Sting in 2007.
|Birth name||Steve Borden|
|Ring name(s)||Blade Runner Flash
|Billed height||6 ft 2.8 in (1.90 m)|
|Billed weight||250 lb (110 kg)|
March 20, 1959 |
|Billed from||Venice Beach, California|
|Trained by||Bill Anderson
|Debut||November 28, 1985|
Steve Borden (born March 20, 1959), better known by his ring name Sting, is an American professional wrestler, signed with Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) and best known for his time spent with World Championship Wrestling (WCW).
Sting is a 14-time world heavyweight champion, having held the NWA World Heavyweight Championship twice, the WCW World Heavyweight Championship six times, the WCW International World Heavyweight Championship twice and the TNA World Heavyweight Championship four times. He is a WCW Triple Crown winner, has held 21 total championships between WCW and TNA, and is the only man to hold the NWA, WCW, and TNA World Titles in his career. Sting has headlined many major pay-per-views during his career. Perhaps most notably, he closed the 1989, 1990 and 1997 editions of WCW's premier annual event, Starrcade, in singles matches, and won the Battebowl main event of the 1991 edition.
Despite negotiations, Borden has never signed a contract with WWE, and the final episode of WCW Monday Nitro on March 26, 2001 marks his only live appearance on a WWE television program. Owing to his loyalty to the now-defunct promotion, Sting came to be known as "The Franchise of WCW" during the 1990s. WWE has named Sting the greatest superstar in WCW history, and described him as "one of the most popular and respected competitors of all time." Two years after WCW's closing Sting signed with TNA where he was announced as the inaugural inductee into the TNA Hall of Fame in June 2012. Pro Wrestling Illustrated readers voted Borden "Most Popular Wrestler of the Year" a record four times (a record which he shares with John Cena).
Professional wrestling career 
Continental Wrestling Association (1985–1986) 
Borden, originally wrestling under the ring name Flash, teamed with Jim "Justice" Hellwig as Power Team USA in the Continental Wrestling Association, a wrestling company based in Memphis, Tennessee. Fans were slow to respond to the lumbering hulks, so the team turned heel and became known as the Blade Runners. Borden changed his ring name from Flash to Sting, while Hellwig became known as rock. The Blade Runners left the CWA after an uneventful run.
Universal Wrestling Federation (1986–1987) 
The Blade Runners surfaced in the Universal Wrestling Federation, an organization run by Bill Watts and based in Shreveport, Louisiana. Hellwig, who would later become The Ultimate Warrior in the World Wrestling Federation (now WWE), left the promotion in mid-1986, leaving Sting without a partner. Sting joined Hotstuff & Hyatt International, a heel stable headed by "Hot Stuff" Eddie Gilbert and Missy Hyatt. Sting won the UWF World Tag Team Championship twice with Gilbert in 1986 and a third time with Rick Steiner in 1987.
Following a match against Terry Taylor in mid-1987, Gilbert interfered on Taylor's behalf, costing Sting the match. Taylor and Gilbert ganged up on Sting until Gentleman Chris Adams came to Sting's aid. Adams cleared the ring and then asked Sting if he was with him or against him in his feud with Taylor and Gilbert. Sting turned face by declaring his allegiance to Adams.
Behind the scenes, Gilbert endorsed Borden by telling a dirt sheet that Sting would be a megastar in the future. Later that year, Sting was tabbed to win the UWF Television Championship, then held by Gilbert, until Jim Crockett of the National Wrestling Alliance bought the company from Watts. Crockett's booker, Dusty Rhodes, decided to put the Television title on Taylor to set up a feud between Taylor and NWA Television Champion Nikita Koloff to unify the two titles. Rhodes used then-unknown Shane Douglas as the transitional champion from Gilbert to Taylor because Rhodes did not want to diminish Sting's growing stardom with a brief title run.
National Wrestling Alliance / World Championship Wrestling 
A rising star (1987–1989) 
Sometime after Sting's arrival to the NWA in July 1987, Dusty Rhodes used the opening bout of Crockett's first foray into pay-per-view, Starrcade '87, to showcase the young superstar. Sting partnered with Michael P.S. Hayes and Jimmy Garvin in a six-man tag team match against Gilbert, Steiner, and Larry Zbyszko that ended in a 15-minute time-limit draw.
Having established himself as a rising star, Sting was one of the few UWF alumni to be pushed in the NWA. At the inaugural Clash of the Champions in March 1988, Sting challenged Ric Flair for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. The match ended in a draw after the 45-minute time limit expired and the ringside judges could not declare a winner. Sting lost to Flair in several non-televised rematches following the Clash and, later that year, battled other members of Flair's stable, the Four Horsemen. Sting teamed with Koloff at The Great American Bash in July 1988 to challenge Horsemen Tully Blanchard and Arn Anderson for the NWA World Tag Team Championship; Blanchard and Anderson retained the titles when the match ended in a 20-minute time-limit draw.
Rhodes continued to book Sting in title matches throughout the year against both NWA United States Champion Barry Windham and NWA Television Champion Mike Rotundo. In the fall of 1988, Sting was attacked by Hawk and Animal of the Road Warriors after a televised match. Rhodes, as booker, identified Sting as the face who was most over with the fans, despite knowing that turning the Road Warriors heel would be no easy task. Rhodes himself teamed with Sting to challenge the Road Warriors for the tag team championship at Starrcade '88 that December. Rhodes and Sting got the win by disqualification, allowing the Road Warriors to retain the titles.
Sting returned to singles matches in 1989, starting the year off by wrestling Flair to a one-hour draw in Atlanta's Omni on New Year's Day. He would also have his first experience in Japan with a brief tour in All Japan Pro Wrestling, with his most notable match in AJPW against Dan Spivey on January 25. After a long push, Sting won his first title in the NWA when he defeated Rotundo for the NWA Television Championship at a live event in March. Sting defended the Television title actively but tended to face sub-par challengers such as the Iron Sheik. In mid-1989, The Great Muta challenged Sting at The Great American Bash. The match was booked with a classic, controversial Dusty Finish even though Rhodes (the namesake of the technique) had been fired months earlier. Sting got the three-count and was announced as the winner, but a replay showed Muta's shoulder was up at the count of two. The NWA decided to declare the title vacant. Sting and Muta battled in many rematches for the vacant Television title, but they always ended in disqualification, giving neither man the championship. Eventually, Muta won a No Disqualification match against Sting at a live event in September by using a blackjack to get the win and the title.
In the main event of that year's Great American Bash, Flair defended the NWA World Heavyweight Championship against Terry Funk, who was a member of Gary Hart's J-Tex Corporation. After Flair got the victory, he was attacked by Funk's stablemate, Muta. Sting came to the aid of his old rival Flair, and the two feuded with Muta and Funk for the rest of the summer and fall, culminating in a Thunderdome Cage match between the two teams, which Flair and Sting won, at Halloween Havoc '89. The alliance with Flair resulted in Sting joining the newly reformed and now-face Four Horsemen along with the Andersons, Arn and Ole.
Sting finished out the year by winning a four-man round-robin Iron Man tournament at Starrcade '89. In the final match of the night, Sting defeated Flair to accumulate the necessary points to win the tournament. The victory made Sting the number one contender for Flair's NWA World title, leading to tension within the Four Horsemen.
Feuding with the Horsemen (1990–1991) 
Sting was summarily dismissed from the Four Horsemen on February 6, 1990, at Clash of the Champions X: Texas Shootout after refusing to relinquish his title shot against Flair, thus restarting their rivalry. Later that evening, Borden suffered a legitimate knee injury while interfering in a Steel Cage match featuring the Horsemen.
Borden's injury forced the bookers of World Championship Wrestling, the dominant promotion in the NWA, to find a new opponent for Flair for the forthcoming WrestleWar pay-per-view event. Lex Luger was chosen to challenge Flair at WrestleWar. During the match between Flair and Luger, Sting came down to motivate Luger to come back and beat Flair. Before this Sting and Luger had been at odds. When Luger was close to winning Sting was attacked by Ole Anderson. Luger opted to save the already injured Sting and ended up losing the match by countout while assisting his friend. Behind the scenes, WCW officials had wanted Flair to drop the title to Luger at WrestleWar, but Flair refused, saying he had promised Borden he would hold the title until Borden could return to the ring.
After Borden's recovery, Sting finally defeated Flair for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship on July 7, 1990, at the The Great American Bash. Sting went on to feud with title contenders Flair and Sid Vicious. Vicious appeared to defeat Sting in a title match at the 1990 Halloween Havoc, but the "Sting" that Vicious pinned was revealed to be an impostor played by Horseman Barry Windham. The real Sting appeared soon after and pinned Vicious to retain his title after the match was restarted.
During Sting's title run, a masked man known as The Black Scorpion would taunt and attack Sting on many occasions. This feud culminated in a final showdown between Sting and The Black Scorpion at Starrcade: Collision Course in December. The cage match ended with Sting pinning and unmasking the Scorpion, who turned out to be Flair in disguise.
The Franchise of WCW (1991–1995) 
Sting's first world championship reign ended January 11, 1991, when Flair defeated him in a rematch from Starrcade. In the same month, WCW seceded from the National Wrestling Alliance, in the process recognizing a WCW World Heavyweight Championship and a WCW World Tag Team Championship.
Sting took part in what many consider to be one of the best matches of 1991, teaming with Luger to face The Steiner Brothers at the first SuperBrawl pay-per-view. The Steiners won by pinfall after Koloff, who had been feuding with Luger, interfered in the match by swinging a chain at Luger but hitting Sting instead. Consequently, Sting feuded with Koloff throughout the summer of 1991.
In August 1991, Sting defeated "Stunning" Steve Austin to win a tournament for the vacated WCW United States Championship. Sting held the title for 86 days before losing it to Rick Rude at Clash of the Champions XVII.
At the end of 1991, Sting became embroiled in a feud with the Dangerous Alliance, headed by manager Paul E. Dangerously. The stable targeted Sting because he was the so-called "franchise" of WCW, and the Alliance vowed to destroy both Sting and the promotion he was the face of. At the same time, Sting was being targeted by Luger, who had once again turned heel and, as WCW Champion, viewed Sting as a threat. Sting engaged in many matches with Dangerous Alliance members, especially Rude, who was the group's biggest star. It was during this feud that Sting won the first of his six WCW World Heavyweight Championships, defeating Luger on February 29, 1992, at SuperBrawl II. The feud ended when Sting formed Sting's Squadron, consisting of allies Ricky Steamboat, Dustin Rhodes, Windham, and Koloff, and defeated the Alliance (Rude, Austin, Arn Anderson, Zbyszko, and Bobby Eaton) in a WarGames match at WrestleWar in May 1992; wrestling observer Dave Meltzer awarded the match his highest rating of five stars.
Near the end of Sting's battles with the Dangerous Alliance, the seeds were sown for what became arguably one of the most famous feuds of Sting's career. Sting defended his WCW World title April 12, 1992, at The Omni in Atlanta against the 450-pound Big Van Vader. During the match, Vader splashed Sting, cracking three of Sting's ribs and rupturing his spleen. Sting recovered and defended his title July 12 against Vader at The Great American Bash, dropping the belt to Vader after missing a Stinger Splash, hitting his head on the ringpost, and receiving a powerbomb. After beating Cactus Jack in a Falls Count Anywhere match at Beach Blast and WCW newcomer Jake Roberts in a Coal Miner's Glove match at Halloween Havoc, Sting defeated Vader, who had lost the WCW championship in August, in the "King of Cable" tournament final at Starrcade.
The Sting-Vader feud continued into 1993, with Vader, who was again WCW Champion, defeating Sting in a bloody Strap match at SuperBrawl III. Sting exacted revenge by beating Vader for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship on March 11 in London, England, but lost it back to Vader six days later in Dublin, Ireland. Sting then teamed with WCW newcomer Davey Boy Smith to beat the team of Vader and Vicious at Beach Blast in a match that was set up by a mini-movie in which an evil midget blew up Sting's boat. At the end of 1993, Sting was one of the first people to congratulate Flair, who had just returned from the World Wrestling Federation, after his WCW World title victory over Vader at Starrcade.
Sting feuded with Vader and Rude through the first half of 1994. Sting won the WCW International World Heavyweight Championship from Rude in April. Rude recaptured the title May 1 in Japan, but the decision was reversed because Rude had allegedly hit Sting with the title belt during the match; this was to cover for a real-life back injury Rude sustained in the match that forced Rude into retirement. Sting refused to have the title handed to him and instead defeated Vader for the vacant WCW International World Heavyweight Championship at Slamboree. Soon afterward, Flair turned heel and defeated Sting in a title unification match at Clash of the Champions XXVII. Sting spent the second half of 1994 and most of 1995 teaming with new arrival Hulk Hogan in his battles against Kevin Sullivan's Three Faces of Fear and its successor stable, the Dungeon of Doom.
Sting was on the first ever WCW Monday Nitro in a match where Flair defeated Sting by disqualification as a result of a run-in by Arn Anderson to attack Flair. At Fall Brawl, Sting teamed with Hogan, Luger, and Randy Savage to defeat the Dungeon of Doom, consisting of Kamala, Zodiac, Shark, and Meng, in the event's WarGames match. In October 1995, Flair convinced Sting to team with him in a match against Anderson and Brian Pillman at Halloween Havoc. Anderson and Pillman had attacked Flair earlier in the night, rendering Flair unable to come out for the first part of the match. Sting fended off his opponents until Flair emerged. Later in the match, Flair turned on Sting and reformed the Four Horsemen with Anderson and Pillman, later adding Chris Benoit to fill out the group. Sting defeated Flair on a subsequent Nitro with the Scorpion Deathlock, refusing to let go until Luger persuaded him to do so. Sting defeated Flair again at the World War 3 pay-per-view. Later in the night, Sting competed in the World War 3 battle royal for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship, which was won by Savage. Sting's alliances with Hogan and Savage led the Horsemen to attack them as well.
Sting's second U.S. title reign lasted until November 13, when he was defeated by Kensuke Sasaki in Japan. At Starrcade, Sting defeated Sasaki, representing New Japan Pro Wrestling, in a non-title match to win the World Cup of Wrestling for WCW. In the next match that night, Sting lost a Triangle match involving Flair and Luger; Flair won by countout to become number one contender for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship, which Flair won from Savage in the next match.
A change in character and appearance (1996–1998) 
Early in 1996, Sting's appearance started to change: Borden grew longer, darker hair, replacing his blond flattop haircut, and he often wore black tights with a multi-colored scorpion, although he occasionally wore his colorful ones and maintained his colorful face paint.
Sting teamed with his old friend Luger, who had returned to WCW from WWF in September 1995, despite Luger's standing as a heel. The duo beat Harlem Heat for the WCW World Tag Team Championship on the January 22 edition of Nitro. The team often retained the championship as a result of Luger's cheating tactics, to which Sting remained oblivious. When Luger was temporarily unavailable for WCW Uncensored in March, Harlem Heat member Booker T teamed up with Sting to successfully prevent the title from changing hands. Sting and Booker T developed a mutual respect that showed itself when Sting and Luger granted Harlem Heat a rematch. During the Tag title run, Sting received a World title shot against The Giant at Slamboree in May, but lost after accidental interference from Luger. Harlem Heat eventually won the titles back on the June 24 edition of Nitro.
In the summer of 1996, Sting was the first to stand up to The Outsiders: Kevin Nash and Scott Hall, who had recently competed in the WWF and whose alliances and agenda were unclear, had been infiltrating and causing chaos at WCW events. Sting teamed with Luger and Savage to defend WCW against Hall, Nash, and a mysterious third Outsider to be revealed at the Bash at the Beach. Hall and Nash started the bout without their third partner, but the WCW's temporary three-on-two advantage was short-lived: Luger left the match after he was accidentally injured by a mistimed Stinger Splash. The two-on-two match continued while Hogan, who had been a fan favorite for over two decades, emerged at ringside. Hogan appeared ready to back up the WCW wrestlers until he attacked Savage with his leg drop finisher in one of wrestling's most famous swerves. The match was ruled a no-contest, and Hall, Nash, and Hogan declared a new world order in professional wrestling. The name stuck and Sting became one of WCW's stalwarts against the New World Order, or nWo for short.
As part of this, Sting and Luger went up to rivals and Four Horsemen members Ric Flair and Arn Anderson some time after Bash at the Beach and asked them to team with him, saying that they needed to put aside their differences for the good of WCW. Flair and Anderson agreed and the four wrestlers composed Team WCW for the annual WarGames match at Fall Brawl in September 1996. They would be facing the nWo's team of Hall, Nash, Hogan, and a fourth member yet to be determined. On the Nitro prior to the event, however, the nWo played a trick on WCW claiming that Sting was joining their side. A vignette was shown where the nWo had a recording of Sting's voice playing in its limousine as Luger was being lured into the parking lot. Once he was there a man dressed as Sting, played by Jeff Farmer, attacked him and the crowd at home was led to believe that Sting had joined up with the nWo and would be their fourth man against what was now a three-man WCW team. Sting, however, was not at that edition of Nitro and showed up at Fall Brawl just as his teammates declared that they would face the nWo by themselves. Sting told Luger that he did not attack him, but Luger refused to believe him. Later, during the match, Sting entered as the fourth and final man for Team WCW, after the impostor Sting had entered for the nWo. Once in the ring, Sting immediately took out all four members of the nWo. He then stopped, turned to Luger, and angrily said to him, "Is that proof enough for you right there?" Sting then gave Luger an obscene gesture and walked out of the match, leaving Team WCW at a four-on-three disadvantage which they did not overcome.
The next night on Nitro, Sting came out unannounced during the middle of the show with no music or entrance pyrotechnics. He entered the ring and, with his back turned to the camera side of the audience, launched into an angry tirade about what had transpired over the last week.
|“||Sting: I want a chance to explain something that happened last Monday night at Nitro. Last Monday night I was on an airplane flying from L.A. to Atlanta. When I got to Atlanta, I tuned in the TV to Nitro. And I thought I was watching a rerun! It was a very convincing film. Often imitated, but never duplicated though! And what else did I see? I saw people, I saw wrestlers, I saw commentators, and I saw best friends DOUBT...the Stinger. That's right, doubted the Stinger! So I heard Lex Luger say 'I know where he lives, I know where he works out, I'm gonna go get him.' So I said to myself, I'll just go into seclusion. I'll wait and see what happens on Saturday night, and I tuned in Saturday night, and what'd I see? More of the same...more DOUBT. Which brings me to Fall Brawl. I knew I had to get to Fall Brawl and get face to face with the Total Package to let him know that it wasn't me. And what I got out of that was, 'no Sting...I DON'T BELIEVE YOU STING!' Well, all I gotta say is I have been mediator, I have been babysitter for Lex Luger, and I've given him the benefit of the doubt about a thousand times in the last twelve months! And I've carried the WCW banner, and I have given my blood, my sweat, and my tears for WCW! So for all of those fans out there and all those wrestlers and people that never doubted the Stinger, I'll stand by you if you stand by me! But for all of the people, all of the commentators, all of the wrestlers, and all of the best friends who did doubt me, you can stick it! From now on I consider myself a free agent."||”|
After declaring he would be "popping in from time to time" afterwards, Sting threw the microphone down and left the ring.
Days after the infamous Nitro promo, he was booked for shows in New Japan Pro Wrestling, to take part in the Japan/U.S. Superstars Tournament, where he defeated Masahiro Chono in the first round, but was eliminated in the second round by Shiro Koshinaka. His last match of 1996 took place on September 23 at the Yokohama Arena, where he and Lex Luger teamed up to defeat Arn Anderson and Steven Regal. It would end up being his last tour of Japan.
On the October 21, 1996, edition of Nitro, Sting returned for the first time since the night after Fall Brawl. In a match where the impostor Sting was wrestling Mr. JL, Sting emerged wearing a trench coat and white face paint with black marks around his eyes. He went in the ring and attacked nWo Sting (who was still imitating Sting's old mannerisms at this point) while the rest of the nWo came to ringside, then simply stood by and watched. After Sting was done, Ted DiBiase and Kevin Nash came into the ring and made Sting an offer to join the nWo and get back at WCW for betraying him. Sting considered it briefly, saying that he might not be "in (the nWo's) price range", and then concluded by saying "the only thing that's for sure about Sting is that nothing's for sure." With that, Sting left the ring and would not speak (on mic) on WCW programming again for over a year.
After this a silent, almost ghostly Sting, carrying a baseball bat as a weapon, began appearing in the rafters at WCW events and began painting his entire face with black and white corpse paint. During this time the nWo Sting, still played by Farmer, began to adopt the same characteristics. Sting's new gimmick was inspired by the 1994 film The Crow. While appearing on a WCW/nWo merchandise special on QVC Sports in late 1999, Borden admitted that Hall had initially suggested the idea of painting his face like the character of Eric Draven from The Crow. Sting maintains aspects of his "Crow" persona as of 2013, occasionally with different designs and use of color of the face paint.
In a series of unusual loyalty tests over the next months, Sting would confront a WCW wrestler in the ring and shove the wrestler several times with his bat until the wrestler was provoked enough to advance on him. Then Sting would draw the weapon back as if he were going to assault him, causing the wrestler to stop. Sting would hand the bat to the offended wrestler and turn his back, offering the wrestler a chance at retaliation. When the wrestler hesitated or declined, Sting would nod, retrieve the bat, and leave the ring.
In January 1997, a "blackballed" Randy Savage returned to WCW for the first time since Halloween Havoc and aligned himself with Sting as a "free agent" as he refused to join the nWo although WCW Vice President Eric Bischoff, also one of the leaders of the nWo, declared he would not be alowed back in WCW if he didn't. For the next few weeks the two were seen in the rafters together and coming to the ring together. This story, however, petered out at SuperBrawl in February; Sting and Savage had come to the ring together to watch Roddy Piper face Hogan in a match for the WCW world title. As Sting left, Savage went to the ring and helped Hogan win the match, thus going back on his word and joining the nWo. This did not change Sting's character as he continued to stalk from the rafters.
At WCW Uncensored in March 1997, Sting finally made his decision as to where he was standing. As the nWo celebrated a victory in the main event battle royal which guaranteed them title shots whenever they desired with their newest recruit, Chicago Bulls NBA star Dennis Rodman, Sting rappelled from the roof of the arena on a vertical zip-line. As he stood there with his baseball bat Scott Hall entered the ring. Sting attacked him, then followed with an attack on Kevin Nash with the bat and finally he intercepted Savage coming off the top rope. He followed this by hitting the Scorpion Death Drop inverted DDT, his new finishing move, on all three men and pointed his bat at Hogan who was standing on the outside with Rodman. Hogan reluctantly went into the ring, then was met with the same treatment. These actions cemented Sting's allegiance to WCW.
In subsequent weeks, Sting frequently rappelled from the rafters or came up through the ring to attack unsuspecting nWo members, came to the aid of wrestlers once subjected to his loyalty test as they battled the nWo, and employed decoy "Stings" to play mind games with the nWo during the closing segments of Nitro. Sting's appearances to fight the nWo at the end of almost every Nitro helped WCW keep and widen its television ratings advantage over the WWF's Monday Night Raw throughout the summer. On-screen WCW commissioner James J. Dillon tried many times to get Sting to return to wrestling by making contracts to fight various nWo members. Sting, however, did not accept any of the contracts, often tearing them up in Dillon's face. A confused Dillon then asked Sting who he wanted on one edition of Nitro, and Sting went out to ringside, picked up a fan's sign, and pointed out one name on it: Hogan.
Eventually Sting got his wish and he and Hogan finally met in December at Starrcade for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship. During the course of the match the finish was botched, as the match's assigned referee Nick Patrick was accused of making a fast count by special guest referee from earlier in the evening Bret Hart. Hart restarted the match, declaring "this isn't going to happen again" (referencing the Montreal Screwjob that had affected Hart one month earlier at the WWF's Survivor Series event), and Sting won the match by forcing Hogan to submit with the Scorpion Death Lock. (Patrick, who was actually supposed to have made the fast count, did not do so).
The next night on Nitro, Hogan protested the decision and a rematch was granted. The match ran over Nitro's allotted time slot and the finish was aired later in the week on the inaugural episode of WCW Thunder. Similar to the Starrcade result, two different referees declared the two different men as the winner. Later that night, Dillon vacated the WCW World Championship, forcing Sting to surrender the belt. Sting responded with his first words (on mic) since October 1996 when he told Dillon, "You've got no guts!" Sting turned to Hogan and said, "And you... You're a dead man!"
As 1998 began, the nWo began to splinter. Sting recaptured the vacant WCW World Heavyweight Championship in February at SuperBrawl VIII with the help of Savage, who was beginning to split from the nWo. Sting went on to successfully defend the title against the likes of Hall, Nash, and Diamond Dallas Page (DDP). Like Savage, Nash began to pull away from the Hogan-dominated nWo, and Nash helped Savage beat Sting for the championship at Spring Stampede in April.
Nash and Savage officially split from the original nWo on May 4, forming the face group nWo Wolfpac, while Hogan's heel faction became identified as nWo Hollywood. The two nWo factions vied for Sting's allegiance, with Sting's friends The Giant joining nWo Hollywood and Luger joining nWo Wolfpac. Sting seemed to have joined nWo Hollywood when he appeared wearing a black and white nWo shirt, but Sting soon tore off the shirt to reveal the red and black of the nWo Wolfpac. Sting began sporting red and black face paint and tights as a member of nWo Wolfpac.
Sting and The Giant won the WCW World Tag Team Championship at Slamboree in May when Hall turned on his teammate Nash. Sting and The Giant also split, and the team was forced to vacate the title 18 days later. Sting then defeated The Giant at The Great American Bash in June to take control of the Tag Team titles and chose Nash as his partner. Throughout the summer, Sting and fellow nWo Wolfpac members Nash, Luger, and Konnan feuded with Hogan and nWo Hollywood. Sting also got involved in a feud with Bret Hart over their similar finishing holds, the Sharpshooter and the Scorpion Deathlock. Hart cost Sting and Nash the Tag titles by interfering in their match with Hall and The Giant on the July 20 Nitro. Sting and Hart squared off at Halloween Havoc, where Hart, the United States Champion, attacked Sting with a baseball bat, kayfabe putting Sting out of action for several months.
A final run in WCW (1999–2001) 
Sting returned to Nitro in March 1999, sporting the black and white Crow-inspired attire he debuted in 1996 and began to participate in more mic work. By this time, the nWo storyline had faded, and Sting was not aligned with any of its factions. Sting competed in the main event of April's Spring Stampede, a Four Corners match for the World Championship, against Hogan, DDP, and champion Flair. Savage served as special guest referee and delivered a diving elbow drop to help DDP win the match and the title.
Sting defeated Page on the April 26 edition of Nitro to win the WCW World Heavyweight Championship for the fifth time, Later that night, Sting defended the title in a four-way match featuring DDP, Goldberg, and a returning Nash. DDP pinned Nash, allowing DDP to win the title without directly beating Sting. Sting's 90-minute reign was the shortest World title reign in WCW history.
Sting lost to Rick Steiner in a Falls Count Anywhere match at The Great American Bash after he was attacked by Steiner's three pet dogs backstage and Steiner forced the referee to prematurely declare himself the victor, claiming his dogs had pinned Sting for him.
Over the next several months, Sting feuded with Goldberg, Rick Steiner, Vicious, and Savage. Sting teamed with WCW World Champion Nash at the Bash at the Beach in July to take on Vicious and Savage of Team Madness. Savage pinned Nash and won the World title as a result.
Hogan returned from injury on July 12 as a face to win the WCW World Championship. Sting defeated Flair on the July 19 edition of Nitro to become the on-screen president of WCW. Later that night, Nash turned heel by attacking Hogan during a title defense against Vicious. Sting remained president for just one week and used his power to book a main event pitting Hogan and himself against Nash and Vicious. Sting vacated the presidency the following week because he only wanted Flair out of the position rather than wanting the power for himself. Along with Goldberg, Sting and Hogan feuded with Nash, Vicious, and Rick Steiner for the next month.
Sting began to question Hogan's trustworthiness and credibility in the weeks leading up to Fall Brawl. At the September pay-per-view, Luger brought a baseball bat to the ring and Sting used it to beat Hogan for his sixth and final WCW World Heavyweight Championship, turning heel for the first time. Sting's heel turn and subsequent attitude change did not resonate with the WCW fans. They still cheered Sting despite the fact he was supposed to be the villain (reminiscent of The Road Warriors' heel turn in late 1988). At Halloween Havoc, Sting retained the title against Hogan after Hogan entered the ring in street clothes and laid down for Sting to pin him. After the match, Sting sounded his disdain of the result and issued an open challenge for later tonight. Later that night, Sting lost an unsanctioned match to Goldberg, who accepted his open challenge and then attacked referee Charles Robinson. Sting was stripped of the title the next night for attacking the official.
Sting entered the 32-man tournament that was set up to award the vacant World title. Sting defeated Brian Knobs, Meng, and Luger to reach the semi-finals to be held at WCW Mayhem. At the November event, Sting lost to Hart, the eventual winner of the tournament, after Luger hit Sting with a baseball bat. After the match, Sting shook hands with Hart in a sign of respect, turning face again. Sting sought revenge against Luger the next month at Starrcade. Sting won by disqualification when Luger and Elizabeth assaulted Sting with a steel chair and baseball bat, putting Sting out of action for some time. Sting ended his feud with Luger by defeating him in a Lumberjacks with Casts match at Uncensored 2000 the following March.
WCW officials Vince Russo and Eric Bischoff, in an attempt to save the fading company, rebooted the storylines on April 10, 2000, and declared all titles vacant. At Spring Stampede 2000 the following week, Sting advanced to the finals of the United States Championship tournament by defeating Booker T and Vampiro in the first two rounds. Vampiro cost Sting the championship in the finals against Scott Steiner, leading to an intense feud between Sting and Vampiro. Sting pinned Vampiro at Slamboree 2000 in May, and Vampiro beat Sting in a Human Torch match at The Great American Bash the next month; for the climax of the match, Borden switched with a stuntman, who was set on fire and thrown off the top of the frame of the stage's entrance video screen.
Sting went on to feud with Jeff Jarrett and then Scott Steiner. Steiner attacked and kayfabe injured Sting in November 2000. Sting stayed off WCW programming until the final episode of Nitro on March 26, 2001. WCW had been purchased by the WWF, and the final match in WCW history pitted Sting against his longtime rival Flair; the two had also competed in the main event of the very first edition of Nitro on September 4, 1995. Sting defeated Flair and the two embraced at the end of the contest, ending WCW and the 13-year, on-again/off-again feud between the two men.
Borden turned down a contract with the WWF, saying he "didn't trust how [Sting] was going to be used" by WWF Chairman Vince McMahon after seeing other former WCW employees having to "start from the bottom of the ladder again." Borden decided to let his contract with AOL/Time Warner expire, spending time with his family. WWE.com ranked him #1 on the list of WCW's Top 50 Superstars.
World Wrestling All-Stars (2002–2003) 
Borden returned to professional wrestling in late 2002, touring Europe with the World Wrestling All-Stars (WWA) throughout November and December. Sting's first match in the WWA was November 28, 2002, in Dublin, Ireland. Sting teamed with Luger to defeat Buff Bagwell and Malice. Luger, with help from Jarrett, defeated Sting on December 6 in Glasgow, Scotland, to win the vacant WWA World Heavyweight Championship. Sting got revenge by beating Luger to reclaim the WWA World Heavyweight Championship in Zürich, Switzerland, on December 13.
Sting toured Australia with the WWA in May 2003, successfully defending his championship against Rick Steiner, Douglas, and Disco Inferno. The WWA held its final show May 25 in Auckland, New Zealand. At the event, which aired June 8, 2003, on pay-per-view in the United States, NWA World Heavyweight Champion Jarrett, with assistance from Rick Steiner, defeated Sting to unify the titles.
Total Nonstop Action Wrestling 
Debut and sporadic appearances (2003–2004) 
In 2003, Sting signed a contract committing him to four appearances with the Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) promotion. He debuted in TNA on the June 18 one year anniversary show, teaming with Jeff Jarrett to defeat A.J. Styles and Syxx Pac. Following this, Borden engaged in a comprehensive series of sitdown interviews with Mike Tenay, discussing his career and his faith. Sting returned to TNA on November 5, 2003, defeating Jarrett by disqualification in a match for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. On November 12, Sting teamed with A.J. Styles to defeat Jarrett and Lex Luger. He made his final TNA appearance of 2003 on December 17, defeating Jarrett in a non-title match.
On March 24, 2004, Borden was interviewed once again by Mike Tenay as part of the promotion for his direct-to-video biographical film, Sting: Moment of Truth, and on March 31, he returned to the company one night only as the special guest enforcer for the main-event, a four way match between Abyss, A.J. Styles, Raven, and Ron Killings, which Raven won.
Return and feud with Jeff Jarrett (2005–2006) 
On December 11, 2005, at Turning Point, as Jeff Jarrett stood in the ring celebrating his victory, the lights in the arena went out as images of a scorpion—Sting's symbol— appeared on the arena screens, along with the date "January 15, 2006." Spotlights then illuminated the ring, revealing a chair bearing Sting's signature trench coat, boots, and a black baseball bat in the center of the ring. His return to TNA was officially announced one minute after midnight on the January 1, 2006 episode of Impact!.
At Final Resolution, Sting and Christian Cage defeated NWA World Heavyweight Champion Jeff Jarrett and Monty Brown after Sting pinned Jeff Jarrett following the Scorpion Death Drop. His heavily promoted return was greeted with chants of "welcome back" and "you've still got it" by the Orlando, Florida audience. TNA later revealed that Final Resolution was "by far the most-purchased TNA pay-per-view event in company history, breaking all previous numbers". On the January 28, 2006 episode of Impact!, Sting made his Spike TV debut and first appearance on national television in almost five years, coming to the ring at the end of the show to make a "major announcement." Sting noted that he had never had a chance to properly say goodbye to his fans. He then announced that Final Resolution had been "his goodbye", before thanking the TNA management and the fans. Sting then dropped his bat, with a spotlight appearing over it, and left the ring, shaking hands with various TNA wrestlers on his way up the ramp. With Sting gone, the storyline continued with Jeff Jarrett and Eric Young worrying that Sting had not actually retired and sending Alex Shelley to California to videotape Sting at home. Sting discovered Shelley filming, then walked up to Shelley's car and told him that he was going to show up at Destination X and confront Jeff Jarrett as "Steve Borden." Clad in "street clothes" and without facepaint Borden returned at Destination X, saving Christian Cage and Rhino as they were attacked by Jarrett's Army. He placed Jarrett in the Scorpion Deathlock, but was attacked by the debuting Scott Steiner shortly thereafter. In his first cable television match in five years, Sting defeated Eric Young on the April 13, 2006 episode of Impact!. After being attacked by Jarrett, Steiner, and America's Most Wanted. Sting was saved by A.J. Styles, Ron Killings, and Rhino, who he announced as his teammates in his Lethal Lockdown match with Jarrett's Army. At Lockdown, Sting, A.J. Styles, Ron Killings, and Rhino (billed as "Sting's Warriors") defeated Jarrett, Steiner, and America's Most Wanted after Chris Harris tapped out to the Scorpion Death Lock. Following Lockdown, Sting proceeded to seek out partners to help him defeat Jeff Jarrett and Scott Steiner for good. After bringing out Lex Luger, Buff Bagwell, and Rick Steiner as options, he settled on Samoa Joe. At Sacrifice, Sting and Samoa Joe defeated Jarrett and Steiner when Joe pinned Jarrett with a Muscle Buster. Still having proven unsuccessful at putting Jarrett away, Sting defeated Scott Steiner by disqualification to earn as spot in the King of the Mountain match at Slammiversary. Due to a confrontation with Christian Cage during the match, Sting was distracted, allowing crooked referee Earl Hebner to knock over the ladder both were on, sending both to the floor and allowing Jarrett to win. At Victory Road in July, a four-man Number One Contender match was held for a shot at Jeff Jarrett for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. During the match, Jeff Jarrett, disguised as a cameraman came into the ring with a bottle of gasoline and squirt it into Sting's eyes. Sting was taken by security into the back and as a result, taken out of the running for the number one contender match. As it continued as a 3-man contest, Sting returned to the ring with his head wrapped in bandages. After performing the Scorpion Death Drop on Scott Steiner, Sting pinned Steiner and won the number one contendership. After a confrontation with Christian Cage in the ring right after the match, they both shook hands, and Cage showed his respect for Sting. On August 13, 2006 at Hard Justice, however, Sting failed to win the NWA World Heavyweight Championship losing to Jeff Jarrett after Christian Cage turned heel and hit Sting with Jarrett's guitar. On the August 17, 2006 edition of Impact!, Sting stated that he wanted a rematch with Jeff Jarrett at Bound for Glory, TNA's biggest pay-per view of the year. Jarrett accepted the match, with the implication that Sting put his career on the line, a stipulation Sting accepted. Sting then retreated to train for what could have been his final match. Meanwhile Impact! began showing videos of Sting going through a so-called transformation with many biblical references. On October 22, 2006, in a Title vs. Career match at the Bound for Glory PPV, Sting returned debuting his new look, a hybrid of his surfer, Crow, and nWo Wolfpac styles, looking much leaner physically. He went on to claim his second NWA World Heavyweight title when Jarrett submitted to the Scorpion Deathlock marking the first major championship title Sting had won since 1999. With that victory, Sting became the oldest NWA World Heavyweight Champion of the TNA era, as well as the only person to ever win the title both before and after the inception of TNA.
Various feuds (2006–2008) 
He lost the title to "The Monster" Abyss at Genesis by disqualification after pushing aside the referee and pushing Abyss into a stack of tables covered in barbed wire. In the weeks following Genesis, Sting's feud with Abyss continued as he tried to get in Abyss' head by telling him he was being used by his satanic manager James Mitchell. Abyss was visibly affected by this, but remained by Mitchell's side. Sting's former friend Christian Cage and his bodyguard Tomko were also thrown in the mix, with Cage claiming he knew a dark secret in Abyss' past. The three finally met in a Three Way match for the NWA World Heavyweight title at Turning Point, with Abyss retaining the title. After Turning Point, Sting continued to try to convince Abyss he was nothing but a machine for Mitchell, and he got so far into Abyss that Abyss grabbed Mitchell by the throat, almost chokeslamming him on an edition of Impact!, but ultimately convinced himself not to.
As 2007 came along, Sting continued his feud with Abyss while trying to recapture the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. At Final Resolution, Sting faced off against Abyss and Christian Cage for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship but failed to win back the championship. On the January 24, 2007 edition of Impact!, Sting revealed after going through public records that Abyss shot his own father three times in the back, sending him into a coma. During the ensuing brawl throughout the Impact! Zone between Sting and Abyss, James Mitchell burned Sting's face with a fireball, sending Sting to the hospital. Sting, however, returned to defeat Abyss at Against All Odds in a "Prison Yard" match, and also would once again defeat Abyss at Destination X in a "Last Rites" match. On the March 22 edition of Impact!, Sting teamed with his enemy Abyss to face Christian Cage and A.J. Styles. During the match, Mitchell returned with a woman who Abyss recognized. Abyss then left with Mitchell and the woman, leaving Sting alone to fight Cage and Styles. The following week on Impact!, during a meeting between Sting and James Mitchell, it was revealed that the woman was Abyss' mother, and that she was the one who had actually shot Abyss' father, but Abyss took the blame to protect his mother. Later in the night, it was announced Abyss was added to the Lethal Lockdown match at Lockdown as part of Team Cage while Sting ended up joining Team Angle. At Lockdown, Sting (with the help of Jeff Jarrett) pinned Abyss to win the match and in the process end their bitter rivalry.
Due to his win, he was supposed to be facing Christian Cage for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship at Sacrifice, but the next week on Impact!, Kurt Angle challenged Sting for his number one contendership. After Team Cage interfered in the match, it was revealed that at Sacrifice there would be a three way match for the NWA World Heavyweight Championship between Sting, Kurt Angle, and Christian Cage. In the match, Sting tapped out to the Ankle Lock while pinning Cage (technically making him the first superstar to pin or force Cage to submit in TNA), so the title was vacated. After Christopher Daniels attacked Sting near the end his King of the Mountain qualifying match with Samoa Joe costing him the match, he began a short feud with "The Fallen Angel." At Slammiversary, Sting defeated Daniels with the Scorpion Death Drop.
After his feud with Daniels, Sting began teaming up with his former enemy, Abyss (who had recently turned face). Together at Victory Road, they defeated A.J. Styles and Tomko. While trying to help Abyss to win a match against A.J. Styles, Sting and Abyss were attacked by Christian's Coalition. Abyss was pulled under the ring and Sting was slammed into broken glass by Tomko, before Abyss emerged bleeding badly and was slammed into the broken glass and thumbtacks. The next week, Sting and Abyss got revenge by defeating Christian and A.J. Styles in a ladder match, in the process earning a contract that allowed them to pick the type of match between Abyss and Christian at Hard Justice. It was announced via TNA mobile that Abyss had selected "Doomsday Chamber of Blood" match. Sting's team won, with his partner Abyss pinning A.J. Styles to become the number one contender for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship.
On the August 30 edition of Impact!, Sting defeated Joe, AJ, and Christian in a Four-Way match to become the co-holder of the TNA World Tag Team Championship with Kurt Angle. Yet after only thirteen days, Sting and Angle lost the titles to Adam "Pacman" Jones and Ron "The Truth" Killings at No Surrender. During the match, Karen Angle claimed that Sting had slapped her. This led to a falling out between Sting and Kurt Angle and on the first two hour edition of Impact!, Kurt Angle was shown via satellite (kayfabe) stalking and assaulting Sting's son Garrett. It was announced that Sting would face Kurt Angle for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship at Bound for Glory. The match was billed as return to his roots for Sting, who enjoyed enormous popularity and success in the Atlanta based World Championship Wrestling earlier in his career. At Bound for Glory, Sting overcame interference by both Karen Angle and Kevin Nash to pin Kurt Angle after a Scorpion Death Drop to win the TNA World Heavyweight Championship. Sting lost the championship back to Kurt Angle on the October 25 edition of Impact (taped October 16). During the match, Kevin Nash came out and got a chair and sat down to watch; while outside of the ring, Kurt pushed Sting on to Kevin, and Sting turned around and gave Nash a right hand shot, which led to Nash interfering on Angle's behalf, which led to Angle winning the match and the title. Sting then challenged Angle to a rematch at Genesis in a tag team match. Angle was forced to Kevin Nash as his partner, while Sting's partner was a mystery until during the event where his partner was revealed to be Booker T. In the match, whoever scored the pinfall would win the TNA World Championship. Kurt Angle retained the TNA World Championship by pinning Sting. This would be the final TNA appearance of Sting in 2007 as he would take some time off to be with his family.
On the March 20 edition of Impact!, after a brawl between members of both Team Cage and Team Tomko, a promo aired at the end of the show indicating that Sting would return the next week on the first-ever live Impact! episode. Sting then made his official return on March 27, announcing that he would be a part of Team Cage for the Lethal Lockdown match at Lockdown. Later on the show, he teamed with members of Team Cage (Christian Cage, Kevin Nash, Rhino, and Matt Morgan) and defeated Team Tomko (Tomko, A.J. Styles, James Storm, and Team 3D) in a 5-man tag team match. Morgan was added when James Storm attacked Sting with a glass bottle after the match. Sting, however, later gained revenge by defeating Storm when Morgan threw him his baseball bat. Morgan then ripped off his referee shirt and revealed a Team Cage shirt, thus becoming the fifth member. At Lockdown, Team Cage defeated Team Tomko when Rhino Gored Storm to get the pinfall. After the tag titles were vacated, Jim Cornette held a Deuces Wild Tag Team Tournament to determine new champs. Four teams were already in the Sacrifice finals, while Cornette named eight wrestlers as the "Egotistical 8". Sting's partner was James Storm. At Sacrifice, they came up short due to not being able to get along, and towards the end, Sting slammed James on the mat and walked out. Sting was not seen after that except in an interview which talked about his career and his eventual retirement.
Main Event Mafia (2008–2009) 
At Victory Road, Booker T faced Samoa Joe for the TNA World Title. During the match, Sting tried to talk sense into Joe, as he was brutally beating Booker T, and was potentially heading towards a disqualification. Joe rebuked him, and Sting struck him with his trademark black baseball bat. Over the coming weeks, the feud between Joe and Booker intensified, with episodes ending with Booker T or Sharmell striking Samoa Joe with Sting's trademark bat as Impact! went off the air, leading to a question of whether Sting had turned on Samoa Joe and became a heel. Although still receiving a face reaction from the fans, Sting sided with Booker T. At Hard Justice, Sting attacked A.J. Styles after he and Kurt Angle wrestled a Last Man Standing match. Sting later announced why he attacked Joe and Styles by saying that the younger generation needed to learn about respecting veterans like Angle, Booker, and himself. He declared that he wouldn't retire until he had accomplished this mission. This led to mixed fan reactions, and sparked a feud between him and TNA World Heavyweight Champion Samoa Joe, as well as Jeff Jarrett who arrived to aid Samoa Joe and A.J. Styles by giving them his guitar as Sting had done with his bat.
At Bound for Glory IV, Sting challenged Samoa Joe for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship and was successful in claiming the title, after Kevin Nash returned and hit Joe with Sting's baseball bat. On October 23, Sting joined The Main Event Mafia (Kurt Angle, Booker T, Sharmell, Kevin Nash, Scott Steiner, and himself) and by doing so, he fully turned heel for the first time in years, although Sting did not participate in sneak attacks and did not get crowd pops, making him more a tweener (neutral character). He successfully defended the championship for 189 days, his longest world title reign for any organization. During this title reign, Sting made successful title defenses against the likes of AJ Styles, Rhino, Kurt Angle, and both members of Team 3D. At Lockdown 2009, he lost the title to Mick Foley inside the Six Sides of Steel. At Sacrifice, he pinned Kurt Angle to become the new Godfather of the Main Event Mafia. However, on the episode of Impact! following Slammiversary, Sting was attacked by his fellow Main Event Mafia members. The following week, he took his revenge upon the Mafia, when he attacked every member of the group and stole Angle's world heavyweight championship belt, becoming a fully fledged face as a result. At Victory Road, Sting faced Samoa Joe in a singles match. Later in the match, Taz made his TNA debut and helped Joe beat Sting. Sting then went on to challenge for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship in a triple threat match with Matt Morgan and Kurt Angle at Hard Justice. At No Surrender, Sting lost a five-way match for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship that also included Angle, Styles, Hernandez, and Matt Morgan. Instead of pinning Angle, he opted to attack Morgan, to allow Styles to pin Angle and become the new World Heavyweight Champion. As a token of gratitude, Styles offered to give him a title shot at the following month's PPV Bound for Glory in a match billed as possibly being Sting's retirement match. At the PPV, Styles defeated Sting to retain his title, ending Sting's undefeated streak at Bound for Glory. After the match he announced that he didn't know whether he would continue his career or not, Saying that "the way you fans are reacting right now, makes me wanna stay forever!" At the end of the year the match was voted the match of the year by the fans of TNA.
Deception (2010) 
On the January 4, 2010, live-three hour, Monday night edition of Impact! Sting returned to the Impact! Zone appearing in the rafters of the arena. Sting reappeared two months later on March 8, appearing as he was going to help a bloodied Hulk Hogan and Abyss during a match at the beginning of the show against A.J. Styles and Ric Flair. Instead he swung his baseball bat on Hogan and Abyss, turning Sting heel as a result. He was later defeated by the debuting Rob Van Dam. Sting would continuously attack Van Dam with his bat after the match, completing his heel turn by attacking security guards and Hulk Hogan. On the March 22 edition of Impact! Sting was announced as the captain of Team Flair in the annual Lethal Lockdown match, where they would meet Team Hogan, captained by Abyss. At Lockdown Team Flair (Sting, Desmond Wolfe, Robert Roode and James Storm) were defeated by Team Hogan (Abyss, Jeff Jarrett, Rob Van Dam and Jeff Hardy). On May 3, Sting explained his actions to Hogan and was later attacked from behind by Jeff Jarrett. At Sacrifice Sting assaulted Jarrett prior to their match and then dragged him in to the ring, where he managed to score a pinfall in seconds over his bloodied opponent, leaving him injured. On the following edition of Impact! the TNA Championship Committee ranked Sting number one in the rankings and as a result he was granted a shot at Rob Van Dam's World Heavyweight Championship at Slammiversary VIII. Sting then attacked Eric Bischoff with his baseball bat, biting the hand that fed him. Sting later promised that he would reveal the motives behind his actions after winning the World Heavyweight Championship. At Slammiversary VIII Jeff Jarrett made his return and cost Sting his title match against Rob Van Dam. After assaulting Jarrett from behind on the June 24 edition of Impact!, TNA president Dixie Carter suspended Sting for 30 days without pay the following week. Sting returned from his suspension on the August 5 edition of Impact!, wearing his nWo Wolfpac red face paint, and helping Kevin Nash, who had backed him up during his suspension, beat down Jarrett, Eric Bischoff and Hulk Hogan. On the September 2 edition of Impact! Sting defeated Jarrett in a singles match, after an interference from Nash. After the match Samoa Joe aligned himself with Jarrett and Hogan and drove Sting and Nash away. At No Surrender Joe and Jarrett defeated Sting and Nash in a tag team match, after Jarrett hit Sting with his own baseball bat. On the September 16 edition of Reaction, Sting and Nash were joined by D'Angelo Dinero, who claimed to have gotten inside information from Bischoff's secretary Miss Tessmacher, that would suggest that Sting and Nash were right about Hogan and Bischoff being up to something.
At Bound for Glory Sting, Nash and Dinero faced Jeff Jarrett and Samoa Joe in a handicap match, after Hulk Hogan, who was slated to team with Jarrett and Joe, was forced to pull out due to a back surgery. At the end of the match Jarrett abandoned Joe, and Sting, Nash, and Dinero tried to tell Joe this was what they were saying all along. Joe fought them anyway and ended up pinned by Nash. At the end of the event it was revealed that Sting had been right about Hogan and Bischoff all along, as they turned heel with Jarrett and Jeff Hardy as Abyss's "they", and in the process turned Sting, Nash and Dinero back to being faces. On the following edition of Impact!, Sting and Nash refused to join Hogan, Bischoff and their new group, Immortal, and walked out on TNA and Dixie Carter, noting that they had tried to warn her that Hogan and Bischoff would try to take over the company for their own gain, but she hadn't listened, meaning Sting was never a true villain his entire heel run. Borden's contract with TNA expired at the end of 2010.
The Insane Icon (2011–2012) 
Sting returned to TNA on February 24, 2011, at the tapings of the March 3 edition of Impact!, where he appeared as a surprise challenger and defeated Jeff Hardy to win the TNA World Heavyweight Championship for the third time. On March 13 at Victory Road, Sting successfully defended the title against Hardy in a No Disqualification rematch that lasted ninety seconds. The following month at Lockdown, Sting successfully defended the title against Mr. Anderson and Rob Van Dam in a three–way steel cage match. In May, Sting was allowed to pick his number one contender and chose Van Dam, whom he went on to defeat at Sacrifice. The following month at Slammiversary IX, Sting lost the TNA World Heavyweight Championship to Mr. Anderson, following outside interference from Eric Bischoff.
Over the next few weeks, Sting displayed a more maniacal character similar in look and style to Heath Ledger's portrayal of the Joker from the 2008 film The Dark Knight. On the July 14 edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting, now dubbed as the "Insane Icon", regained the TNA World Heavyweight Championship from Mr. Anderson, after Fortune and Kurt Angle, disguised as his clown minions, attacked each member of Immortal, preventing them from interfering in the match. He would go on to lose the title to Kurt Angle on August 7 at Hardcore Justice, after Angle hit him with a chair brought to the ring by Hulk Hogan. Sting continued tormenting head members of Immortal with his strange new personality, and on the August 18 edition of Impact Wrestling, his longtime rival Ric Flair made his return to TNA and challenged him to a match. Sting agreed to put his career on the line in the match in exchange for Flair promising to deliver him his long-awaited match with Hogan, should he be able to defeat him. On the September 1 edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting received a rematch against Angle for the World Heavyweight Championship, but was defeated following interference from special enforcer Hulk Hogan and the rest of Immortal. On September 11 at No Surrender, Hogan once again cost Sting the TNA World Heavyweight Championship in a three-way match, which also included Mr. Anderson. On the September 15 edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting defeated longtime rival Ric Flair to earn the right to face Hogan at Bound for Glory. On the October 6 edition of Impact Wrestling, after being exposed for his false claim of retiring and his secret ridicule of the fans, a furious Hogan impulsively agreed to hand TNA back to Dixie Carter, should Sting manage to defeat him at the pay-per-view. On October 16 at Bound for Glory, Sting defeated Hogan to bring Dixie Carter back to power. After the match, Hogan turned on Immortal and helped Sting overcome the odds in his battle with the stable. On the following edition of Impact Wrestling, Carter placed Sting in charge of the program. Sting returned to the ring on the December 22 and February 9, 2012, editions of Impact Wrestling, where he teamed up with Jeff Hardy to defeat TNA World Heavyweight Champion Bobby Roode and Bully Ray both times. On March 18 at Victory Road, Sting was defeated by Roode in a non-title No Holds Barred match. On the following edition of Impact Wrestling, Sting announced his resignation from the General Manager position, and handed the position over to Hulk Hogan. He later stated that he believe that Hogan could properly run TNA without the influence of Bischoff. On March 29, Dixie Carter announced that Borden had signed another contract extension with TNA.
Feuding with the Aces & Eights (2012–present) 
Sting returned to TNA on the May 24 episode of Impact Wrestling, attacking Bobby Roode. The following week, Sting defeated Roode in a non-title lumberjack match to earn a shot at his World Heavyweight Championship. On June 10 at Slammiversary, Sting was announced as the first person inducted into the TNA Hall of Fame the following October. Later, in the main event of the evening, Sting unsuccessfully challenged Roode for the TNA World Heavyweight Championship, after being hit with a beer bottle. Afterwards, Sting attacked Roode and dropped him on the entrance ramp with a Scorpion Death Drop. On the June 14 episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting's speech about the events of Slammiversary was interrupted, when he was attacked by three masked assailants. Sting returned four weeks later, but this time both he and Hulk Hogan were attacked by the same group of masked men, who had dubbed themselves the "Aces & Eights". While Hogan was recovering from his storyline injuries suffered in the attack, and a legitimate back surgery, Sting reclaimed the role of interim General Manager. On October 13, Sting was officially inducted into the TNA Hall of Fame. The following day at Bound for Glory, Sting teamed with Bully Ray in a tag team match, where they were defeated by the Aces & Eights, following interference from a man who was afterwards unmasked as Ray's longtime partner, the returning Devon. As a result of their win, the Aces & Eights earned full access to TNA. On the following episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting defeated Devon via disqualification, following interference from the Aces & Eights. On the November 8 episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting was sidelined with a storyline injury, after being put through a table and beaten with a ball peen hammer by DOC, a member of Aces & Eights. Sting returned on the January 3, 2013, episode of Impact Wrestling, saving Kurt Angle and Samoa Joe from Aces & Eights before beating the group down with a baseball bat. Sting wrestled his return match the following week, defeating Aces & Eights member Mike Knox after he injured Kurt Angle. Three days later at Genesis, Sting gained his revenge on DOC by defeating him in a singles match. On the February 7 episode of Impact Wrestling, Sting teamed up with Bully Ray to defeat Devon and DOC in a Tables match. On March 10 at Lockdown, Team TNA, consisting of Sting, Eric Young, James Storm, Magnus, and Samoa Joe defeated Aces & Eights, consisting of Devon, DOC, Garett Bischoff, Mike Knox, and Mr. Anderson in a Lethal Lockdown match. Sting return to Impact Wrestling on April 24 saving Hulk Hogan after teasing an apparent heel turn by pointing the bat at Hogan. After the two of them cleared the ring of Aces and Eights, Sting pointed his bat again at Hogan. On the May 2nd episode of Impact Wrestling, Hogan apologized to Sting, and the two reconciled. Sting defeated Matt Morgan later that night to become the number one contender to TNA World Heavyweight Champion Bully Ray.
Other media 
Borden starred in a pay-per-view only movie titled (1998), "The Real Reason (Men Commit Crimes). Borden was featured in a Sprite commercial in 1999. He also appeared in three episodes of the action-adventure series and Hulk Hogan vehicle Thunder in Paradise as the character Adam "Hammerhead" McCall. Borden made a guest appearance on Walker, Texas Ranger as biker and drug dealer Grangus in the episode "Unsafe Speed" He also appeared in Ready to Rumble (2000) as himself. He also appeared in the Christian film (2010), "The Encounter" as well as the lead actor in the tv movie "Shutterspeed" He made a brief cameo as Sting on an episode of Upright Citizens Brigade.
Personal life 
Borden became a born-again Christian in August 1998. He and his wife Sue have two sons, Garrett Lee and Steven, Jr. and a daughter named Gracie, who was born in 2000. Borden and Sue are now divorced. Borden's elder son Garrett attends Azusa Pacific University, where he plays college football as a running back. His son Steven attended Kilgore College, where he played tight end. On December 19, 2012, Steven committed to attend the University of Kentucky where he will play tight end on the football team.
In wrestling 
- Finishing moves
- Signature moves
- Diving clothesline
- Diving DDT
- Diving splash
- Inverted atomic drop
- Tombstone piledriver
- Military press slam
- One-handed bulldog
- Sleeper hold
- Stinger Splash – Innovated
- Vertical suplex, sometimes from the top rope
- Entrance themes
- "Castle Walls" by Styx (CWA / UWF; 1985–1986)
- "Fight For Your Right (To Party)" by Beastie Boys (UWF; 1986–1987)
- "Rattlesnake Whip" (JCP / WCW; 1987–1989)
- "Destruction" by Munetaka Higuchi (AJPW; 1989)
- "Turbo Charged" (WCW / NJPW; 1989–1996)
- "Man Called Sting" (WCW; 1993–1996)
- "Sting Theme" by WCW and Jimmy Hart (WCW; 1996-1999)
- "Wolfpac Theme" by WCW and Jimmy Hart (WCW; 1998, used while a member of the nWo Wolfpac)
- "Seek and Destroy (Live at Woodstock 1999)" by Metallica (WCW; 1999-2001)
- "Stingellica" (TNA; 2003–2004)
- "Yours" by TobyMac (TNA; 2005–2006)
- "Slay Me" by Dale Oliver (TNA; 2006–present)
- "Main Event Mafia" by Dale Oliver (TNA; used while a member of the Main Event Mafia)
Championships and accomplishments 
- Jim Crockett Promotions / World Championship Wrestling
- NWA World Heavyweight Championship (1 time)1
- NWA World Television Championship (1 time)
- WCW International World Heavyweight Championship (2 times)
- WCW United States Heavyweight Championship (2 times)
- WCW World Heavyweight Championship (6 times)
- WCW World Tag Team Championship (3 times) – with Lex Luger (1), The Giant (1), and Kevin Nash (1)
- Battlebowl Battle Royal (1991)
- European Cup (1994, 2000)
- Iron Man Tournament (1989)
- Jim Crockett, Sr. Memorial Cup (1988) – with Lex Luger
- King of Cable Tournament (1992)
- Third WCW Triple Crown Champion
- Pro Wrestling Illustrated
- PWI Comeback of the Year (2006, 2011)
- PWI Match of the Year(1991) with Lex Luger vs. the Steiner Brothers at SuperBrawl
- PWI Most Improved Wrestler of the Year (1988)
- PWI Most Inspirational Wrestler of the Year (1990)
- PWI Most Popular Wrestler of the Year (1991, 1992, 1994, 1997)
- PWI Wrestler of the Year (1990)
- PWI ranked him #1 of the top 500 singles wrestlers in the PWI 500 in 1992
- PWI ranked him #15 of the top 500 singles wrestlers of the "PWI Years" in 2003
- PWI ranked him #52 of the Top 100 Tag Teams of the "PWI Years" with Lex Luger in 2003
- Total Nonstop Action Wrestling
- NWA World Heavyweight Championship (1 time)2
- TNA World Heavyweight Championship (4 times)
- TNA World Tag Team Championship (1 time) – with Kurt Angle
- Inspirational Superstar of the Year (2007)
- TNA Match of the Year (2007) vs. Kurt Angle at Bound for Glory, October 14, 2007
- TNA Match of the Year (2009) vs. A.J. Styles at Bound for Glory, October 18, 2009
- TNA Hall of Fame (Class of 2012)
- Universal Wrestling Federation
- World Wrestling All-Stars
- Wrestling Observer Newsletter awards
- Best Babyface (1992)
- 5 Star Match (1991) with Brian Pillman, Rick Steiner, and Scott Steiner vs. Ric Flair, Larry Zbyszko, Barry Windham, and Sid Vicious (February 24, WarGames match, WrestleWar)
- 5 Star Match (1992) with Nikita Koloff, Ricky Steamboat, Barry Windham, & Dustin Rhodes vs. Arn Anderson, Rick Rude, Steve Austin, Bobby Eaton, & Larry Zbyszko (May 17, WarGames match, WrestleWar)
- Match of the Year (1988) vs. Ric Flair at Clash of the Champions I
- Most Charismatic (1988, 1992)
- Most Improved (1988)
- Worst Worked Match of the Year (1995) vs. Tony Palmore at Battle 7
- Worst Worked Match of the Year (2011) vs. Jeff Hardy at Victory Road
1Won while the NWA World Heavyweight Title was defended in World Championship Wrestling when WCW was part of the National Wrestling Alliance. The same goes for any other NWA championship or honor won after November 1988.
2Won while TNA obtained the sole rights to use the NWA World Heavyweight Championship through an agreement with the NWA.
See also 
- "Sting official TNA profile". Total Nonstop Action Wrestling. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
- "Wrestling Timeline: Sting". The Wrestler/Inside Wrestling (Kappa Publications). 2007-06. pp. 66–71. Volume 15, 2007.
- "Sting's bio". SLAM sports. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- Meltzer, Dave (February 7, 2011). "Feb. 7 Observer Newsletter: Royal Rumble 2011, Road to Mania, MIstico to WWE, Goldsmith done, more". Wrestling Observer Newsletter (Campbell, CA): 3. ISSN 10839593. "Regarding Sting, he didn't sign with TNA. I guess because it was on Raw, and built to a date for a live Raw in Fresno (which people thought was only a few hours from where Sting lives, but Sting actually moved from Santa Clarita, CA to Dallas last year) and people saw Nash and Booker, they came up with the idea the videos were to introduce Sting."
- "Sting profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
- Giri, Raj. "Sting Talks Regretting Not Doing WrestleMania, Wants Match With Undertaker". Wrestling Inc. February 4, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
- Peddycord, Matt. WCW Monday Nitro, June 3, 1996 - review. The Powerdriver. May 31, 2009. Archived at The History of WWE.
- World Championship Wrestling. WCW: The Ultimate Guide. DK Books. 2000. (p.130)
- Sting profile. WWE. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- The 50 Greatest Stars in WCW History: Sting. WWE. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Most Popular Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Retrieved 2008-06-26.[dead link]
- Molinaro, page 196.
- Molinaro, page 197.
- "Robocop - Or Should that be RoboCrap?". Robocoparchive.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Foley, Mick. Have a Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks (p.223)
- "nWo Original Profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "New World Order History". Wrestling Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "Fall Brawl 1996 results". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- Brady, Hicks. "2006: The year in wrestling". 2007 Wrestling Almanac and book of facts (Kappa Publications). p. 16. 2007 Edition.
- Sokol, Chris (2008-04-18). "TNA Lockdown:Joe captures gold". Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
- Meltzer, Dave. "TNA Victory Road PPV report". Wrestling Observer/Figure Four Online. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
- "Hard Justice Pay-Per-View Results". TNAWrestling.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- Caldwell, James (2009-09-20). "Caldwell's TNA No Surrender PPV Report 9/20: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Kurt Angle vs. Sting vs. Matt Morgan vs. A.J. Styles". PWTorch. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- "Impact: Bound for Glory takes shape". SLAM! Sports. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Caldwell, James (2009-10-20). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV Report 10/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of the second-half of the show with Styles vs. Sting". PWTorch. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
- Boutwell, Josh (2010-01-01). "Impact Results - 12/31/09". WrestleView. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- Keller, Wade (2009-01-04). "Keller's TNA Impact Live Report 1/4: Jeff Hardy, NWO reunion, Hulk Hogan, TNA Knockout Title match, more surprises - ongoing coverage". PWTorch. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- Keller, Wade (2010-03-08). "TNA IMPACT RESULTS 3/8: Keller's live ongoing report covering the historic beginning of Monday Night War II". PWTorch. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (2009-10-22). "WILKENFELD'S TNA IMPACT REPORT 3/22: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". PWTorch. Retrieved 2009-10-23.
- Caldwell, James (2010-04-18). "Caldwell's TNA Lockdown Results 4/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of PPV - Styles vs. The Pope, Team Hogan vs. Team Flair, Angle vs. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- Keller, Wade (2010-05-03). "TNA Impact Results 5/3: Keller's ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live show from Orlando". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- Caldwell, James (2010-05-16). "Caldwell's TNA Sacrifice results 5/16: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of PPV - RVD vs. Styles, Jeff Hardy vs. Mr. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-05-16.
- Keller, Wade (2010-05-20). "TNA Impact results 5/20: Keller's ongoing "virtual time" coverage of show on Spike TV including Top Ten Contenders revealed". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- Caldwell, James (2010-06-13). "Caldwell's TNA Slammiversary results 6/13: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - RVD vs. Sting, Hardy & Anderson, "nice surprise"". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (2010-06-24). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 6/24: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- Keller, Wade (2010-07-01). "TNA Impact rseults 7/1: Keller's ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV show - Abyss vs. Hardy, RVD refs". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (2010-08-05). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 8/5: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (2010-09-02). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 9/02: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast (updated)". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
- Caldwell, James (2010-09-05). "Caldwell's TNA No Surrender PPV results 9/5: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Angle vs. Hardy, Pope vs. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
- Caldwell, James (2010-09-16). "Caldwell's TNA Reaction TV report 9/16: Complete "virtual time" coverage of show following Impact". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
- Boutwell, Josh (2010-09-24). "Impact Results - 9/23/10". WrestleView. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
- Caldwell, James (2010-10-10). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV results 10-10-10: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Angle vs. Anderson vs. Hardy, "they" reveal". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (2010-10-14). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 10/14: Complete "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV's live broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- Meltzer, Dave (January 17, 2011). "Jan 17 Observer Newsletter: Lesnar TUF season, Genesis and DGUSA, HBK Hall of Fame, Gage arrest, etc". Wrestling Observer Newsletter (Campbell, CA): 31. ISSN 10839593. "Eric Bischoff on the Monday Night Mayhem radio show said he doesn't know what is up regarding Sting other than saying that Sting has told him it has gotten harder, to physically perform at the level he would like to. Sting turns 52 in March. His contract expired at the end of the year."
- Martin, Adam (2011-02-24). "Spoiler: Title change at Impact taping for March 3". WrestleView. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- Caldwell, James (2011-03-03). "Caldwell's TNA Impact report 3/3: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of Impact on Spike TV - Hogan, wedding, 3/3/11 reveal, Tag Title match, retirement match, celebrities". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Caldwell, James (2011-03-13). "Caldwell's TNA Victory Road PPV results 3/13: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Sting vs. Hardy TNA Title match". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
- Caldwell, James (2011-04-17). "Caldwell's TNA Lockdown PPV results 4/17: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live all-cage match PPV - Sting vs. Anderson vs. RVD, Angle vs. Jarrett". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- Caldwell, James (2011-05-15). "Caldwell's TNA Sacrifice PPV results 5/15: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Sting vs. RVD, four title matches, Chyna PPV return". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Caldwell, James (2011-06-12). "Caldwell's TNA Slammiversary PPV results 6/12: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Sting vs. Anderson, Angle vs. Jarrett blow-off". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- Boutwell, Josh (2011-06-24). "Impact Wrestling Results - 6/23/11". WrestleView. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- Baxendell, Matt (2011-06-30). "Bax's TNA Impact Wrestling report 6/30: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of Impact with 'Limited Commercial Interruption'". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- Martin, Adam (2011-07-11). "Spoiler: Big spoiler for Impact Wrestling". WrestleView. Retrieved 2011-07-11.
- Keller, Wade (2011-07-14). "Keller's TNA Impact report: Ongoing live coverage of Destination X fallout, Mr. Anderson vs. Sting". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- Caldwell, James (2011-08-07). "Caldwell's TNA Hardcore Justice PPV results 8/7: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Sting vs. Angle, five title matches, BFG Series matches". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-08-07.
- Bishop, Matt (2011-08-18). "Impact: Flair finally returns to show". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Bishop, Matt (2011-09-02). "Impact: Sting looks to regain title in rematch with Angle". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2011-09-06.
- Caldwell, James (2011-09-11). "Caldwell's TNA No Surrender PPV results 9/11: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - three-way TNA Title match, BFG Series finals". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
- "Impact spoiler - double main event at Bound for Glory". Pro Wrestling Torch. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
- Caldwell, James (2011-09-15). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling report - Flair vs. Sting 9/15: Blog on this week's TV main event". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Keller, Wade (2011-10-06). "Keller's TNA Impact Wrestling report 10/6: Hulk Hogan's "retirement" ceremony, Storm vs. Roode, Kaz vs. Gunner in Knoxville". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-10-06.
- Caldwell, James (2011-10-16). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV results 10/16: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Angle-Roode, Hogan-Sting". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Caldwell, James (2011-10-20). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling report 10/20: Complete "virtual-time" coverage Bound for Glory fall-out, TNA World Title match". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- Keller, Wade (2011-12-27). "Keller's TNA Impact Wrestling report 12/22: Hardy & Sting team against Roode & Ray, plus Angle visits Storm's favorite bar". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
- Turner, Scott (2012-02-10). "Turner's TNA Impact report 2/9: Alt. perspective review of TNA in London Week 2, final PPV hype". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- Caldwell, James (2012-03-18). "Caldwell's TNA Victory Road PPV results 3/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Sting-Roode main event, Angle-Hardy, Storm-Ray". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- Turner, Scott (2012-03-23). "Turner's TNA Impact Wrestling results 3/22: Victory Road fall-out, Dixie & Sting & Hogan close the show, three title matches". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Caldwell, James (2012-03-29). "Sting re-signs with TNA". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
- Boutwell, Josh (2012-05-16). "Impact Results - 5/24/12". WrestleView. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
- Caldwell, James (2012-05-31). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 5/31: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact in new timeslot - Roode vs. Sting". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-05-31.
- Caldwell, James (2012-06-10). "Caldwell's TNA Slammiversary PPV results 6/10: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Roode vs. Sting headlines 10th Anniv. PPV". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- Caldwell, James (2012-06-14). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 6/14: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact - TNA World Title match, Ultimate X starts the show". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- Caldwell, James (2012-07-12). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 7/12: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact - Aries's first show as champ, BFG Series matches". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- Caldwell, James (2012-07-26). "Caldwell's TNA Impact Wrestling results 7/26: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact - BFG Series matches, interim GM". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
- Efren (2012-10-14). "TNA Hall of Fame report 10/13: Detailed play-by-play of entire Sting HOF ceremony - Luger, Styles, Hogan, Dixie, others talk & reflect". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Caldwell, James (2012-10-14). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV results 10/14: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV - Aries vs. Hardy, Storm vs. Roode". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Caldwell, James (2012-10-18). "Caldwell's TNA Impact results 10/18: Ongoing "virtual-time" coverage of live BFG PPV fall-out". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- Caldwell, James (2012-11-08). "Caldwell's TNA Impact results 11/8: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live Impact - final PPV hype, Ladder War conclusion". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 1/3: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live show - Sting casually returns, cage main event & unmasking (updated w/Box Score)".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 1/10: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Sting-Knox, wedding angle, and, oh yeah, a PPV on Sunday (updated w/Box Score)".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA GENESIS PPV RESULTS 1/13: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of live PPV - Hardy defends TNA Title against two foes, two title matches, #1 contender matches".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA IMPACT RESULTS 2/7: Complete "virtual-time" coverage of Impact in the U.K. - Tag Title change, Sting & Bully main event, Aces & Eights lose again, Nash weighs in".
- "CALDWELL'S TNA LOCKDOWN PPV RESULTS 3/10: Live, in-person coverage from San Antonio - Hardy vs. Ray TNA Title match, Lethal Lockdown, more".
- The Real Reason (Men Commit Crimes) IMDB profile
- "Thunder in Paradise Episode Guide". Fly.hiwaay.net. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- The Encounter IMDB profile
- "Sting Unmasked!". PURORESU.com NEW MAN Magazine. 2000-06. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- "Sting' Out of the Ring". CBN.com. 2004-11-15. Retrieved 2010-11-26.
- "Sting says last week's TNA Impact rating "completely sucked," says he hopes he's not the first TNA Hall of Famer, asked what went wrong with Ric Flair and TNA, working with Bobby Roode at TNA Slammiversary". PROWRESTLING.net. 2012-06-08. Retrieved 2012-08-17. "My marriage is gone. I'm divorced now. I have never said that publicly. I am saying it for the first time. I am divorced. It is because of all the choices I made on the road all those years and falling into every temptation that there was."
- "No. 38 – Garrett Borden". APU.edu. 2010-11-25. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- "No. 7 – Steven Borden". kilgore.edu. 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
- World Championship Wrestling (2001-03-26). "Ric Flair Vs. Sting". WCW Nitro.
- World Championship Wrestling (1995-08-06). "Sting & Road Warrior Hawk Vs. Meng & Kurasawa". WCW Clash of the Champions XXXI.
- World Championship Wrestling (1999-10-24). "Sting Vs. Goldberg". WCW Halloween Havoc.
- World Championship Wrestling TNT (1998-09-14). "Sting vs Goldberg". WCW Monday Nitro.
- World Championship Wrestling (1999-05-09). "Sting Vs. Goldberg". WCW Slamboree.
- World Championship Wrestling (1998-10-25). "Sting Vs. Bret Hart". WCW Halloween Havoc.
- World Championship Wrestling (1994-11-16). "3 Faces of Fear Vs. Hogan, Sting and Dave Sullivan". WCW Clash of the Champions.
- World Championship Wrestling TNT (1999-11-08). "Sting Vs. Goldberg". WCW Monday Nitro.
- Gerweck, Steve (2010-06-17). "Sting and Angle unveil their JAKKS action figures". WrestleView. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- Baxendell, Matt (2011-07-22). "Bax's TNA Impact Wrestling TV report 7/14: World Title Match, Invasion of the Joker's Minions". Pro Wrestling Torch.
- "Highlights From Thursday's "iMPACT!"". Total Nonstop Action Wrestling. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
- "Sting (Slay Me)". The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "NWA World Heavyweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "NWA/WCW World Television Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "WCW International World Heavyweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "NWA/WCW United States Heayvweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "WCW World Heavyweight Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "WCW World Tag Team Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "Battlebowl history".
- "WCW European Cup history".
- "King of Cable Tournament history".
- Pro Wrestling Illustrated 33 (3): 70–71. 2012.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Most Improved Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Retrieved 2008-06-26.[dead link]
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Inspirational Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Retrieved 2008-06-26.[dead link]
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Award Winners Wrestler of the Year". Wrestling Information Archive. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Top 500 - 1992". Wrestling Information Archive. Retrieved 2008-06-26.[dead link]
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated's Top 500 Wrestlers of the PWI Years". Wrestling Information Archive. Retrieved 2009-03-26.[dead link]
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated's Top 100 Tag Teams of the PWI Years". Wrestling Information Archive. Retrieved 2009-03-10.[dead link]
- TNA World Heavyweight Title history At wrestling-titles.com
- "TNA World Tag Team Title history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Martin, Adam (2008-01-24). "Full 2007 TNA Year-End Awards Results: Finisher, Tag Team, Feud, more". WrestleView. Retrieved 2011-07-15.
- "The UWF Tag Team Championship". Wrestling-Titles.com. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Palma, Richard. "WWAS - World Wrestling All-Stars World Heavyweight Title". Solie. Retrieved 2008-06-26.
- Meltzer, Dave (January 30, 2012). "Jan 30 Wrestling Observer Newsletter: Gigantic year-end awards issue, best and worst in all categories plus UFC on FX 1, death of Savannah Jack, ratings, tons and tons of news". Wrestling Observer Newsletter (Campbell, CA). ISSN 10839593.
- Mick Foley (2000). Have a Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks. HarperCollins. p. 511. ISBN 0-06-103101-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Steve Borden|
- Official Website
- Sting on Twitter
- TNA Wrestling profile
- WWE Alumni profile
- Sting at the Internet Movie Database
- November 2006 Interview with SLAM! Wrestling
- Photos Of Sting With Grey Hair
- 'Sting' Out of the Ring
- Sting' The Wrestling Legend