Stephen V of Hungary
|Spouse||Elizabeth the Cuman|
|Elizabeth, Queen of Serbia
Catherine, Queen of Serbia
Mary, Queen of Naples
Anne, Byzantine Empress
Ladislaus IV of Hungary
Andrew, Duke of Slavonia
|Father||Béla IV of Hungary|
|Born||October 18, 1239
Buda, Kingdom of Hungary
|Died||August 6, 1272 (aged 33)
Csepel Island, Kingdom of Hungary
|Burial||Margaret Island, Dominican church|
In the second year following his birth, on 11 April 1241, the Mongolian troops defeated his father's army in the Battle of Mohi. After the disastrous battle, the royal family had to escape to Trogir, a well-fortified city in Dalmatia. They could only return to Hungary after the unexpected withdrawal of the Mongol forces from Europe.
Junior King of Hungary
In 1246 Stephen was crowned as junior King and his father entrusted him with the government of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, but the three provinces were de facto governed by the Ban Stephen Gut-Keled. Stephen's father, attempting to bind the powerful but pagan Cuman tribes more closely to the dynasty, arranged for Stephen's marriage, as a youth (about 1253), to Elizabeth, the daughter of a Cuman chieftain Köten.
In 1257, Stephen demanded that his father divide the kingdom between themselves and recruited an army against the senior king. Finally, in 1258, King Béla IV was obliged to cede to his son the government of Transylvania, with the title duke.
Duke of Styria
Stephen took part in his father's military campaign against the Styrians, who had rebelled against the rule of the King of Hungary, in 1258. After the successful campaign, King Béla IV appointed him to Duke of Styria.
His government, however, was unpopular among his new subjects, who rebelled against him with the support of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. Stephen and his father started an attack against Ottokar's lands, but their troops were defeated on 12 July 1260 in the Battle of Kroissenbrunn. Following the battle, the two Kings of Hungary ceded the Duchy of Styria to the King of Bohemia in the Peace of Pressburg.
Struggles with his father
Shortly after the peace, Stephen took over the government of Transylvania again. In 1261, Stephen and his father conducted a joint military campaign against Bulgaria, but their relationship became more and more tense, because the senior king had been favouring his younger son, Duke Béla of Slavonia and his daughter, Anna, the mother-in-law of the King of Bohemia.
Finally, with the mediation of Archbishops Philip Türje and Smaragd of Kalocsa, Stephen and his father signed an agreement in the summer of 1262 in Pozsony. Based on their agreement, Stephen took over the government of the parts of the kingdom East of the Danube. However, the two kings' reconciliation was only temporary, because their partisans were continuously inciting them against each other. In 1264, Stephen seized his mother's and sister's estates in his domains, but his father sent troops against him. Stephen's wife and son were captured by his father's partisans, and he had to retreat to the castle of Feketehalom. However, he managed to repel the siege and to commence a counter-attack.
In March 1265, he gained a strategic victory over his father's army in the Battle of Isaszeg. After his victory, he concluded a peace with King Béla IV. Based on the provisions of the peace, he received back the government of the Eastern parts of the kingdom. On 23 March 1266, father and son confirmed the peace in the Convent of the Blessed Virgin on the Nyulak szigete ('Rabbits' Island'). Shortly afterwards, Stephen V led his army to Bulgaria and forced Despot Jakob Svetoslav of Vidin to accept his overlordship.
In 1267, the "prelates and nobles" of the Kingdom of Hungary held a joint assembly in Esztergom, and their decisions were confirmed by both Stephen and his father.
To secure foreign support, he formed a double matrimonial alliance with the Angevins, chief partisans of the pope. The first of these was the marriage, in 1270, of his daughter Maria to the future King Charles II of Naples The second alliance was the marriage of Stephen's infant son, Ladislaus to Charles II's sister Elisabeth.
King of Hungary
After his father's death (3 May 1270), Stephen inherited the whole Kingdom of Hungary, although the deceased senior king had entrusted his daughter, Anna and his followers to King Ottokar II of Bohemia in his last will, and they had escaped to Prague before Stephen arrived to Esztergom.
Before his (second) coronation, Stephen granted the County of Esztergom to the Archbishop. In August 1270, Stephen had a meeting with his brother-in-law, Prince Bolesław V of Poland in Kraków where they concluded an alliance against the King of Bohemia. In September 1270 he visited the village Miholjanec, where was discovered an unknown ancient castle and a sword, this sword he got as a gift, in which he and his priests acknowledged the "Holy War Sword of the Scythians" and he saw that he was determined to master the world. He attended the place of the find, where he met a hermit who told him: "Scourge of God". Stephen also had a meeting with Ottokar on 16 October on an island of the Danube near Pozsony where they concluded a truce for two years.
However, following smaller skirmishes on the border, the war broke out soon after and the King of Bohemia lead his armies against Hungary. Stephen was defeated in two smaller battles, but finally won a decisive victory on 21 May 1271 over the Czech and Austrian troops of Ottokar II of Bohemia. In the subsequent peace the King of Bohemia handed back the fortresses occupied during his campaign, while Stephen renounced his claim to the Hungarian royal treasury that his sister, Anna had taken to Prague after their father's death.
In the summer of 1272, Stephen left for Dalmatia, where he wanted to meet King Charles I of Sicily, when he was informed that Joachim Gut-Keled had kidnapped his infant son, Ladislaus, and hid in Koprivnica. Stephen was planning to raise an army to rescue his infant son when he died suddenly.
Marriage and children
- Elizabeth (1255–1313/1326), wife firstly of Záviš of Falkenštejn and secondly of King Stefan Uroš II Milutin of Serbia
- Catherine (1255/1257 – after 1314), wife of King Stefan Dragutin of Serbia
- Maria (c. 1257 – 25 March 1325), wife of King Charles II of Naples
- Anna (c. 1260 – c. 1281), wife of the Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos
- King Ladislaus IV (August 1262 – 10 July 1290)
- Andrew, Duke of Slavonia (1268–1278)
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012)|
|Ancestors of Stephen V of Hungary|
King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Bulgaria, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Cumania; Duke of Styria (1258–1260)
- Stephen V. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 16, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/565442/Stephen-V
- Maria and Charles became the grandparents of King Charles I of Hungary, who ascended the throne, following a long struggle with his opponents, when the male line of the Árpád dynasty extinguished.
- Kristó, Gyula - Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói (IPC Könyvek, 1996)
- Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század), főszerkesztő: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)
- Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig, főszerkesztő: Benda, Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of Árpád dynasty, including him and his siblings". Genealogy.EU.
- Cawley, Charles, His listing . The project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies, necrologies and testaments.", Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stephen V of Hungary.|
Stephen V of HungaryBorn: before 18 October 1239 Died: 6 August 1272
Title last held byBéla
|Duke of Transylvania
Title next held byStephen
|Duke of Styria
|King of Hungary and Croatia