Stenosis of uterine cervix
|Classification and external resources|
The word stenosis refers to any passage in the body that is more narrow than it should typically be, for example a narrowed blood vessel (aortic stenosis for instance) or a narrowed spinal canal (cervical spinal stenosis). Cervical stenosis means that the opening in the cervix (the endocervical canal) is more narrow than is typical. In some cases, the endocervical canal may be completely closed.
According to the Nezhat Medical Center,[dead link] "symptoms depend on whether the cervical canal is partially or completely obstructed and on the patient's menopausal status. Pre-menopausal patients will have a build up of blood inside the uterus which causes sporadic bleeding and pelvic pain. Patients also have an increased risk of infertility and endometriosis."
Cervical stenosis may impact natural fertility by impeding the passage of semen into the uterus. In the context of infertility treatments, cervical stenosis may complicate or prevent the use of intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures.
Causes of cervical stenosis
Cervical stenosis may be present from birth or may be caused by other factors:
- Surgical procedures performed on the cervix such as colposcopy, cone biopsy, or a cryosurgery procedure
- Trauma to the cervix
- Repeated vaginal infections
- Cervical cancer
Treatment of cervical stenosis involves opening or widening the cervical canal. The condition may improve on its own following the vaginal delivery of a baby. Cervical canal widening can be termporarily achieved by the insertion of dilators into the cervix. If the stenosis is caused by scar tissue, a laser treatment can be used to vaporize the scarring. Finally, the surgical enlargement of the cervical canal can be performed by hysteroscopic shaving of the cervical tissue.
- "Cervical Stenosis". Topics of Interest. Nezhat Medical Center. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
- Pabuccu R; Ceyhan ST, Onalan G, Goktolga U, Ercan CM, Selam B (Sep-Oct 2005). "Successful treatment of cervical stenosis with hysteroscopic canalization before embryo transfer in patients undergoing IVF: a case series". Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 12 (5): 436–8. doi:10.1016/j.jmig.2005.06.003. PMID 16213431.
- "Cervical Stenosis". Health Science Report. Alotek Supplement Company. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
- "Dysmenorrhoea". Health24. Media24 (Naspers) Group. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
- Baggish MS; Baltoyannis P (July 1987). "Carbon dioxide laser treatment of cervical stenosis". Fertility and Sterility 48 (1): 24–8. PMID 3595913.
- Noyes, N (May 1999). "Hysteroscopic cervical canal shaving: a new therapy for cervical stenosis before embryo transfer in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization". Fertility and Sterility 71 (5): 965–6. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(99)00097-7. PMID 10231067.