February 14, 1861
Nakhichevan, Russian Empire
|Died||April 28, 1928
New York City, United States
|Resting place||Union City, New Jersey|
|Alma mater||École Libre des Sciences Politiques|
|Notable work(s)||"Young Turkey", "Responsables"|
|Political party||Social Democrat Hunchakian Party|
Stepan Sapah-Gulian was born in Djahri, a village just north of Nakhichevan on 14 February 1861. Sapah-Gulian attended the Nersisyan School in Tiflis for his primary and secondary education and was later appointed director of Nakhichevan schools. In 1887 he was arrested by Tsarist authorities, and briefly jailed.
Sapah-Gulian met with renowned Hunchak activist Paramaz (Matteos Sarkissian) in Nakhichevan and Meghri, and discussed revolutionary ideas. Sapah-Gulian, traveled throughout Western Armenia, the Middle East, and was later briefly director of the Armenian school in Jerusalem prior to his departure to Paris for continuation of higher education and subsequently, in 1895, graduated from the École Libre des Sciences Politiques with future French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré.
As an ardent activist for the Armenian cause Sapah-Gulian joined and worked on behalf of the Hunchakian in 1894. Sapah-Gulian became a leader within the Hunchak party and founded and edited several journals, including Yeritasard Hayastan (‘Young Armenia’, 1903), Hunchak, Veradsnound (‘Revival’), Nor Ashkharh ('New World').
After the Ottoman constitution he along with Social Democrat Hunchak Party declared opposition to the Young Turk led Committee of Union and Progress, and urged other Armenian political parties to join the Hunchaks in opposition to the Ittihad movement.
While in Cairo, Sapah-Gulian would be condemned to death (in absentia) along with other Hunchak party members in 1915 by the Ittihad government. Sapah-Gulian later traveled to the USA to recruit for the volunteer units and to obtain assistance for the Armenians in the war. In the States he edited "Yeritasard Hayastan" weekly in New York and fundamentally disagreed on dissolution of the Social Democrat Hunchak Party in favor of the Russian Social Democrats, showing determination to maintain independence and integrity of the Armenian Social Democrat Hunchak party.
"The problem of a nation's survival is more important, than problems between classes: all classes must work together for survival, realizing their obligations in material, moral, physical spheres". S. Sapah-Gulian, "Responsables", p. 65
He is an author of several books, including "Young Turkey" and "Responsables".
Stepan Sapah-Gulian died in New Jersey on the 28th of April, 1928.
- Pʻokʻr-Haykʻi hishatakner by Stepʻan Sapah-Giwlean (1917, in Armenian). Author's memoirs of three trips into historic Armenian territory in 1911-1912 as a representative of the Armenian Hnchakist Party.
- Pataskhanatunerě by Stepʻan Sapah-Giwlean (4 editions published between 1916 and 1974 in Armenian, re-published in 1991), 384 p.
- Sōtsʻializm ew hayrenikʻ by Stepʻan Sapah-Giwlean (1916)
- Baṛeri ew ezreri batsʻatrutʻiwnner by Stepʻan Sapah-Giwlean (1927, in Armenian)
- Eritasard Tʻurkʻia by Stepʻan Sapah-Giwlean, (1991) Criticism of the Young Turks and their Ottoman ideology.
- Armenak yev Abraham by Stepʻan Sapah-Giwlean (1917, in Armenian), publication of Yeritasard Hayastan, Chicago, 22 p.
- Ewropayi kʻaghakʻakan drutʻiwně Berlini dashnadrutʻiwnitsʻ hetoy by Stepʻan Sapah-Giwlean (1898)
- The Armenian Question, encyclopedia, Ed. by acad. K. Khudaverdyan, Yerevan, 1996, pp. 400–401.
- Biography at Massis Weekly
- Preparation for a Revolution : The Young Turks, 1902-1908: Near Eastern Studies Department Princeton University, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 207
- Bibliography by Haigazian Univ.