2. ^ Zhang, L.; Ge, L.; Parimoo, S.; Stenn, K.; Prouty, S. M. (1999). "Human stearoyl-CoA desaturase: Alternative transcripts generated from a single gene by usage of tandem polyadenylation sites". The Biochemical journal. 340 ( Pt 1) (Pt 1): 255–264. PMC 1220244. PMID 10229681.  edit
  3. ^ Wang J, Yu L, Schmidt RE, Su C, Huang X, Gould K, Cao G (July 2005). "Characterization of HSCD5, a novel human stearoyl-CoA desaturase unique to primates". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 332 (3): 735–42. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.013. PMID 15907797. 
  4. ^ Hulver MW, Berggren JR, Carper MJ, Miyazaki M, Ntambi JM, Hoffman EP et al. (2005). "Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans.". Cell Metab 2 (4): 251–61. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2005.09.002. PMID 16213227. 
  5. ^ Ide Y, Waki M, Hayasaka T, Nishio T, Morita Y, Tanaka H et al. (2013). "Human breast cancer tissues contain abundant phosphatidylcholine(36∶1) with high stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression.". PLoS One 8 (4): e61204. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061204. PMC 3629004. PMID 23613812. 
  6. ^ Mohammadzadeh F, Mosayebi G, Montazeri V, Darabi M, Fayezi S, Shaaker M et al. (2014). "Fatty Acid Composition of Tissue Cultured Breast Carcinoma and the Effect of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Inhibition.". J Breast Cancer 17 (2): 136–42. doi:10.4048/jbc.2014.17.2.136. PMC 4090315. PMID 25013434. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]