Stefan Lochner (1400 or 1410 – 1451) was a German painter working in the late Gothic style. He was active in Cologne, Germany, and is best known for the Altar of the City Patrons triptych, painted for the Town Hall chapel in the 1440s and now in Cologne Cathedral. Lochner was one of the most important German artist before Albrecht Dürer; an artist who held Lochner in great esteem and is most identified with continuing his legacy.
Lochner was one the last major painters working in the "soft style" (weicher still) of the International Gothic tradition. His work is known for its clean appearance, virtuoso surface textures, and innovative iconography. He was praised by Friedrich Schlegel and Goethe for the "sweetness and grace" of his Madonna portraits. His paintings combine a Gothic tendency towards long flowing lines in brilliant colours with a Flemish-influenced realism and attention to detail. Lochner's compositions often include fanciful angels, singing and playing musical instruments. He was skilled both as a miniaturist and a painter of monumental works. He seems to have had knowledge of metal work, given his realistic deceptions of objects such as the Magi's gifts in the Cologne altarpiece.
The known details of Lochner life are extremely scant. He is thought to have come from Meersburg, near Lake Constance, as his parents, Georg and Alhet, are recorded as having died there in 1451. However his style bears no traces of the art of that region. His talent was recognised from an early age, and he trained as a painter in the Netherlands under a master whose name is now lost. While there he may have been influenced by the work of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden; elements of their styles can be detected in his later works, although neither is thought to be the master under whom he had studied.
Lochner had moved to Cologne by 1442, when he was commissioned by the city council for decorations in connection with the celebration of the visit of Emperor Frederick III. He became widely celebrated as the most capable and modern painter in the city, were he was known as "Maister Steffan".
Lochner bought a house around 1442 with his wife Lysbeth; in 1444 he was able to afford to sell it for a larger property near Saint Alban Church. He was elected town councilor by the painters' guild in 1447 and 1450. Around 1447 he seems to have encountered financial difficulties, forcing him to re-mortgage his house. There are no surviving records of him after Christmas 1451; his parents died at the end of that year and it is known he was unable to travel to Meersburg to attend to their will and estate. It is presumed he was then already ill and died shortly thereafter. Cologne was undergoing an outbreak of plague that year, and the area Lochner was living in was particularly affected; however it is not know if this was his cause of death.
There are no signed paintings by Lochner, and no works were attributed to the historical person until J.F. Böhmer identified him with the painter of the Altar of the City Patrons in an article published in 1823. He based his attribution on a mention of a visit to Cologne in 1520 in the diary of Albrecht Dürer, during a recount of the earlier artist paying to see an altarpiece by "Maister Steffan". Böhmer identified this as the Altar of the City Patrons, and "Maister Steffan" as the documented Stefan Lochner. Over the years, on stylistic grounds, others paintings have been attributed to him, however in recent years some art historians have questioned that the diary entry was authentically made by Dürer. He gave his figures the common idealised facial features traditional of early medeival portraiture, esdically his female subjects have the usual high foreheads, long noses, small rounded chins, tucked blond curls and prominent ears typically of late gothic, he sets these rather traditional characters within innovative and highly active, monumental settings; the main feature that defines his work as superior.
Lochner's major works were polyptychs which, like many 15th century religious pieces, were over the centuries, broken apart and are today spread across various museums and collections. There are two dated versions of the Presentation in the Temple, one in the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum (1445) and another in the Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt (1447); two wings from an altarpiece, with images of saints (now in the National Gallery, are in London and the Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne), and an altarpiece from the church of St. Lorenz, is now divided between three museums. His "Last Judgement" is divided between Cologne, Munich and Frankfurt.
Cruficixion, 1445. Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Detail: Presentation of Christ in the Temple, c 1447. Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Darmstadt
Saints Mark, Barbara and Luke, 1445-50. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Madonna in the Rose Bower, c 1448. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
- Corley, p. 78
- Borchert, p. 249
- Borchert, p. 248
- Borchert, p.70
- Borchert, p.71
- Borchert, pp.70-71
- Singer, p. 16
- Griffiths et al
- Billinge et al
- Corley, 78
- Corley, p. 82
- Borchert, p.254
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stefan Lochner.|
- Rachel Billinge, Lorne Campbell, Jill Dunkerton, Susan Foister, Jo Kirby, Jennie Pilc, Ashok Roy, Marika Spring and Raymond White (1997). "A double-sided panel by Stephan Lochner". National Gallery Technical Bulletin No 18.
- Corley, Brigitte. "Plausible Provenance for Stefan Lochner?". Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 59. Bd., H. 1, 1996
- "Galerie des Frères Boisserée / St Antony, Pope Cornelius and Mary Magdalene". British Museum. quoting Griffiths, Antony; Carey, Frances (1994). German Printmaking in the Age of Goethe. British Museum Publications.
- Rowlands, John. "The Age of Dürer and Holbein: German Drawings 1400-1550". London: British Museum Publications, 1988. ISBN 0-7141-1639-4
- Singer, Hans W. "Stories of the German Artists". Wildside Press, 2010. ISBN 1-4344-0687-3
- Borchert, Till-Holger. Van Eyck to Dürer. London: Thames & Hudson, 2011. ISBN 0-500-23883-9