Intel Atom logo
|Max. CPU clock rate||600 MHz to 2.13 GHz|
|FSB speeds||400 MHz to 667 MHz|
|List of Intel CPU microarchitectures|
|P6 (Pentium Pro)||14|
|P6 (Pentium 3)||10|
|NetBurst (Cedar Mill)||31|
Bonnell is a CPU microarchitecture used by Intel Atom processors which can execute up to two instructions per cycle. Like many other x86 microprocessors, it translates x86-instructions (CISC instructions) into simpler internal operations (sometimes referred to as micro-ops, i.e., effectively RISC style instructions) prior to execution. The majority of instructions produce one micro-op when translated, with around 4% of instructions used in typical programs producing multiple micro-ops. The number of instructions that produce more than one micro-op is significantly fewer than the P6 and NetBurst microarchitectures. In the Bonnell microarchitecture, internal micro-ops can contain both a memory load and a memory store in connection with an ALU operation, thus being more similar to the x86 level and more powerful than the micro-ops used in previous designs. This enables relatively good performance with only two integer ALUs, and without any instruction reordering, speculative execution, or register renaming. The Bonnell microarchitecture therefore represents a partial revival of the principles used in earlier Intel designs such as P5 and the i486, with the sole purpose of enhancing the performance per watt ratio. However, Hyper-Threading is implemented in an easy (i.e., low power) way to employ the whole pipeline efficiently by avoiding the typical single thread dependencies.
First generation cores 
Silverthorne microprocessor 
On 2 March 2008, Intel announced a new single-core Atom Z5xx series processor (code-named Silverthorne) to be used in ultra-mobile PCs/mobile Internet devices (MIDs) which will supersede Stealey (A100 and A110). The processor is a 47 million transistor, 25 mm2, sub-3 W IA processor which allows ~2500 chips to fit on a single 300 mm diameter wafer, allowing for extremely economical production.
An Atom Z500 processor's dual-thread performance is equivalent to its predecessor Stealey, but should outperform it on applications that can use simultaneous multithreading and SSE3. They run from 0.8 to 2.0 GHz and have between 0.65 and 2.4 W TDP rating respectively that can dip down to 0.01 W when idle. It features a 2-issue simultaneous multithreading, 16 stage in-order pipeline with 32 kiB instruction L1 and 24 kiB data L1 caches, integer and floating point execution units, x86 front end, a 512 KB L2 cache and data transferred at 533 MHz on the front-side bus. The design is manufactured in 9M 45 nm high-k metal-gate CMOS and housed in a 441-ball µFCBGA package.
Diamondville microprocessor 
On 2 March 2008, Intel announced lower-power variants of the Diamondville CPU named Atom N2xx. It was intended for use in nettops, and the Classmate PC netbook. Like their predecessors, these are single-core CPUs with Hyper-Threading.
On 22 September 2008, Intel announced a new dual-core processor (unofficially code-named Dual Diamondville) branded Atom 330, to be used in desktop computers. It runs at 1.6 GHz and has a FSB running at 533 MHz. The processor has an 8 W TDP rating. Its dual core consists of two Diamondville dies on a single substrate. Atom 330 supports 64 bit instructions.
First generation power requirements 
Although the Atom processor itself is relatively low power for an x86 microprocessor, many chipsets commonly used with it dissipate significantly more power. For example, while the N270 CPU commonly used in netbooks through mid-2010 has a net maximum TDP of 2.5 W, an Intel Atom platform that uses the 945GSE Express chipset has a specified maximum TDP of 11.8 W, with the processor using a relatively small portion of the total power consumed. Individual figures are 2.5 W for the N270 processor, 6 W for the 945GSE chipset and 3.3 W for the 82801GBM I/O controller. Intel also provides a US15W System Controller Hub based chipset with a combined TDP of less than 5 W together with the Atom processor Z5xx (Silverthorne) series, to be used in ultra-mobile PCs/Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs), though some manufacturers have released premium ultra thin system running on these line of CPU (e.g. Sony VAIO X).
Initially, all Atom motherboards on the consumer market featured the Intel 945GC chipset, which uses 22 watts alone. As of early 2009, only a few manufacturers are offering lower power 945GSE-based motherboards to end users, paired with the Atom N270 or N280 CPU, while Sony VAIO pioneers the use of the low power US15W chipset with Z5xx series processors.
Second generation cores 
Pineview microprocessor 
On 21 December 2009, Intel announced the N450, D510 and D410 with integrated graphics. Total kit power goes from 11.8 W to 7 W with the new processor and chipset, a 40% improvement. Intel GMA 3150, a 45 nm shrink of the GMA X3100 with no HD capabilities, is included as the on-die GPU. Netbooks using this new processor released on 11 January 2010. The major new feature includes longer battery life, with 6 cell systems reporting 10 or more hours of battery life.
This generation of the Atom was codenamed "Pineview" which is used in the "Pine Trail" platform. Intel's Pine Trail-M platform utilizes an Atom processor (codenamed Pineview-M) and Platform Controller Hub (codenamed Tiger Point). The graphics and memory controller have moved into the processor, which is paired with the Tiger Point PCH. This creates a more power efficient 2-chip platform rather than the 3-chip one used with previous-generation Atom chipsets.
The new Atom N4xx chips became available on 11 January 2010. It is used in netbook/nettop systems, and features an integrated single-channel DDR2 memory controller and an integrated graphics core. It features hyper-threading and is still manufactured on a 45 nm process. The new design uses half the power of the older "Menlow" platform. This reduced overall power consumption and size makes the platform more desirable for use in smartphones and other mobile internet devices.
The D4xx and D5xx series support the x86-64 bit instruction set and DDR2-800. It is rated for embedded use. The series has an integrated graphics processor built directly into the CPU to help improve performance. The models are targeted at nettops and low end desktops. They do not support speedstep.
The Atom D510 processor features dual core running at 1.66 GHz, with 1 MB of L2 cache. The Atom D410 processor features a single core running at 1.66 GHz, with 512 KB of L2 cache. Power requirements are rated at 13 watts for the D510 and 10 watts for the D410.
Tunnel Creek microprocessor 
Tunnel Creek is an embedded Atom processor.
Lincroft microprocessor (SoC) 
The Lincroft SoC (Z6xx) with the Whitney Point chipset is included in the Oak Trail platform. Oak Trail is an Intel Atom platform based on Moorestown. Moorestown and Oak Trail platform are implemented with SoC code-named Lincroft but two distinct input/output Platform Controller Hub(I/O-PCH) for each, respectively code-named Langwell and Whitney Point which includes a PCI bus that enables Oak Trail platform running Microsoft Windows or Google Chrome OS but not only Mobile(Handheld) operating system. Oak Trail was presented on 11 April 2011 and will be released in May 2011.[dated info] The Z670 processor, part of the "Oak Trail" platform, delivers improved video playback, faster Internet browsing and longer battery life, "without sacrificing performance" according to Intel. "Oak Trail" includes support for 1080p video decode, as well as HDMI. The platform also has improvements in power-efficient performance and allows applications to run on various operating systems, including Google Android, MeeGo and Windows.
Stellarton microprocessor 
Stellarton is a Tunnel Creek CPU with an Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
Sodaville microprocessor 
Sodaville is a consumer electronics Atom processor.
Third generation cores 
The 32 nm shrink of Bonnell is called Saltwell.
Cedarview microprocessor 
Intel released their third-generation "Cedar Trail" platform (consisting of a range of Cedarview Atom processors and the NM10 southbridge chip) based on 32 nm process technology in the fourth quarter of 2011. Intel stated that featured improvements in graphics capabilities including support for 1080p video, additional display options including HDMI and DisplayPort, and enhancements in power consumption are to enable fanless designs with longer battery life.
The Cedar Trail platform includes two new CPUs, 32 nm-based Cedarview Atom N2800 (1.86 GHz) and N2600 (1.6 GHz), priced at US$47 and US$42, which replace the previous generation Pineview Atom N4xx and N5xx processors. The CPUs also feature an integrated GPU that supports DirectX 9.
In addition to the netbook platform, Intel's new Cedarview Atom CPUs, D2700 (US$52) and D3200 (US$62), for nettops were released 25 September 2011.
In early March 2012 the Cedarview Atom N2800 based Intel DN2800MT motherboard started to become available. This mini-ITX motherboard stands out due to the use of a netbook Atom, which allows it to reach idle power consumption as low as 7.1 Watts.
Penwell microprocessor 
Cloverview microprocessor 
Centerton microprocessor 
In December of 2012, Intel launched the 64-bit Centerton family of Atom CPUs, designed specifically for use in servers. Centerton, which is based on the 32 nm Saltwell architecture, adds features previously unavailable in Atom processors such as Intel VT virtualization technology and support for ECC memory.
See also 
- "Intel cranks 45nm ultramobile CPU". EE Times. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2007.
- "Intel reaches back in time for its ultralow power chips". 28 January 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- "New Intel Centrino Atom Processor Technology Ushers in 'Best Internet Experience in Your Pocket'". 2 April 2008.
- "Intel's Atom Architecture: The Journey Begins". 2 April 2008.
- "The Battle of Low-Power Processors: Best Choice for a Nettop". 27 September 2008.
- linuxdevices.com - Intel announces first Atom chips
- hardwaresecrets.com - Inside Atom Architecture
- computermonger.com - Intel Atom N280 vs N270 Benchmarked
- LinuxTECH.NET - Intel Pineview Atom based Motherboards Complete Overview
- Jeff Moriarty (1 April 2008). "'Atom 101' - Deciphering the Intel codewords around MIDs". Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- Anand Lal Shimpi (27 January 2010). "Why Pine Trail Isn't Much Faster Than the First Atom". Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- "Intel's Atom Architecture: The Journey Begins". AnandTech. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "ISSCC 2008: Details on Intel Silverthorne". 4 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
- "Intel christens Silverthorne as "Atom"". 2 March 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
- "ISSCC 2008 Preview: Silverthorne, Rock, Tukwila and More". 5 December 2007.
- Krazit, Tom (5 February 2008). "Intel sheds a little more light on Silverthorne".
- "LinuxWorld - Intel expects Atom desktops for $199".
- "Intel plots $100 "NetTop" market with Diamondville - Engadget".
- "Gizmodo, the Gadget Guide".
- "Intel Atom Processor N270 Product Information". Intel Corporation. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Intel Atom Processor N280 Product Information". Intel Corporation. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Intel Atom Processor with Mobile Intel 945GSE Express Chipset". Intel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Intel Atom Processor N270 (512K Cache, 1.60 GHz, 533 MHz FSB) with SPEC Code(s) SLB73". Intel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Mobile Intel 945GSE Express Chipset". Intel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Intel 82801GBM I/O Controller". Intel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "System Controller Hub US15W for Embedded Computing". Intel. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- "Intel Announces Next-Generation Atom Platform". Intel.
- "9.3W + 2.5W = 11.8W".
- "New Intel Atom N450, D410 And D510 CPUs Are Official". I4u.com. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Intel Officially Announces "Pineview" Atom Chips, "Pine Trail" Netbook Platform". DailyTech. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Crothers, Brooke (20 December 2009). "Intel launches redesigned Atom chip for Netbooks | Business Tech". Cnet News. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "ASUS Eee PC 1005P/PE with Atom N450 and 12.5-hour battery breaks cover". Engadget. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "New Intel Atom N450 not much improvement from old one". Pinoywebsurfer.com. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "AnandTech review of the ASUS Eee PC 1005PE".
- "Intel details next-generation Atom platform, say hello to Pine Trail". Engadget. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Intel Atom N470 gets early announcement". SlashGear. 27 February 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Intel Unveils Atom N470 Processor". Nexus404.com. 27 February 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Intel Atom Processor Specifications". Intel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Vendors Launching Atom N450 Netbooks Soon". Hardocp.com. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- Shilov, Anton (1 April 2008). "Intel Atom Processors Set to Get Embedded Graphics Core, Memory Controller". X-bit Labs. Retrieved 12 July 2008.
- "Intel Atom Processor D510 (1M Cache, 1.66 GHz)". Intel Corporation. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- "Intel Atom Processor D410 (512K Cache, 1.66 GHz)". Intel Corporation. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- "Intel Newsroom". 11 April 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "Products Formerly Cedarview".
- Latif, Lawrence (3 October 2011). "Intel quietly launches four Atom chips for netbooks and nettops but not tablets". Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "Intel Desktop Board DN2800MT".
- "Intel DN2800MT CedarView Atom mini-ITX board power draw testing with Linux and Windows 7".
- "Products (Formerly Centerton)". Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Ryan Smith (11 December 2012). "Intel Launches Centerton Atom S1200 Family, First Atom for Servers". Retrieved 22 March 2013.
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