Stephen Kim Sou-hwan

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His Eminence
Stephen Kim Sou-hwan
Cardinal Archbishop of Seoul
See Archdiocese of Seoul
Predecessor Paul Roh Ki-nam
Successor Nicolas Cheong Jin-suk
Orders
Created Cardinal April 28, 1969
by Pope Paul VI
Rank Cardinal-priest
Personal details
Born (1922-05-08)May 8, 1922
Daegu, Japanese Korea
Died February 16, 2009(2009-02-16) (aged 86)
Seoul, South Korea
Nationality Korean
Denomination Roman Catholic
Coat of arms {{{coat_of_arms_alt}}}
This is a Korean name; the family name is Kim.
Stephen Kim Sou-hwan
Hangul 김수환
Hanja 金壽煥
Revised Romanization Gim Su-hwan
McCune–Reischauer Kim Suhwan
Styles of
Stephen Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan
Coat of arms of Stephen Kim Sou-hwan.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See Seoul (Emeritus)

Stephen (often rendered as Latin Stephanus) Kim Sou-hwan (May 8, 1922 – February 16, 2009) was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the former Archbishop of Seoul, South Korea. Having been an iconic figure in South Korea's bloody and tumultuous transition from military rule to democracy, he was widely respected across all sections in South Korean society.

He was born in Daegu, modern-day South Korea, and attended high school in Seoul. He studied philosophy at Sophia University in Tokyo from 1941 to 1944, and at Catholic University of Korea in Seoul from 1947 to 1951, when he graduated. After serving briefly as a parish priest in Andong and then as a secretary in the Archdiocese of Daegu, he traveled to Germany to study sociology at Münster University from 1956 to 1963.

Kim was raised to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle by Pope Paul VI in the consistory of April 28, 1969, having become the Archbishop of Seoul in 1968 after being the Bishop of Masan since 1966. At the age of 46, he was the youngest member of the College of Cardinals at that time. He received the Mugunghwa medal in 1970, and participated in the two conclaves of 1978.

During Park Chung-hee and his successor's military dictatorship of the 70s and the 80s, the Korean Catholic Church under Kim's leadership was highlighted as a focal point of South Korea's democratization movement.

In 1998, Cardinal Kim retired as the Archbishop of Seoul, shortly after serving as President-Delegate of the Special Assembly for Asia of the World Synod of Bishops. On the death of Franz Koenig in 2004, he became the senior member of the College in terms of service, as he was the first of the three surviving members elevated in 1969 on the list of that consistory. However, in the ceremonies of the sede vacante on the death of Pope John Paul II, the duties of protopresbyter (Senior Cardinal Priest) to which Cardinal Kim was entitled were carried out by Eugenio de Araujo Sales, another 1969 cardinal who was Kim's junior as cardinal but senior as a priest and as a bishop, because of Cardinal Kim's illness.

Having reached the age of 80 in 2002, he did not participate in the ensuing conclave as he was no longer eligible to vote in papal elections. Cardinal Kim did arrive for the Papal Inauguration of Pope Benedict XVI and there he did discharge the duties of the Cardinal protopresbyter.

From 2007, Kim's health gradually deteriorated, and he was seldom seen in public, the last time being the 2008 Christmas Midnight Mass at Myeongdong Cathedral. He died in Seoul on February 16, 2009 from respiratory problems. During a four day lying in state period some 400,000 Catholic mourners were said to have filed past his coffin in the city's Myeongdong Cathedral. He was buried on February 20. As per his will his organs were removed to be given to others after his death, and the Cardinal's eyes were quickly used in two successful cornea transplants.


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Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
None
Bishop of Masan
1966 — 1968
Succeeded by
Joseph Chang Byeong Hwa
Preceded by
Paul Roh Ki-nam
Archbishop of Seoul
1968 — 1998
Succeeded by
Nicolas Cheong Jin-suk
Preceded by
Paul Roh Ki-nam
President of the CBCK
October 15, 1970 — February 24, 1975
Succeeded by
Victor Yoon Gong-hee
Preceded by
Franz König
Cardinal Protopriest
13 March 2004 –16 February 2009
Succeeded by
Eugênio Sales