|Prince of the Serbs (ὁ τῶν Σέρβων ἄρχων)
Prince of Serbia
toparch of the Dalmatian kastra of Zeta and Ston
|Prince of Duklja /
Prince of the Serbs
|Burial||Church of St. Andrew in Prapratna|
Stefan Vojislav (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Војислав[A]; fl. 1018 - d. 1043) was the Prince of Duklja from 1040 to 1043. He had since 1018 been a toparch in Byzantine vassalage, and, in 1034, he led an unsuccessful revolt that landed him in a prison at Constantinople. He managed to escape and returned home, this time successfully gaining independence of his statelet, which he would rule as Prince of the Serbs, a title signifying supreme leadership among Serbs.
He is the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty.
Origin and early life
The contemporary writers call him a Serb, but do not mention his genealogy, while the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, a later, more dubious source, calls him a cousin to previous ruler Jovan Vladimir (r. 990-1016).[B]
Having reached its pinnacle during the long reign of emperor Basil II, the Byzantine empire entered a steady decline following his death in 1025. This was particularly evident in the Balkans, where the elimination of the perennial Bulgarian threat combined with an insensitive taxation policy helped spur liberation movements.
The affairs of the Dalmatians, Croats, Serbs and others were overseen by strategoi in Niš, Skopje, Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Dyrrhachium. Vojislav had regular meetings with Katakalon Klazomenites (Catacalon), the strategos of Ragusa, and at one occasion, kidnapped him and his party because Vojislav's wanted him to be the Godfather to his son Katakalon at his baptism. This shows a close relationship between native leaders and Byzantine officers in the peripheral zone of the Empire after Basil's "reconquest".
|“||...Stefan Vojislav, arhon of Serbs, who not long ago escaped from Constantinople and took the land of the Serbs, banishing Theophilos Erotikos.||”|
Around 1034 (according to John Skylitzes), the Serbs renounced Byzantine rule. Stefan Vojislav, cousin of the murdered Jovan Vladimir, organized a rebellion taking advantage of the death of the emperor Romanos III Argyros. He was defeated and imprisoned in Constantinople in 1035/1036 while his realm was put under the control of the strategos Theophilos Erotikos. In late 1037 or early 1038, he managed to break out of the prison and returned to Duklja, where he organized a new rebellion, also targeting the Serb allies of the Emperor in the neighbouring regions.
By means of guerilla tactics and the distracting effects of other uprisings, he staved off several punitive expeditions and asserted partial control over the principalities of Travunija and Zahumlje. Thus, by 1040 his state stretched in the coastal region from Ston in the north, down to his capital, Skadar, set up along the southern banks of the Skadar Lake, with other courts set up in Trebinje, Kotor and Bar.
Wars with Byzantines
In 1039, the Byzantine Emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian was waiting in Thessaloniki for a shipment of 10 kentenars of gold (7,200 gold nomismata) coming from his provinces in Southern Italy, but the cargo ship (galley) was wrecked off the Doclean coast due to stormy weather in the winter and the goods were taken by Vojislav, who refused to return it upon Michael's requests. The emperor, who had already retaken Dyrrhachium, became furious and sent general George Probatas to tackle Vojislav, but the Byzantine army, unfamiliar with the terrain, was ambushed in the gorges and totally defeated. Vojislav's son, Radoslav, is noted as having killed a Byzantine military commander on the battlefield. Kekaumenos, a strategos sent for Vojislav, ended up imprisoned by Vojislav and taken to Ston.
The Uprising of Peter Delyan in 1040-42, who crowned himself Czar Peter II of Bulgarians, made another Byzantine incursion against Duklja unlikely as the Byzantines were now occupied by the Bulgarian advance.
In 1042, the župan of Rascia (a renewed subordinate title, showing Byzantine overlordship), Ban of Bosnia and Prince of Hum Ljutovid, received a large sum of imperial gold and silver for their support to overthrow Vojislav. Ljutovid led the army against Duklja in 1043 but his army was ambushed at the Klobuk hill of Konavli (then part of Travunia), by Vojislav, and defeated. Vojislav went on and annexed most of Zahumlje and Travunia.
He defeated a Byzantine army at the Battle of Bar in October.
In 1042, the new emperor Constantine IX decided to attack Duklja with an army based in Dyrrhachium and the neighbouring themes. The Byzantine army under Michaelus Anastasii was defeated and Vojislav ensured a future for Duklja without imperial authority.
Vojislav spent the rest of his rule in peace and died in 1043. He was succeeded by his widow and their five sons - Gojislav, Predimir, Mihailo, Saganek and Radoslav. He was buried in the Church of St. Andrew in Prapratna, a town between Bar and Ulcinj.
Duklja stayed the center of the Serbian state which had earlier replaced (in terms of leadership) Rascia; it held this position for a few years, under the rule of his son Mihailo I in Duklja while the other principalities were unified with Rascia under Vukan of Serbia.
- ^ Name: His name is Vojislav (Greek: Βοϊσθλάβος), he added the self-styled title Stefan, originating from the Greek word Στέφανος (Stephanos) meaning "crowned". Kekaumenos also calls him "Vojislav the Diokletian" and "Tribounios the Serb" (Τριβούνιος ό Σέρβος). His name is transliterated in Latin as Stephanus Boisthlabus, and in English as Stephen Voislav. In the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, the author refers to him as Dobroslav.
- ^ Origin and Geneaology:
- Skylitzes, Zonaras, Cedrenus, Glykas, Kekaumenos call him a Serb (Σέρβος).
- According to the Chronicles of the Priest of Doclea (dubious status, allegedly written in 1300 AD), Vojislav was born in the month of April, in Brusno, to the uncle of Jovan Vladimir, Prince Dragomir (r. 1016-1018), and the daughter of Rascian župan Ljutomir (possible fabrication of Ljutovid) and was raised in Bosnia by his mother. His father had succeeded Jovan Vladimir in 1016, and ruled until his murder by Kotor locals in 1018.
- Scylitzes, 408-9
- Cedrenus, ed. Bonn, II, p. 526
- Kekaumenos, ed Litavrin, 170-2
- Paul Magdalino, Byzantium in the year 1000, p. 124
- Vizantološki institut SANU, „Vizantijski izvori za istoriju naroda Jugoslavije (III tom)“ (fototipsko izdanje originala iz 1967), Beograd 2007 ISBN 978-86-83883-09-7
- Fine, p. 203
- The Serbs, p. 25
- The early medieval Balkans, p. 206
- Tibor Živković, „Portreti srpskih vladara (IX-XII)“, Beograd 2006 ISBN 86-17-13754-1
- The legend of Basil the Bulgar-slayer, p. 42-43
- Marko Vego, Naselja bosanske srednjevjekovne države, Svjetlost, 1957. Google Books
- Cedrenus II, col. 275.
- The early medieval Balkans, p. 213
- Kekaumenos 108.11-12
- Kekaumenos 104.14
- Zonaras 17.20.7
- Cedrenus, ed. Bonn, II, p. 526
- Glykas 594.3-7
- Fine, p. 202
- Skylitzes, John (1973). Ioannis Scylitzae Synopsis historiarum. De Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-002285-0.
- Stephenson, Paul (November 2006). "Partial Translation of Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja". .Mac. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- Ćorović, Vladimir (2005). "Срби између Византије, Хрватске и Бугарске". Илустрована историја Срба (in Serbian) 1. Belgrade: Politika: Narodna knjiga. ISBN 86-331-2521-8.
- Fine, John Van Antwerp (1983). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stefan Vojislav.|
Stefan VojislavBorn: 1000 Died: 1043
as strategos of Serbia
|Ruler of Doclea
|First||toparch of the Dalmatian kastra
of Zeta and Ston
Title last held byJovan Vladimir
|Prince of the Serbs