|St. Stephen Harding, O.Cist.|
|Monk, priest and co-founder of the Cistercian Order|
Sherborne, Dorset, Kingdom of England
|Died||28 March 1134
Citeaux Abbey, Duchy of Burgundy
|Roman Catholic Church
|Attributes||Co-founder of Cistercian Order; wrote Carta caritatis ("Charter of Love"), a principal document for the Cistercian Order|
Stephen Harding, O.Cist. (French: Étienne Harding, died 28 March 1134), was an English-born monk and abbot, who was one of the founders of the Cistercian Order in what is now France. He is honored as a saint.
Harding was born in Sherborne, Dorset, in the Kingdom of England, and spoke English, Norman, French and Latin. He was placed in Sherborne Abbey at a young age, but eventually left the monastery and became a travelling scholar, journeying with one devout companion, into Scotland and afterwards to Paris and to Rome. He eventually moved to Molesme Abbey in Burgundy, under the Abbot Robert of Molesme (c. 1027-1111).
When Robert left Molesme to avoid its corruption and laxity, Harding and Alberic of Cîteaux went with him; but upon the complaint of the monks, they were called back again—Robert, by an order of the pope, the other two by the local bishop. Stephen was then made superior. Seeing no hopes of a sufficient reformation, Robert appointed another abbot at Molesme, and, with Alberic, Harding and twenty-one other monks, with the permission of Hugh, Archbishop of Lyons, and legate of the Holy See, retired to Citeaux, a marshy wilderness five leagues from Dijon to form a new more austere monastery. Eudes, afterwards Duke of Burgundy, built them a little church, which was dedicated under the patronage of the Blessed Virgin, as all the churches of this Order from that time have been.
Robert was initially abbot of Cîteaux Abbey, returning to Molesme after a year. Alberic then took over, serving as abbot until his death in 1109. Harding, the youngest of the three men, became the third abbot of Cîteaux. However, very few men were joining the community and the monastery was suffering from hunger and sickness. It seemed for a while as if the new order was destined to die out. Bernard of Clairvaux came to enter the community in 1112 and brought with him thirty companions. Between 1112 and 1119, a dozen new Cistercian houses were founded to contain the monks coming to the new movement. Harding's powers as an organizer were exceptional, he instituted the system of general chapters and regular visitations. In 1119, Stephen wrote the "Carta Caritatis" (Charter of Charity), an important document for the Cistercian Order, establishing its unifying principles.
Harding served Cîteaux Abbey as its abbot for twenty-five years. While no single person is considered the founder of the Cistercian Order, the shape of Cistercian belief and its rapid growth in the 12th century was due to the leadership of Harding. Insisting on simplicity in all aspects of monastic life, Harding was largely responsible for the severity of Cistercian architecture. In 1133, he resigned as head of the order, because of age and infirmity. He died 28 March 1134, and was buried in the tomb of Alberic, his predecessor, in the cloister of Cîteaux.
Harding's feast day is celebrated by the Cistercian Order on 26 January, in a joint commemoration with Robert of Molesme and Alberic of Cîteaux, the first abbots of Cîteaux. The north aisle of the Church of St Sepulchre-without-Newgate in London was formerly a chapel dedicated to him (it became the Musicians' Chapel in the 20th century).
In Hungary, in the village of Apátistvánfalva there is a Catholic Baroque church, established by 1785, whose patron saint is Stephen Harding. The village and the vicinity around Vendvidék were at one time under Cistercian influence.
- "Saint Stephen Harding", Oye Magazine
- Butler, Alban. The Lives or the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints, D. & J. Sadlier, & Company, 1864
- "St. Stephen Harding", Catholic News Agency
- Huddleston, Gilbert. "St. Stephen Harding." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 25 May 2013
- "Saint Stephen Harding", St Thomas & St Stephen Roman Catholic Church, Market Drayton, Shropshire
- St. Stephen Harding Theological College and Seminary
- Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance "Calendar"
- Stercal, Claudio, Stephen Harding: A Biographical Sketch and Texts (Trappist, Kentucky: Cistercian Publications, 2008) (Cistercian Studies Series, 226).