|Born||Steven Paul Jobs
February 24, 1955
San Francisco, California, US
|Died||October 5, 2011
Palo Alto, California, US
Cause of death
|Respiratory arrest caused by Metastatic Insulinoma|
|Residence||Palo Alto, California, US|
|Alma mater||Reed College (dropped out)|
|Occupation||Co-founder, Chairman, and CEO,
Co-founder and CEO,
Founder and CEO,
|Net worth||US $8.3 billion (July 2010)|
Board member of
|The Walt Disney Company
(m. 1991–2011; his death)
|Relatives||Mona Simpson (sister)|
Steven Paul "Steve" Jobs (//; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur, marketer, and inventor, who was the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. Through Apple, he is widely recognized as a charismatic and design-driven pioneer of the personal computer revolution and for his influential career in the computer and consumer electronics fields, transforming "one industry after another, from computers and smartphones to music and movies." Jobs also co-founded and served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, when Disney acquired Pixar. Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC's mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa and, a year later, the Macintosh. He also played a role in introducing the LaserWriter, one of the first widely available laser printers, to the market.
After a power struggle with the board of directors in 1985, Jobs left Apple and founded NeXT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher-education and business markets. In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm, which was spun off as Pixar. He was credited in Toy Story (1995) as an executive producer. He served as CEO and majority shareholder until Disney's purchase of Pixar in 2006. In 1996, after Apple had failed to deliver its operating system, Copland, Gil Amelio turned to NeXT Computer, and the NeXTSTEP platform became the foundation for the Mac OS X. Jobs returned to Apple as an advisor, and took control of the company as an interim CEO. Jobs brought Apple from near bankruptcy to profitability by 1998.
As the new CEO of the company, Jobs oversaw the development of the iMac, iTunes, iPod, iPhone, and iPad, and on the services side, the company's Apple Retail Stores, iTunes Store and the App Store. The success of these products and services provided several years of stable financial returns, and propelled Apple to become the world's most valuable publicly traded company in 2011. The reinvigoration of the company is regarded by many commentators as one of the greatest turnarounds in business history.
In 2003, Jobs was diagnosed with a pancreas neuroendocrine tumor. Though it was initially treated, he reported a hormone imbalance, underwent a liver transplant in 2009, and appeared progressively thinner as his health declined. On medical leave for most of 2011, Jobs resigned in August that year, and was elected Chairman of the Board. He died of respiratory arrest related to the tumor on October 5, 2011.
Jobs received a number of honors and public recognition for his influence in the technology and music industries. He has been referred to as "legendary", a "futurist" and a "visionary", and has been described as the "Father of the Digital Revolution," a "master of innovation," "the master evangelist of the digital age" and a "design perfectionist."
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Business life
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Death
- 6 Honors and public recognition
- 7 Portrayals and coverage in books, film, and theater
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Jobs's birth parents met at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, where his Syrian-born biological father, Abdulfattah "John" Jandali (Arabic: عبدالفتاح جندلي), was an undergraduate and then graduate student, and where his biological mother, Swiss-American Joanne Carole Schieble, studied for a degree in speech language pathology. Jandali, who emigrated to the U.S. from Homs, Syria at the age of 19, was a graduate student studying political science when he met and became involved with Ms. Schieble. When Ms. Schieble became pregnant, her fundamentalist father vehemently refused to let her marry Jandali, and Ms. Schieble ended up going to California to have the baby and give it up for adoption. About six months later, Ms. Schieble's father died suddenly, so she married Jandali in December 1955. Jandali swiftly finished his Ph.D. and got a teaching position at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay. The couple moved there and then had another child, Mona Simpson, who is Steve Jobs's full sister. Their marriage lasted till 1962, and then Ms. Schieble moved with her daughter to Los Angeles, and later remarried.
Jobs was born in San Francisco, California on February 24, 1955. He was adopted at birth by Paul Reinhold Jobs (1922–1993) and Clara Jobs (née Hagopian) (1924–1986), an Armenian American. Paul and Clara had gotten married in March 1946, ten days after they met. Clara had an ectopic pregnancy and couldn't bear children. In 1955, nine years after their marriage, they decided to adopt a child. According to Steve Jobs's commencement address at Stanford, Schieble wanted Jobs to be adopted only by a college graduate couple. Schieble learned that Clara Jobs had not graduated from college and Paul Jobs had only attended high school, but signed final adoption papers after they promised her that the child would definitely be encouraged and supported to attend college. Later, when asked about his "adoptive parents", Jobs replied emphatically that Paul and Clara Jobs "were my parents." He stated in his authorized biography that they "were my parents 1,000%." Walter Isaacson wrote in his authorized biography about Steve Jobs that Steve had told him, "Paul and Clara are 100% my parents. And Joanna and Abdulfatah—are only a sperm and an egg bank. It's not rude, it is the truth."
The Jobs family moved from San Francisco to Mountain View, California when Jobs was five years old. The parents later adopted a daughter, Patty. Paul worked as a mechanic and a carpenter, and taught his son rudimentary electronics and how to work with his hands. Paul showed Steve how to work on electronics in the family garage, demonstrating to his son how to take apart and rebuild electronics such as radios and televisions. As a result, he became interested in and developed a hobby of technical tinkering.
Clara was an accountant who taught him to read before he went to school. Clara Jobs had been a payroll clerk for Varian Associates, one of the first high-tech firms in what became known as Silicon Valley.
Jobs's youth was riddled with frustrations over formal schooling. At Monta Loma Elementary school in Mountain View, he frequently played pranks on others. Though school officials recommended that he skip two grades on account of his test scores, his parents elected for him to skip only one grade.
Jobs then attended Cupertino Junior High and Homestead High School in Cupertino, California. At Homestead, Jobs became friends with Bill Fernandez, a neighbor who shared the same interests in electronics. Fernandez introduced Jobs to his neighbor, Steve Wozniak, a computer and electronics whiz kid, who was also known as "Woz". In 1969 Wozniak started building a little computer board with Fernandez that they named "The Cream Soda Computer", which they showed to Jobs; he seemed really interested. Wozniak has stated that they called it the Cream Soda Computer because he and Fernandez drank cream soda all the time whilst they worked on it and that he and Jobs had gone to the same high school, although they did not know each other there.
Following high school graduation in 1972, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Reed was an expensive college which Paul and Clara could ill afford. They were spending much of their life savings on their son's higher education. Jobs dropped out of college after six months and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes, including a course on calligraphy. In the commencement address he gave at Stanford, Jobs said that, while he continued to audit classes at Reed, he slept on the floor in friends' dorm rooms, returned Coke bottles for food money, and got weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple. In that same speech, Jobs said: "If I had never dropped in on that single calligraphy course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts."
In 1972, Steve Wozniak designed his own version of the classic video game Pong. After finishing it, Wozniak gave the board to Jobs, who then took the game down to Atari, Inc. in Los Gatos, California. Atari thought that Jobs had built it and gave him a job as a technician. Atari's co-founder Nolan Bushnell later described him as "difficult but valuable," pointing out that "he was very often the smartest guy in the room, and he would let people know that."
Jobs traveled to India in mid-1974 to visit Neem Karoli Baba at his Kainchi ashram with a Reed College friend (and, later, an early Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. When they got to the Neem Karoli ashram, it was almost deserted because Neem Karoli Baba had died in September 1973. Then they made a long trek up a dry riverbed to an ashram of Haidakhan Babaji. In India, they spent a lot of time on bus rides from Delhi to Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
After staying for seven months, Jobs left India and returned to the US ahead of Daniel Kottke. Jobs had changed his appearance; his head was shaved and he wore traditional Indian clothing. During this time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, later calling his LSD experiences "one of the two or three most important things [he had] done in [his] life". He also became a serious practitioner of Zen Buddhism, engaged in lengthy meditation retreats at the Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, the oldest Sōtō Zen monastery in the US. He considered taking up monastic residence at Eihei-ji in Japan, and maintained a lifelong appreciation for Zen. Jobs would later say that people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking.
Jobs then returned to Atari, and was assigned to create a circuit board for the arcade video game Breakout. According to Bushnell, Atari offered $100 for each chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little specialized knowledge of circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari engineers, Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line.[further explanation needed] According to Wozniak, Jobs told him that Atari gave them only $700 (instead of the offered $5,000), and that Wozniak's share was thus $350. Wozniak did not learn about the actual bonus until ten years later, but said that if Jobs had told him about it and had said he needed the money, Wozniak would have given it to him.
Wozniak had designed a low-cost digital "blue box" to generate the necessary tones to manipulate the telephone network, allowing free long-distance calls. Jobs decided that they could make money selling it. The clandestine sales of the illegal "blue boxes" went well, and perhaps planted the seed in Jobs's mind that electronics could be fun and profitable. Jobs, in a 1994 interview, recalled that it took six months for him and Wozniak to figure out how to build the blue boxes. Jobs said that if not for the blue boxes, there would have been no Apple. He states it showed them that they could take on large companies and beat them.
Jobs began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club with Wozniak in 1975. He greatly admired Edwin H. Land, the inventor of instant photography and founder of Polaroid Corporation, and would explicitly model his own career after that of Land's.
In 1976, Jobs and Wozniak formed their own business, which they named "Apple Computer Company" in remembrance of a happy summer Jobs had spent picking apples. At first they started off selling circuit boards.
In 1976, Wozniak single-handedly invented the Apple I computer. After Wozniak showed it to Jobs, who suggested that they sell it, they and Ronald Wayne formed Apple Computer in the garage of Jobs's parents in order to sell it. Wayne stayed only a short time, leaving Jobs and Wozniak as the primary co-founders of the company. They received funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product marketing manager and engineer Mike Markkula. Scott McNealy, one of the co-founders of Sun Microsystems, said that Jobs broke a "glass age ceiling" in Silicon Valley because he'd created a very successful company at a young age.
In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's CEO, asking, "Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world?"
In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC's mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa. A year later, Apple completed the Macintosh.
The following year, Apple aired a Super Bowl television commercial titled "1984." At Apple's annual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, an emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium."
While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from that time described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. Disappointing sales caused a deterioration in Jobs's working relationship with Sculley, which devolved into a power struggle between the two. Jobs kept meetings running past midnight, sent out lengthy faxes, then called new meetings at 7:00 am.
During an April 10 & 11 board meeting, Apple's board of directors gave Sculley the authority to remove Jobs from all roles, except chairman, to reassign him to an undetermined position. John delayed a reassignment. But when Sculley learned that Jobs—who believed Sculley to be "bad for Apple" and the wrong person to lead the company—had been attempting to organize a boardroom coup, on May 24, 1985, called a board meeting to resolve the matter. Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley once again and removed Jobs from his managerial duties as head of the Macintosh division. With no duties and exiled from the rest of the company to an otherwise-empty building, Jobs stopped coming to work and later resigned as chairman. After unsuccessfully applying to fly on the Space Shuttle as a civilian astronaut, and briefly considering starting a computer company in the Soviet Union, he resigned from Apple five months later.
In a speech Jobs gave at Stanford University in 2005, he said being fired from Apple was the best thing that could have happened to him; "The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life." And he added, "I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple. It was awful-tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it."
Jobs founded NeXT Inc. in 1985 after his resignation with $7 million. A year later he was running out of money, and with no product on the horizon, he sought venture capital. Eventually, Jobs attracted the attention of billionaire Ross Perot who invested heavily in the company. The NeXT computer was shown to the world at what was considered Jobs' come back event, a lavish (invitation only) gala launch event  and was described as a multimedia extravaganza. It was held at the Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall, San Francisco, California on Wednesday October 12, 1988.
NeXT workstations were first released in 1990, priced at $9,999. Like the Apple Lisa, the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced, but was largely dismissed as cost-prohibitive by the educational sector for which it was designed. The NeXT workstation was known for its technical strengths, chief among them its object-oriented software development system. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the financial, scientific, and academic community, highlighting its innovative, experimental new technologies, such as the Mach kernel, the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port. Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web on a NeXT computer at CERN.
The revised, second generation NeXTcube was released in 1990, also. Jobs touted it as the first "interpersonal" computer that would replace the personal computer. With its innovative NeXTMail multimedia email system, NeXTcube could share voice, image, graphics, and video in email for the first time. "Interpersonal computing is going to revolutionize human communications and groupwork", Jobs told reporters. Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection, as evidenced by the development of and attention to NeXTcube's magnesium case. This put considerable strain on NeXT's hardware division, and in 1993, after having sold only 50,000 machines, NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the release of NeXTSTEP/Intel. The company reported its first profit of $1.03 million in 1994. In 1996, NeXT Software, Inc. released WebObjects, a framework for Web application development. After NeXT was acquired by Apple Inc. in 1997, WebObjects was used to build and run the Apple Store, MobileMe services, and the iTunes Store.
Pixar and Disney
The first film produced by the partnership, Toy Story (1995), with Jobs credited as executive producer, brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released. Over the next 15 years, under Pixar's creative chief John Lasseter, the company produced box-office hits A Bug's Life (1998); Toy Story 2 (1999); Monsters, Inc. (2001); Finding Nemo (2003); The Incredibles (2004); Cars (2006); Ratatouille (2007); WALL-E (2008); Up (2009); and Toy Story 3 (2010). Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up and Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, an award introduced in 2001.
In 2003 and 2004, as Pixar's contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership, and in early 2004, Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films after its contract with Disney expired.
In October 2005, Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney, and Iger quickly worked to mend relations with Jobs and Pixar. On January 24, 2006, Jobs and Iger announced that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7.4 billion. When the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company's largest single shareholder with approximately seven percent of the company's stock. Jobs's holdings in Disney far exceeded those of Eisner, who holds 1.7 percent, and of Disney family member Roy E. Disney, who until his 2009 death held about one percent of the company's stock and whose criticisms of Eisner – especially that he soured Disney's relationship with Pixar – accelerated Eisner's ousting. Upon completion of the merger, Jobs received 7% of Disney shares, and joined the Board of Directors as the largest individual shareholder. Upon Jobs's death his shares in Disney were transferred to the Steven P. Jobs Trust led by Laurene Jobs.
Return to Apple
In 1996, Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $427 million. The deal was finalized in February 1997, bringing Jobs back to the company he co-founded. Jobs became de facto chief after then-CEO Gil Amelio was ousted in July 1997. He was formally named interim chief executive in September. In March 1998, to concentrate Apple's efforts on returning to profitability, Jobs terminated a number of projects, such as Newton, Cyberdog, and OpenDoc. In the coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened. The reality was that Jobs's summary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company." Jobs also changed the licensing program for Macintosh clones, making it too costly for the manufacturers to continue making machines.
With the purchase of NeXT, much of the company's technology found its way into Apple products, most notably NeXTSTEP, which evolved into Mac OS X. Under Jobs's guidance, the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. At the 2000 Macworld Expo, Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO. Jobs quipped at the time that he would be using the title "iCEO".
The company subsequently branched out, introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. On June 29, 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touch display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While stimulating innovation, Jobs also reminded his employees that "real artists ship".
Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and was particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at Apple Worldwide Developers Conferences.
In 2005, Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the US by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's Annual Meeting in Cupertino in April. A few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker. The banner read "Steve, don't be a mini-player—recycle all e-waste".
In 2006, he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any US customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems.
In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple, but remained with the company as chairman of its board. Hours after the announcement, Apple Inc. (AAPL) shares dropped five percent in after-hours trading. This relatively small drop, when considering the importance of Jobs to Apple, was associated with the fact that his health had been in the news for several years, and he had been on medical leave since January 2011. It was believed, according to Forbes, that the impact would be felt in a negative way beyond Apple, including at The Walt Disney Company where Jobs served as director. In after-hours trading on the day of the announcement, Walt Disney Co. (DIS) shares dropped 1.5 percent.
Remember, the sixties happened in the early seventies, and that's when I came of age; and to me, the spark of that was that there was something beyond what you see every day. It's the same thing that causes people to be poets instead of bankers. And I think that's a wonderful thing. I think that same spirit can be put in to products, and those products can be manufactured, and given to people, and they can sense that spirit.—Steve Jobs, Steve Jobs: The Lost Interview
Although Jobs earned only $1 a year as CEO of Apple, Jobs held 5.426 million Apple shares worth $2.1 billion, as well as 138 million shares in Disney (which he received in exchange for Disney's acquisition of Pixar) worth $4.4 billion. Jobs quipped that the $1 per annum he was paid by Apple was based on attending one meeting for 50 cents while the other 50 cents was based on his performance. Forbes estimated his net wealth at $8.3 billion in 2010, making him the 42nd-wealthiest American.
Stock options backdating issue
In 2001, Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7.5 million shares of Apple with an exercise price of $18.30. It was alleged that the options had been backdated, and that the exercise price should have been $21.10. It was further alleged that Jobs had thereby incurred taxable income of $20,000,000 that he did not report, and that Apple overstated its earnings by that same amount. As a result, Jobs potentially faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties. The case was the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations, though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, 2006 found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercised in 2003.
Jobs was perceived as a demanding perfectionist, who always aspired to position his businesses and their products at the forefront of the information technology industry, by foreseeing and setting innovation and style trends. He summed up this self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2007, by quoting ice hockey player Wayne Gretzky
There's an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. 'I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been.' And we've always tried to do that at Apple. Since the very very beginning. And we always will.
In 1993 Jobs made Fortune 's list of America's Toughest Bosses in regard to his leadership at NeXT. NeXT cofounder, Dan'l Lewin, was quoted in Fortune: "The highs were unbelievable ... But the lows were unimaginable". In response to the article, Jobs's office explained that his personality had changed since then. Apple CEO Tim Cook noted, "More so than any person I ever met in my life, [Jobs] had the ability to change his mind, much more so than anyone I’ve ever met ... Maybe the most underappreciated thing about Steve was that he had the courage to change his mind."
In 2005 Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons from Apple Stores, as the company had published an unauthorized Jobs biography, iCon: Steve Jobs. In its 2010 annual earnings report, Wiley said it had "closed a deal ... to make its titles available for the iPad." Jef Raskin, a former colleague, once said that Jobs "would have made an excellent king of France", alluding to Jobs's compelling and larger-than-life persona.
Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell, starting in 1987, when Jobs first criticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige boxes". On October 6, 1997, at a Gartner Symposium, when Dell was asked what he would do if he ran the then-troubled Apple Computer company, he said: "I'd shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders." Then, in 2006, Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization rose above Dell's:
Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future. Based on today's stock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Steve.
Apple's third co-founder Wayne explained that Job's personality was very cold. He recounted the times Jobs was ruthless, including one occasion in which Jobs asked Wayne to convince a friend to sell his company for Apple's benefit.
Floyd Norman, of Pixar, described Jobs as a "mature, mellow individual" who never interfered with the creative process of the filmmakers. In early June 2014, Pixar cofounder and Walt Disney President Ed Catmull revealed that Jobs once advised him to "just explain it to them until they understand." in disagreements. Catmull released the book Creativity Inc. in 2014, in which recounts numerous experiences of working with Jobs. Regarding his own manner of dealing with Jobs, Catmull writes:
In all the 26 years with Steve, Steve and I never had one of these loud verbal arguments and it's not my nature to do that. ... but we did disagree fairly frequently about things. ... I would say something to him and he would immediately shoot it down because he could think faster than I could. ... I would then wait a week ... I'd call him up and I give my counter argument to what he had said and he'd immediately shoot it down. So I had to wait another week, and sometimes this went on for months. But in the end one of three things happened. About a third of the time he said, 'Oh, I get it, you're right.' And that was the end of it. And it was another third of the time in which [I'd] say, 'Actually I think he is right.' The other third of the time, where we didn't reach consensus, he just let me do it my way, never said anything more about it.
Reality distortion field
Apple's Bud Tribble coined the term "reality distortion field" (RDF) in 1981, to describe Jobs's charisma and its effects on the developers working on the Macintosh project. Tribble claimed that the term came from Star Trek and the term has since been used to refer to perceptions of Jobs's keynote speeches.
Andy Hertzfeld described the RDF as Jobs's ability to convince himself and others to believe almost anything, whereby he used a mix of charm, charisma, bravado, hyperbole, marketing, appeasement, and persistence. Although the subject of criticism, Jobs's so-called RDF was also recognized as a concept that created a sense that the impossible was possible. Then, by motivating the people around him to create innovative products, Jobs was in turn able to market them creatively to reach a wide audience. Once the term became widely known, it was often used in the technology press to describe Jobs's sway over the public—particularly regarding new product announcements.
Innovations and designs
Jobs's design aesthetic was influenced by the modernist architectural style of Joseph Eichler and the industrial designs of Braun's Dieter Rams. His design sense was also greatly influenced by the Buddhism which he experienced in India while on his seven-month spiritual journey, and his sense of intuition was influenced by the spiritual people with whom he studied.
According to Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak "Steve didn't ever code. He wasn't an engineer and he didn't do any original design..." Daniel Kottke, one of Apple's earliest employees and a college friend of Jobs's, stated that "Between Woz and Jobs, Woz was the innovator, the inventor. Steve Jobs was the marketing person."
He is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in 346 United States patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces (including touch-based), speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages. Jobs's contributions to most of his patents were to "the look and feel of the product". His industrial design chief Jonathan Ive had his name along with him for 200 of the patents. Most of these are design patents (specific product designs; for example, Jobs listed as primary inventor in patents for both original and lamp-style iMacs, as well as PowerBook G4 Titanium) as opposed to utility patents (inventions). He has 43 issued US patents on inventions. The patent on the Mac OS X Dock user interface with "magnification" feature was issued the day before he died. Although Jobs had little involvement in the engineering and technical side of the original Apple computers, Jobs later used his CEO position to directly involve himself with product design.
Even while terminally ill in the hospital, Jobs sketched new devices that would hold the iPad in a hospital bed. He also despised the oxygen monitor on his finger and suggested ways to revise the design for simplicity.
The Macintosh Computer
The Macintosh was introduced in January 1984. The computer had no "Mac" name on the front, but rather just the Apple logo. Apple co-founder and former Apple engineer Steve Wozniak said that the Macintosh failed under Steve Jobs, and that it wasn't until Jobs left that it became a success.
The NeXT Computer
After Jobs was forced out of Apple in 1985, he started a company that built workstation computers. The NeXT Computer was introduced in 1988 at a lavish launch event. Tim Berners-Lee created the world's first web browser on the NeXT Computer. The NeXT Computer was the basis for today's Macintosh OS X and iPhone operating system (iOS).
Apple iMac was introduced in 1998 and its innovative design was directly the result of Jobs's return to Apple. Apple boasted "the back of our computer looks better than the front of anyone else's". Described as "cartoonlike", the first iMac, clad in Bondi Blue plastic, was unlike any personal computer that came before. In 1999, Apple introduced the Graphite gray Apple iMac and since has varied the shape, colour and size considerably while maintaining the all-in-one design. Design ideas were intended to create a connection with the user such as the handle and a breathing light effect when the computer went to sleep. The Apple iMac sold for $1,299 at that time. The iMac also featured some technical innovations, such as having USB ports as the only device inputs. This latter change resulted, through the iMac's success, in the interface being popularised among third party peripheral makers – as evidenced by the fact that many early USB peripherals were made of translucent plastic (to match the iMac design).
The first generation of iPod was released October 23, 2001. The major innovation of the iPod was its small size achieved by using a 1.8" hard drive compared to the 2.5" drives common to players at that time. The capacity of the first generation iPod ranged from 5G to 10 Gigabytes. The iPod sold for US$399 and more than 100,000 iPods were sold before the end of 2001. The introduction of the iPod resulted in Apple becoming a major player in the music industry. Also, the iPod's success prepared the way for the iTunes music store and the iPhone. After the 1st generation of iPod, Apple released the hard drive-based iPod classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, video-capable iPod Nano, screenless iPod Shuffle in the following years.
Apple began work on the first iPhone in 2005 and the first iPhone was released on June 29, 2007. The iPhone created such a sensation that a survey indicated six out of ten Americans were aware of its release. Time magazine declared it "Invention of the Year" for 2007. The Apple iPhone is a small device with multimedia capabilities and functions as a quad-band touch screen smartphone. A year later, the iPhone 3G was released in July 2008 with three key features: support for GPS, 3G data and tri-band UMTS/HSDPA. In June 2009, the iPhone 3GS, whose improvements included voice control, a better camera, and a faster processor, was introduced by Phil Schiller. The iPhone 4 is thinner than previous models, has a five megapixel camera capable of recording video in 720p HD, and adds a secondary front-facing camera for video calls. A major feature of the iPhone 4S, introduced in October 2011, was Siri, a virtual assistant capable of voice recognition.
Arik Hesseldahl of BusinessWeek magazine stated that "Jobs isn't widely known for his association with philanthropic causes", compared to Bill Gates's efforts. In contrast to Gates, Jobs did not sign the Giving Pledge of Warren Buffett which challenged the world's richest billionaires to give at least half their wealth to charity. In an interview with Playboy in 1985, Jobs said in respect to money that "the challenges are to figure out how to live with it and to reinvest it back into the world which means either giving it away or using it to express your concerns or values." Jobs also added that when he has some time he would start a public foundation but for now he does charitable acts privately.
After resuming control of Apple in 1997, Jobs initially eliminated all corporate philanthropy programs. Jobs's friends told The New York Times that he felt that expanding Apple would have done more good than giving money to charity. Later, under Jobs, Apple signed to participate in the Product Red program, producing red versions of devices to give profits from sales to charity. Apple has gone on to become the largest contributor to the charity since its initial involvement with it. The chief of the Product Red project, singer Bono, cited Jobs saying there was "nothing better than the chance to save lives", when he initially approached Apple with the invitation to participate in the program. Through its sales, Apple has been the largest contributor to Product Red's gift to the Global Fund, which fights AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, according to Bono.
In the 1980s, Jobs found his birth mother, Joanne Schieble Simpson, who told him he had a biological sister, Mona Simpson. They met for the first time in 1985, and became close friends. The siblings kept their relationship secret until 1986, when Mona introduced him at a party for her first book.
After deciding to search for their father, Simpson found Jandali managing a coffee shop. Without knowing who his son had become, Jandali told Mona that he had previously managed a popular restaurant in Silicon Valley, mentioning that "even Steve Jobs used to eat there. Yeah, he was a great tipper." In a taped interview with his biographer Walter Isaacson, aired on 60 Minutes, Jobs said: "When I was looking for my biological mother, obviously, you know, I was looking for my biological father at the same time, and I learned a little bit about him and I didn't like what I learned. I asked her to not tell him that we ever met...not tell him anything about me." Jobs was occasionally in touch with his mother Joanne Simpson, who lives in a nursing home in Los Angeles. When speaking about his biological parents, Jobs stated: "They were my sperm and egg bank. That's not harsh, it's just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more." In an August 2011 interview with The Sun, Jandali stated that his efforts to contact Jobs were unsuccessful. Jandali mailed in his medical history after Jobs's pancreatic disorder was made public that year.
In her eulogy to Jobs at his memorial service, Mona Simpson stated:
- I grew up as an only child, with a single mother. Because we were poor and because I knew my father had emigrated from Syria, I imagined he looked like Omar Sharif. I hoped he would be rich and kind and would come into our lives (and our not yet furnished apartment) and help us. Later, after I'd met my father, I tried to believe he'd changed his number and left no forwarding address because he was an idealistic revolutionary, plotting a new world for the Arab people. Even as a feminist, my whole life I'd been waiting for a man to love, who could love me. For decades, I'd thought that man would be my father. When I was 25, I met that man and he was my brother.
Jobs's first child, Lisa Brennan-Jobs, was born in 1978, the daughter of his longtime partner Chrisann Brennan, a Bay Area painter. For two years, she raised their daughter on welfare while Jobs denied paternity by claiming he was sterile; he later acknowledged Lisa as his daughter.
Jobs dated Joan Baez for a few years in the early 80s. Elizabeth Holmes, a friend of Jobs from his time at Reed College, believed Jobs was interested in Baez because she had been the lover of Bob Dylan, who was Jobs's favorite musician. Jobs confided in Joanna Hoffman his concerns about the relationship, and she would later tell his official biographer: "She was a strong woman, and he wanted to show he was in control. Plus, he always said he wanted to have a family, and with her he knew that he wouldn't".
Jobs was also a fan of The Beatles. He referred to them on multiple occasions at Keynotes and was also interviewed on a showing of a Paul McCartney concert. When asked about his business model on 60 Minutes, he replied:
My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each other's negative tendencies in check; they balanced each other. And the total was greater than the sum of the parts. Great things in business are never done by one person, they are done by a team of people.
In 1982, Jobs bought an apartment in The San Remo, an apartment building in New York City with a politically progressive reputation, where Demi Moore, Steven Spielberg, Steve Martin, and Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, daughter of Rita Hayworth, also owned apartments. With the help of I. M. Pei, Jobs spent years renovating his apartment in the top two floors of the building's north tower, only to sell it almost two decades later to U2 singer Bono. Jobs never moved in.
In 1984, Jobs purchased the Jackling House, a 17,000-square-foot (1,600 m2), 14-bedroom Spanish Colonial mansion designed by George Washington Smith in Woodside, California. Although it reportedly remained in an almost unfurnished state, Jobs lived in the mansion for almost ten years.
Jobs married Laurene Powell on March 18, 1991, in a ceremony at the Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite National Park. Presiding over the wedding was Kobun Chino Otogawa, a Zen Buddhist monk. Their son, Reed, was born September 1991, followed by daughters Erin in August 1995 and Eve in 1998. The family lived in the Old Palo Alto neighborhood of Palo Alto, California.
According to reports, he kept a 1966 BMW R60/2 motorcycle in the living room of the Jackling House, and let Bill Clinton use it in 1998. President Clinton dined with Jobs and 14 Silicon Valley CEOs there on August 7, 1996, at a meal catered by Greens Restaurant. Clinton returned the favor and Jobs, who was a Democratic donor, slept in the Lincoln bedroom of the White House. And according to Isaacson, during one late-night phone call, Bill Clinton once asked Jobs for some advice about the Lewinsky scandal, and when Jobs told the President that, if the affair were true, " 'you've got to tell the country'...There was silence on the other end of the line."
Jobs allowed Jackling House to fall into a state of disrepair, planning to demolish the house and build a smaller home on the property; but he met with complaints from local preservationists over his plans. In June 2004, the Woodside Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion, on the condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if someone would move it to another location and restore it. A number of people expressed interest, including several with experience in restoring old property, but no agreements to that effect were reached. Later that same year, a local preservationist group began seeking legal action to prevent demolition. In January 2007, Jobs was denied the right to demolish the property by a court decision. The court decision was overturned on appeal in March 2010, and the mansion was demolished beginning in February 2011.
Jobs usually wore a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by Issey Miyake (that was sometimes reported to be made by St. Croix), Levi's 501 blue jeans, and New Balance 991 sneakers. His style was inspired by that of renowned Brown University Applied Mathematics Professor Stuart Geman. Jobs told Walter Isaacson "...he came to like the idea of having a uniform for himself, both because of its daily convenience (the rationale he claimed) and its ability to convey a signature style."
Jobs's car was a silver Mercedes-Benz SL 55 AMG, which did not display its license plates, as he took advantage of a California law which gives a maximum of six months for new vehicles to receive plates; Jobs leased a new SL every six months. Jobs involved himself with the details of designing his 78-meter (256 ft) luxury yacht Venus (named after the deity) to keep thoughts of death at bay. It is also designed by Philippe Starck. It was launched after Jobs's death, and later impounded due to an unpaid debt to Starck, which was then paid by Jobs's heirs.
In a 2011 interview with biographer Walter Isaacson, Jobs revealed at one point he met with U.S. President Barack Obama, complained of the nation's shortage of software engineers, and told Obama that he was "headed for a one-term presidency." Jobs proposed that any foreign student who got an engineering degree at a U.S. university should automatically be offered a green card. After the meeting, Jobs commented, "The president is very smart, but he kept explaining to us reasons why things can't get done.... It infuriates me."
Jobs contributed to a number of political candidates and causes during his life, giving $209,000 to Democrats, $45,700 to associated special interests and $1,000 to a Republican.
In October 2003, Jobs was diagnosed with cancer, and in mid-2004, he announced to his employees that he had a cancerous tumor in his pancreas. The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very poor; Jobs stated that he had a rare, far less aggressive type known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor. Despite his diagnosis, Jobs resisted his doctors' recommendations for medical intervention for nine months, instead consuming a pseudo-medicine diet in an attempt to thwart the disease. According to Harvard researcher Ramzi Amri, his choice of alternative treatment "led to an unnecessarily early death." Cancer researcher and alternative medicine critic David Gorski "disagreed with Amri's assessment," stating, "My best guess was that Jobs probably only modestly decreased his chances of survival, if that." Barrie R. Cassileth, the chief of Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center's integrative medicine department, said "Jobs’s faith in alternative medicine likely cost him his life.... He had the only kind of pancreatic cancer that is treatable and curable.... He essentially committed suicide." According to Jobs's biographer, Walter Isaacson, "for nine months he refused to undergo surgery for his pancreatic cancer – a decision he later regretted as his health declined." "Instead, he tried a vegan diet, acupuncture, herbal remedies, and other treatments he found online, and even consulted a psychic. He was also influenced by a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts, bowel cleansings and other unproven approaches, before finally having surgery in July 2004." He eventually underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple procedure") in July 2004, that appeared to successfully remove the tumor. Jobs apparently did not receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. During Jobs's absence, Tim Cook, head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple, ran the company.
In early August 2006, Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annual Worldwide Developers Conference. His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery, together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about his health. In contrast, according to an Ars Technica journal report, Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) attendees who saw Jobs in person said he "looked fine". Following the keynote, an Apple spokesperson said that "Steve's health is robust."
Two years later, similar concerns followed Jobs's 2008 WWDC keynote address. Apple officials stated that Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and was taking antibiotics, while others surmised his cachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure. During a July conference call discussing Apple earnings, participants responded to repeated questions about Jobs's health by insisting that it was a "private matter". Others, however, voiced the opinion that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs's hands-on approach to running his company. The New York Times published an article based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs, noting that "While his health problems amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug', they weren't life-threatening and he doesn't have a recurrence of cancer."
On August 28, 2008, Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's death.) Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it, intensifying rumors concerning Jobs's health. Jobs responded at Apple's September 2008 Let's Rock keynote by essentially quoting Mark Twain: "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated." At a subsequent media event, Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide reading "110/70", referring to his blood pressure, stating he would not address further questions about his health.
On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo 2009, again reviving questions about Jobs's health. In a statement given on January 5, 2009, on Apple.com, Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormone imbalance" for several months.
On January 14, 2009, in an internal Apple memo, Jobs wrote that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought", and announced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009, to allow him to better focus on his health. Tim Cook, who previously acted as CEO in Jobs's 2004 absence, became acting CEO of Apple, with Jobs still involved with "major strategic decisions."
On January 17, 2011, a year and a half after Jobs returned from his liver transplant, Apple announced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health". As during his 2009 medical leave, Apple announced that Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations and that Jobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company. Despite the leave, he made appearances at the iPad 2 launch event (March 2), the WWDC keynote introducing iCloud (June 6), and before the Cupertino city council (June 7).
Jobs announced his resignation as Apple's CEO on August 24, 2011, writing to the board, "I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple’s CEO, I would be the first to let you know. Unfortunately, that day has come."  Jobs became chairman of the board thereafter, naming Tim Cook his successor as CEO, and continued to work for Apple until the day before his death six weeks later.
Jobs died at his Palo Alto, California, home around 3 p.m. on October 5, 2011, due to complications from a relapse of his previously treated islet-cell neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer, resulting in respiratory arrest. He had lost consciousness the day before, and died with his wife, children, and sisters at his side.
Both Apple and Microsoft flew their flags at half-staff throughout their respective headquarters and campuses. Bob Iger ordered all Disney properties, including Walt Disney World and Disneyland, to fly their flags at half-staff from October 6 to 12, 2011.
His death was announced by Apple in a statement which read:
We are deeply saddened to announce that Steve Jobs passed away today.
Steve's brilliance, passion and energy were the source of countless innovations that enrich and improve all of our lives. The world is immeasurably better because of Steve.
His greatest love was for his wife, Laurene, and his family. Our hearts go out to them and to all who were touched by his extraordinary gifts.
For two weeks following his death, Apple's corporate Web site displayed a simple page, showing Jobs's name and lifespan next to his grayscale portrait. Clicking on the image led to an obituary, which read:
Apple has lost a visionary and creative genius, and the world has lost an amazing human being. Those of us who have been fortunate enough to know and work with Steve have lost a dear friend and an inspiring mentor. Steve leaves behind a company that only he could have built, and his spirit will forever be the foundation of Apple.
An email address was also posted for the public to share their memories, condolences, and thoughts. Over a million tributes were sent, which are now displayed on the Steve Jobs memorial page.
Steve was an extraordinary visionary, our very dear friend, and our guiding light of the Pixar family. He saw the potential of what Pixar could be before the rest of us, and beyond what anyone ever imagined. Steve took a chance on us and believed in our crazy dream of making computer animated films; the one thing he always said was to 'make it great.' He is why Pixar turned out the way we did and his strength, integrity, and love of life has made us all better people. He will forever be part of Pixar's DNA. Our hearts go out to his wife Laurene and their children during this incredibly difficult time.
A small private funeral was held on October 7, 2011, of which details were not revealed out of respect to Jobs's family. Apple announced on the same day that they had no plans for a public service, but were encouraging "well-wishers" to send their remembrance messages to an email address created to receive such messages. Sunday, October 16, 2011, was declared "Steve Jobs Day" by Governor Jerry Brown of California. On that day, an invitation-only memorial was held at Stanford University. Those in attendance included Apple and other tech company executives, members of the media, celebrities, close friends of Jobs, and politicians, along with Jobs's family. Bono, Yo Yo Ma, and Joan Baez performed at the service, which lasted longer than an hour. The service was highly secured, with guards at all of the university's gates, and a helicopter flying overhead from an area news station.
A private memorial service for Apple employees was held on October 19, 2011, on the Apple Campus in Cupertino. Present were Cook, Bill Campbell, Norah Jones, Al Gore, and Coldplay, and Jobs's widow, Laurene. Some of Apple's retail stores closed briefly so employees could attend the memorial. A video of the service is available on Apple's website.
Jobs is buried in an unmarked grave at Alta Mesa Memorial Park, the only non-denominational cemetery in Palo Alto. He is survived by Laurene, his wife of 20 years, their three children, and Lisa Brennan-Jobs, his daughter from a previous relationship. His family released a statement saying that he "died peacefully". His sister, Mona Simpson, described his passing thus: "Steve’s final words, hours earlier, were monosyllables, repeated three times. Before embarking, he’d looked at his sister Patty, then for a long time at his children, then at his life’s partner, Laurene, and then over their shoulders past them. Steve’s final words were: OH WOW. OH WOW. OH WOW." He then lost consciousness and died several hours later.
Steve Jobs's death broke news headlines on ABC, CBS, and NBC. Numerous newspapers around the world carried news of his death on their front pages the next day. Several notable people, including US President Barack Obama, British Prime Minister David Cameron, Microsoft founder Bill Gates, and The Walt Disney Company's Bob Iger commented on the death of Jobs. Wired News collected reactions and posted them in tribute on their homepage. Other statements of condolence were made by many of Jobs's friends and colleagues, such as Steve Wozniak and George Lucas. After Steve Jobs's death, Adult Swim aired a 15-second segment with the words "hello" in a script font fading in and then changing into "goodbye".
Major media published commemorative works. Time published a commemorative issue for Jobs on October 8, 2011. The issue's cover featured a portrait of Jobs, taken by Norman Seeff, in which he is sitting in the lotus position holding the original Macintosh computer, first published in Rolling Stone in January 1984. The issue marked the eighth time Jobs was featured on the cover of Time, and included a photographic essay by Diana Walker, a retrospective on Apple by Harry McCracken and Lev Grossman, and a six-page essay by Walter Isaacson. Isaacson's essay served as a preview of his biography, Steve Jobs.
Bloomberg Businessweek also published a commemorative, ad-free issue, featuring extensive essays by Steve Jurvetson, John Sculley, Sean Wisely, William Gibson, and Walter Isaacson. On its cover, Steve Jobs is pictured in gray scale, along with his name and lifespan.
At the time of his resignation, and again after his death, Jobs was widely described as a visionary, pioneer and genius—perhaps one of the foremost—in the field of business, innovation, and product design, and a man who had profoundly changed the face of the modern world, revolutionized at least six different industries, and who was an "exemplar for all chief executives". His death was widely mourned and considered a loss to the world by commentators across the globe.
After his resignation as Apple's CEO, Jobs was characterized as the Thomas Edison and Henry Ford of his time. In his The Daily Show eulogy, Jon Stewart said that unlike others of Jobs's ilk, such as Thomas Edison or Henry Ford, Jobs died young. He felt that we had, in a sense, "wrung everything out of" these other men, but his feeling on Jobs was that "we're not done with you yet." Malcolm Gladwell in The New Yorker asserted that "Jobs's sensibility was editorial, not inventive. His gift lay in taking what was in front of him ... and ruthlessly refining it."
There was also a dissenting tone in some coverage of Jobs's life and works in the media, where attention focused on his near-fanatical control mindset and business ruthlessness. A Los Angeles Times media critic reported that the eulogies "came courtesy of reporters who—after deadline and off the record—would tell stories about a company obsessed with secrecy to the point of paranoia. They remind us how Apple shut down a youthful fanboy blogger, punished a publisher that dared to print an unauthorized Jobs biography and repeatedly ran afoul of the most basic tenets of a free press." Free software pioneer Richard Stallman drew attention to Apple's strategy of tight corporate control over consumer computers and handheld devices, how Apple restricted news reporters, and persistently violated privacy: "Steve Jobs, the pioneer of the computer as a jail made cool, designed to sever fools from their freedom, has died". On his blog, Stallman has summarized Jobs as having a "malign influence" on computing because of his leadership in guiding Apple to produce closed platforms. Silicon Valley reporter Dan Gillmor stated that under Jobs, Apple had taken stances that in his view were "outright hostile to the practice of journalism" – these included suing three "small fry" bloggers who reported tips about the company and its unreleased products including attempts to use the courts to force them to reveal their sources, suing teenager Nicholas Ciarelli, who wrote enthusiastic speculation about Apple products beginning at age 13 (Rainey wrote that Apple wanted to kill his 'ThinkSecret' blog as "It thought any leaks, even favorable ones, diluted the punch of its highly choreographed product launches with Jobs, in his iconic jeans and mock turtleneck outfit, as the star.")
Honors and public recognition
After Apple's founding, Jobs became a symbol of his company and industry. When Time named the computer as the 1982 "Machine of the Year", the magazine published a long profile of Jobs as "the most famous maestro of the micro".
Jobs was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Ronald Reagan in 1985, with Steve Wozniak (among the first people to ever receive the honor), and a Jefferson Award for Public Service in the category "Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under" (also known as the Samuel S. Beard Award) in 1987. On November 27, 2007, Jobs was named the most powerful person in business by Fortune magazine. On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Jobs into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.
In August 2009, Jobs was selected as the most admired entrepreneur among teenagers in a survey by Junior Achievement, having previously been named Entrepreneur of the Decade 20 years earlier in 1989, by Inc. magazine. On November 5, 2009, Jobs was named the CEO of the decade by Fortune magazine.
In November 2010, Jobs was ranked No.17 on Forbes: The World's Most Powerful People. In December 2010, the Financial Times named Jobs its person of the year for 2010, ending its essay by stating, "In his autobiography, John Sculley, the former PepsiCo executive who once ran Apple, said this of the ambitions of the man he had pushed out: 'Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. This was a lunatic plan. High-tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product.'" The Financial Times closed by rhetorically asking of this quote, "How wrong can you be."
In January 2012, when young adults (ages 16 – 25) were asked to identify the greatest innovator of all time, Steve Jobs placed second behind Thomas Edison.
In March 2012, global business magazine Fortune named Steve Jobs the "greatest entrepreneur of our time", describing him as "brilliant, visionary, inspiring", and "the quintessential entrepreneur of our generation".
In February 2014, and according to a list of upcoming subjects published by The Washington Post, U.S. Postal Service approved that Steve Jobs will get a limited release postage stamp in 2015.
In an interview with Tim Cook in September 2014, he revealed that Jobs' main office, and even nameplate, still remains as it was in 2011.
Portrayals and coverage in books, film, and theater
- The Bite in the Apple (2013) by Chrisann Brennan.
- iCon: Steve Jobs (2005), by Jeffrey S. Young & William L. Simon
- Inside Apple (2012), a book by Adam Lashinsky that reveals the secret systems, tactics, and leadership strategies that allowed Steve Jobs and his company to work.
- iWoz (2006), by Steve Wozniak, a co-founder of Apple. It is an autobiography of Steve Wozniak, but it covers much of Jobs's life and work at Apple.
- Steve Jobs (2011), an authorized biography written by Walter Isaacson.
- The Little Kingdom (1984) by Michael Moritz, documenting the founding of (then) Apple Computer.
- The Man Who Thought Different (2009) by Karen Blumenthal
- The Second Coming of Steve Jobs (2001), by Alan Deutschman
- The Steve Jobs Way: iLeadership for a New Generation (2011), by Jay Elliot, a former Sr. Vice-President at Apple. It reveals Jobs's work at Apple – from the inception of game-changing products like the Apple II and the Macintosh, to his stunning fall from grace, and on to his rebirth at the helm of Apple.
- The Zen of Steve Jobs (2012) written by Caleb Melby with artwork by Jess3, a graphic novel about the relationship of Jobs and Kobun Chino Otogawa and how the monk's mentorship influenced Jobs's business philosophy.
- How to Think Like Steve Jobs (2013) by Daniel Smith.
- iGenius: How Steve Jobs Changed the World – a 2011 Discovery Channel documentary hosted by Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman.
- The Machine That Changed the World – Part 3 of this 1992 five-part documentary, called The Paperback Computer, prominently featured Jobs and his role in the early days of Apple.
- Steve Jobs: Billion Dollar Hippie," a 2011 BBC Documentary.
- Steve Jobs: One Last Thing – a 2011 PBS documentary produced by Pioneer Productions. A slightly shortened and localized version of the show was broadcast in the United Kingdom the following day titled, Steve Jobs: iChanged the World – on Channel 4.
- Steve Jobs: The Lost Interview, released in 2012 includes the full 70 minute interview Jobs gave in 1995 for the documentary, Triumph of the Nerds.
- Mobilize: A Film About Cell Phone Radiation, a 2014 documentary, features Jobs in archived interviews.
- Golden Dreams, a 2001 short film about the history of California show at Disney California Adventure Park. Steve Jobs is portrayed by Mark Neveldine.
- Untitled future film on Jobs – A Sony Pictures film with a screenplay and directed by Aaron Sorkin.
- Jobs – a 2013 independent film by Joshua Michael Stern. Jobs is portrayed by Ashton Kutcher.
- Pirates of Silicon Valley – a 1999 TNT film which chronicles the rise of Apple and Microsoft from 1971 to 1997. Jobs is portrayed by Noah Wyle.
- The Agony and Ecstasy of Steve Jobs – The Public Theater, New York City, 2012, starring Mike Daisey.
- "The Walt Disney Company and Affiliated Companies – Board of Directors". The Walt Disney Company. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
- "Steve Jobs: Died Buddhist, Raised Lutheran". Archived from the original on July 28, 2012.
- Misa, T. J. (2011). "Steven P. Jobs (1955-2011)". Science 334 (6058): 919–919. doi:10.1126/science.1216019. PMID 22096183.
- O'Reilly, T. (2011). "Steve Jobs (1955–2011)". Nature 479 (7371): 42. doi:10.1038/479042a. PMID 22051667.
- Caulfield, Brian. "Steve Jobs' Death Certificate Reveals His Final Resting Place". Forbes Magazine. Archived from the original on September 16, 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2012. "His occupation was listed as 'entrepreneur.'"
- "The Marketing Genius of Steve Jobs – Part One". CBC News. Archived from the original on July 15, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "U.S. Government patent database". Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "Inventor of the Week Archive". Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Allen, Frederick E. (November 9, 2011). "Malcolm Gladwell Gets Steve Jobs Wrong". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. "By Gladwell's definition, most of the greatest inventions would be tweaks."
- Sarno, David; Goffard, Christopher (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs dies at 56; Apple's co-founder transformed computers and culture". LATimes. Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Brent Schlender, "25 most powerful people in business". CNN. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012., CNN money.
- "Pixar History". Pixar. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10. Retrieved April 25, 2008.
- "Apple – Press Info – Bios – Steve Jobs". Apple Inc. May 2006. Retrieved September 20, 2006.
- "Life after Steve Jobs: What to Expect from the Next Generation at Apple". University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Zee Kane, "Steve Jobs: Apple Was 90 Days From Going Bankrupt". Archived from the original on 2014-01-11., from an interview with Steve Jobs, TNW, 2 June 2010M
- "Apple turnaround under way". Archived from the original on 2013-11-09., cnet news, June 5, 1998
- Isaacson, Walter (2012). Steve Jobs (1st Simon & Schuster hardcover ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 358. ISBN 978-1-4516-4853-9. "At an executive session of the board in June, with Amelio out of the room, Woolard described to the current directors how he calculated their odds. "If we stay with Gil as CEO, I think there's only a 10% chance we will avoid bankruptcy," he said. "If we fire him and convince Steve to come take over, we have a 60% chance surviving. If we fire Gil, don't get Steve back, and have to search a new CEO, then we have 40% chance of surviving." The board gave him authority to ask Jobs to return."
- Vivek Kaul (May 11, 2009). "What Steve Jobs did when he was fired from Apple". DNA (newspaper). Archived from the original on 2012-02-04.
- Nick Bilton, Bilton, Nick (August 9, 2011). "Apple Is the Most Valuable Company". The New York Times., New York Times, August 9, 2011
- "The Greatest Turnaround in Corporate History?". Archived from the original on 2013-08-13., oxygen, the turnaround magazine, Autumn 2011
- Michael Hiltzik, Hiltzik, Michael (October 5, 2011). "Steve Jobs: More than a turnaround artist". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10., Los Angeles Times, October 5, 2011
- Conrad Quilty-Harper, "Steve Jobs at Apple: a relentless rise in graphs and charts". The Daily Telegraph (London). October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10., The Telegraph blogs, October 6, 2011
- "Apple CEO Jobs's Health Reports Since Cancer Diagnosis in 2003: Timeline". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10., Bloomberg News, August 25, 2011
- "Steve Jobs – A Farewell to the Legendary Icon". Business Today. October 7, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- "The Traits That Made Steve Jobs Legendary". Consumer Evangelists. October 14, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- "The Life and Times of the Legendary Steve Jobs". BusinessDictionary. March 15, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- "Why Legendary is Synonymous With Steve Jobs". Design TAXI. October 5, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- "Steve Jobs: Father of the Digital Revolution". People and Lifestyle. October 14, 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- "Steve Jobs: How Jobs turned out to be the Master of Innovation". Pursue Your Potential Today. April 23, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- "Steve Jobs: Master of Innovation". SUCCESS. May 4, 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- Simon, William L.; Young, Jeffrey S. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs, The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-72083-6
- "Steve Jobs: Design perfectionist". CNN. August 25, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- "Steve Jobs: the perfectionist who raised industrial design to the level of high art". The Spectator. September 3, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- "Tributes for Apple 'visionary' Steve Jobs". BBC News. October 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-21., "BBC News.", October 6, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Isaacson, Walter (October 24, 2011). Steve Jobs, Chapter one – "Childhood: Abandoned and Chosen". p. 3. Simon & Schuster ISBN 978-1-4516-4853-9
- Elgood, Giles (October 6, 2011). "Arabs embrace Steve Jobs and the Syrian connection". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Damon, Anjeanette (August 30, 2011). "In Reno, many unaware biological father of Apple’s Steve Jobs lives in town". Las Vegas Sun. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Dickinson, Georgina (August 27, 2011). "First chat with Apple tycoon's dad". London: The Sun. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- Newsmakers: September 1–8, 2011, Maclean's, September 19, 2011 Archived March 3, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Isaacson, 2011. Chapter One – "Childhood: Abandoned and Chosen". pp. 79–80.
- Jobs, Steve (April 20, 1995). Steve Jobs. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Interview with David Morrow. Oral and Video Histories. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Markoff, John (October 5, 2011). "Steven P. Jobs, 1955–2011: Apple's Visionary Redefined Digital Age". The New York Times.
- Joan Ferrante (2012). Sociology: A Global Perspective. Cengage Learning. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-111-83390-9.
- Shirin Sadeghi (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs' Arab-American background and the story of his adoption". New America Media.
- "Steve Jobs Dies: He Was The Most Famous Arab in the World". International Business Times. October 5, 2011.
- The Federal Bureau of Investigations; The Federal Bureau of Investigations Staff (February 20, 2012). The FBI File on Steve Jobs. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-1-62087-251-2. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "Clara Hagopian – The Real Mother of Steve Jobs". Mediamax.am. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-28.
- Lohr, Steve (January 12, 1997). "Creating Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2007.
- "Steve Jobs: Early Life". Biography. A+E Television Networks, LLC. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "The Steve Jobs Nobody Knew". Rolling Stone. October 12, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs biography". Biography.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24.[not in citation given]
- Moisescot, Romain. "Youth". All About Steve Jobs. Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Wozniak Meets Steve Jobs (Oct. 4, 1984 speech by Woz to the Denver Apple Pi club at the Colorado School of the Mines) Archived April 2, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Campbell, Duncan (June 8, 2004). "The Guardian Profile: Steve Jobs". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 2013-08-12. Retrieved March 31, 2006.
- "'You've got to find what you love,' Jobs says. This is a prepared text of the Commencement address delivered by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computer and of Pixar Animation Studios, on June 12, 2005". Stanford Report. June 14, 2005. Archived from the original on 2010-01-27. Retrieved March 31, 2006. "I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me".
- "How Steve Wozniak’s Breakout Defined Apple’s Future". Gameinformer. June 27, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- "An exclusive interview with Daniel Kottke". India Today. September 13, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-05-18. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Cassidy on Nolan Bushnell: 'Steve was difficult,' says man who first hired Steve Jobs". Mercury News. March 29, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-06. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- "What really shaped Steve Jobs' view of India – Realms of intuition or the pains of Delhi belly?". Economic Times (India). September 25, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Il santone della Silicon Valley che ha conquistato i tecno-boss" (in Italian). Repubblica.it. June 9, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Wandering in India for 7 months: Steve Jobs". Yahoo News. October 24, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- Andrews, Amanda (January 14, 2009). "Steve Jobs, Apple's iGod: Profile". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
- "Steve Jobs profile: Apple's hard core". Edinburgh: News scotsman. January 11, 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved October 29, 2009.
- John Markoff (2005). What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry. Penguin. p. preface xix. ISBN 978-0-14-303676-0. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- "Jobs's Pentagon papers: kidnap fears, drug use and a speeding ticket". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- Silberman, Steve (October 28, 2011). "What Kind of Buddhist was Steve Jobs, Really?". NeuroTribes. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Burke, Daniel (November 2, 2011). "Steve Jobs' private spirituality now an open book". USA Today. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Letters – General Questions Answered at the Wayback Machine (archived June 12, 2011), Woz.org
Wozniak, Steven: "iWoz", a: pp. 147–48, b: p. 180. W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 978-0-393-06143-7
Kent, Stevn: "The Ultimate History of Video Games", pp. 71–3. Three Rivers, 2001. ISBN 978-0-7615-3643-7
"Breakout". Arcade History. June 25, 2002. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
"Classic Gaming: A Complete History of Breakout". GameSpy. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Isaacson. 2011. Chapter Four – "Atari and India" pp. 104–107.
- "Steve Jobs and the Early Apple Years". The PC Is Born. Joomla. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- McBurney, Sally (Director) (2013). Steve Jobs 1994 Uncut Interview with English Subtitles (Video). Menlo Park, California: Silicon Valley Historical Association.
- Silicon Valley Historical Association official YouTube Channel, Steve Jobs Interview about the Blue Box Story on YouTube Archived April 2, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- McBurney, Sally (Director) (2013). Steve Jobs: Visionary Entrepreneur (Video). Menlo Park, California: Silicon Valley Historical Association.
- Bonanos, Christopher (October 7, 2011). "The Man Who Inspired Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- "The story of Polaroid inventor Edwin Land, one of Steve Jobs' biggest heroes". November 18, 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24.
- "Apple and the personal computer era". Steve Jobs Biography. Advameg, Inc. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Linzmayer, Owen W. "Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on 2012-03-20.
- Simon, Dan (June 24, 2010). "The gambling man who co-founded Apple and left for $800". CNN. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Markoff, John (September 1, 1997). "An 'Unknown' Co-Founder Leaves After 20 Years of Glory and Turmoil". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- John Sculley is quoted is saying this to official biographer Walter Isaacson, on page 386-387 of Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson
- Kahney, Leander (January 6, 2004). "Wired News: We're All Mac Users Now". Wired News. Archived from the original on 2014-01-04. Retrieved September 20, 2006.
- "America's Most Admired Companies: Jobs' journey timeline". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved May 24, 2010. Jobs and a team of engineers visit Xerox PARC, where they see a demo of mouse and graphical user interface
- Hertzfeld, Andy. "The Times They Are A-Changin'". folklore.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04.
- Seibold, Chris (May 24, 2011). "May 24, 1985: Jobs Fails to Oust Sculley". Apple Matters. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- Hormby, Thomas. "Growing Apple with the Macintosh: The Sculley years". Archived from the original on 2012-03-23., Low End Mac, February 22, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
- Hertzfeld, Andy. "The End of an Era". folklore.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04.
- Steven Levy – Insanely Great – The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything – Penguin Books, 1994, 2000 – page 204.
- Dormehl, Luke (2012). The Apple Revolution: Steve Jobs, the counterculture and how the crazy ones took over the world. Random House. pp. 258–259.
- Kopun, Francine (August 25, 2011). "Life lessons from Jobs". The Star (Toronto). Archived from the original on 2012-11-14.
- John Naughton (October 8, 2011). "Steve Jobs: Stanford commencement address, June 2005". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-02-11.
- Spector, G (September 24, 1985). "Apple's Jobs Starts New Firm, Targets Education Market". PC Week. p. 109.
- Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World's Most Colorful Company. No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-010-0. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
- Schwartz, John (1988-10-24). "Steve Jobs Comes Back". Newsweek (Palo Alto, California). p. Business. Retrieved 2014-10-20.
- The Best of NeXT Computers: NeXT Timeline
- Schlender, Brenton R. (1988-10-13). "Next Project: Apple Era Behind Him, Steve Jobs Tries Again, Using a New System". The Wall Street Journal (Western ed.) (Palo Alto, California: Dow Jones & Company Inc). p. Front Page Leader. Retrieved 2014-10-20.
- Rose, F. (April 23, 2009). Rose, Frank (August 24, 2011). "The End of Innocence at Apple: What Happened After Steve Jobs was Fired". Wired. Archived from the original on 2011-10-07.. Wired.
- "Welcome to info.cern.ch: The website of the world's first-ever web server". CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-01-18. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- Computimes. (May 31, 1990). Interpersonal computing – the third revolution?. New Straits Times. (230), 20; Schlender, B. R., Alpert, M. (February 12, 1990). Schlender, Brenton R. (February 12, 1990). "Who's ahead in the computer wars". CNN.. Fortune.
- Stross, R. E. (1993). Steve Jobs and the NeXT Big Thing. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-689-12135-7. pp. 117, 120, 246.
- O'Grady, J. (2008). Apple Inc. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-36244-6.
- "Pixar Founding Documents". Alvyray.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- ""Toy Story" Credits". IMDB. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24.
- Hill, Jim (February 5, 2012). "Steve Jobs bio reveals how Michael Eisner actively tried to derail Disney's 2006 acquisition of Pixar". Jim Hill Media. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- Wolff, Michael, "iPod, Therefore I am". Archived from the original on 2014-03-28., Vanity Fair, April 2006. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- January 25, 2006 "Disney buys Pixar for $7.4 bn". Archived from the original on 2013-11-09., rediff.com
- "The Walt Disney Company – Steve Jobs Biography".
Holson, Laura M. (January 25, 2006). "Disney Agrees to Acquire Pixar in a $7.4 Billion Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
"Pixar Becomes Unit of Disney". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 6, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- "Steve Jobs, 1955–2011". Splashnogly. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-07. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- "Jobs's 7.7% Disney Stake Transfers to Trust Led by Widow Laurene". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10.
- Apple Computer, Inc. Finalizes Acquisition of NeXT Software Inc. at the Wayback Machine, Apple Inc., February 7, 1997. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- "Apple Formally Names Jobs as Interim Chief". The New York Times. September 17, 1997. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
- "The once and future Steve Jobs". Salon.com. October 11, 2000. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16.
- Norr, Henry (January 6, 2000). "MacWorld Expo/Permanent Jobs/Apple CEO finally drops 'interim' from title". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2011-11-02. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
- "Jobs announces new MacOS, becomes 'iCEO'". CNN. January 5, 2000. Archived from the original on 2013-08-20.
- Levy, Steven (1995). Insanely great: the life and times of Macintosh, the computer that changed everything. Penguin Books. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-14-023237-0.
- "11 Presentation Lessons You Can Still Learn From Steve Jobs". Forbes. 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-06-16.
- "Apple Improves Recycling Plan". PC Magazine. April 21, 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-10-20.
- Siegler, M.G. "Steve Jobs Resigns As CEO Of Apple". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 2011-08-25. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- Gupta, Poornima (August 18, 2011). "Steve Jobs Quits". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- "AAPL: Summary for Apple IncFinance". Yahoo. January 2, 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- Valentino-DeVries, Jennifer (August 24, 2011). "Apple's Stock: Looks Like Jobs's Departure Was Priced In". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- Steve Schaefer (July 26, 2011). "Forbes". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- "DIS: Summary for Walt Disney Company". Finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved August 25, 2011.[verification needed]
- "Executive salaries on the rise again". Slideshow. NineMSN. p. 5. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- Kim, Susanna (October 7, 2011). "Future of Steve Jobs' $6.7 Billion Wealth Likely to Remain as Private As He Was". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- cnn (2009). "Steve Jobs is $282 million richer". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2014-01-07. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- Hatmaker, Taylor (October 6, 2011). "8 things you didn't know about the life of Steve Jobs". Tecca. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "Forbes 400 Richest Americans". Forbes. September 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "New questions raised about Steve Jobs's role in Apple stock options scandal". December 28, 2006. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007.
- "Apple restates, acknowledges faked documents". EE Times. December 29, 2006. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- "Group Wants $7B USD From Apple, Steve Jobs, Executives Over Securities Fraud". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04.
- "Apple, Steve Jobs, Executives, Board, Sued For Securities Fraud". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04.
- "7.30". ABCnet.au. Archived from the original on 2011-10-09. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Lateline: "Visionary Steve Jobs succumbs to cancer"". ABCnet.au. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-09. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Live from Macworld 2007: Steve Jobs keynote". 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Colvin, Geoff (March 19, 2007). "Steve Jobs' Bad Bet". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Dumaine, Brian (October 18, 1993). "America's Toughest Bosses". Fortune (CNN). Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
- Tyrangiel, Josh (December 6, 2012). "Tim Cook's Freshman Year: The Apple CEO Speaks". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on December 8, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2012. "More so than any person I ever met in my life, he had the ability to change his mind, much more so than anyone I’ve ever met. He could be so sold on a certain direction and in a nanosecond (Cook snaps his fingers) have a completely different view. (Laughs.) I thought in the early days, "Wow, this is strange." Then I realized how much of a gift it was. So many people, particularly, I think, CEOs and top executives, they get so planted in their old ideas, and they refuse or don’t have the courage to admit that they’re now wrong. Maybe the most underappreciated thing about Steve was that he had the courage to change his mind. And you know—it’s a talent. It’s a talent. So, anyway."
- Hafner, Katie (April 30, 2005). "Steve Jobs's Review of His Biography: Ban It". The New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2006.
- Weinman, Sarah (June 17, 2010). "Education Publisher John Wiley & Sons Closes Fiscal Year on a Strong Note". DailyFinance (AOL). Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Appleyard, Bryan (August 16, 2009). "Steve Jobs: The man who polished Apple". The Sunday Times (UK). p. 2. Archived from the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- "If Apple can go home again, why not Dell?". Archived from the original on 2011-10-10. CNET News. May 19, 2008.
- "Dell: Apple should close shop". CNET. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17.
- Markoff, John (January 16, 2006). "Michael Dell Should Eat His Words, Apple Chief Suggests". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
- Liedtke, Michael (October 5, 2002). "Steve Jobs resigns from Gap's board". The Berkeley Daily Planet. Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
- Benny Luo (September 12, 2013). "Apple’s Third Co-Founder Ron Wayne: On Forming the Company and Working With Steve Jobs". NextShark. Archived from the original on 2014-02-18.
- Floyd Norman (January 19, 2009). "Steve Jobs: A Tough Act to Follow". Jim Hill Media. Archived from the original on 2010-05-08. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
- Julie Bort (5 June 2014). "Steve Jobs Taught This Man How To Win Arguments With Really Stubborn People". Inc. Monsueto Ventures. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Hertzfeld, Andy (February 1981). "Reality Distortion Field". Folklore.org. Archived from the original on 2012-06-07.
- Ira Kelb (15 February 2012). "Steve Jobs: Not The Only One That Created Reality Distortion Fields". Business Insider. Business Insider Inc. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Tim Cook a better CEO than Steve Jobs?". Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Dion, Don (April 2, 2010). "Jobs' Magic Touch Behind iPad". The Street. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Furber, Paul (July 1, 2008). "Jobs Inc". Brainstorm Magazine. ITWeb Limited. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- "Steve Jobs' autobiography: a chronicle of a complex genius". The Hindu (Chennai, India). October 24, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09.
- "What Made Steve Jobs So Great?". Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Does Steve Jobs know how to code?". Archived from the original on 2013-10-31. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Searching for Magic in India and Silicon Valley: An Interview with Daniel Kottke, Apple Employee #12". Archived from the original on 2014-01-11. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "Portfolio of over 300 patents underscores Steve Jobs' attention to detail". Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- "U.S. Government patent application database". Archived from the original on 2012-04-20. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "United States Patent 8,032,843, Ording, et al., October 4, 2011, "User interface for providing consolidation and access"". Archived from the original on 2012-06-24.
- "Steve Jobs Told Me Why He Loved Being A CEO". http://www.businessinsider.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-06. Retrieved February 2, 2013. "He told me once that part of the reason he wanted to be CEO was so that nobody could tell him that he wasn't allowed to participate in the nitty-gritty of product design," Reid writes. "He was right there in the middle of it. All of it. As a team member, not as CEO. He quietly left his CEO hat by the door, and collaborated with us."
- Simpson, Mona (October 30, 2011). "A Sister's Eulogy for Steve Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- Rosenwald, Michael S. (October 24, 2011). "Walter Isaacson's 'Steve Jobs' biography shows Apple co-founder's genius, flaws". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
- Cushing, James. "Top Inventions of Steve Jobs". Tech Gadget. The Gadgets. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "Steve Wozniak on Newton, Tesla, and why the original Macintosh was a 'lousy' product". Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Carter, Mia. "Steve Jobs: 10 Products that Define this Tech Legend". Inventions and Discoveries. Archived from the original on 2012-04-04. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "Steve Jobs Introduces NeXTComputer". Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013. "Steve Jobs unveiled the NeXT, the computer he designed after moving on from Apple Computer Inc..."
- Hoppel, Adrian. "Magical Inventions of Steve Jobs". Best Inventions of Steve Jobs. Magical Inventions of Steve Jobs. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Paola Antonelli, Paola. "iMac – 1998". MetropolisMag. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Apple History: Evolution of the iMac". Apple Gazette. Apple Gazette. August 7, 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "iPod First Generation". iPod History. iPod History. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Block, Ryan. "The iPod family cemetery". iPods. EndGadget. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Asiado, Tel (August 24, 2011). "Steve Jobs: 10 Products that Define this Tech Legend". Inventions and Discoveries. Archived from the original on 2012-04-04. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "iPhone History – Read About The iPhone Story Here". The Apple Biter's Blog. November 4, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
- "iPhone History and Development". iPhone apps, tricks, tips, and hacks. Apple iPhone Blog. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "iPhone 3GS". iPhone News. iPhoneHistory. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "iPhone 4 Tech Specs". iPhone. Apple. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Arik Hesseldahl. "Thoughts on the Steve Jobs Legacy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22.. Bloomberg Businessweek. August 29, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- Stuart, Elizabeth (October 12, 2011). "Steve Jobs' philanthropy: Did he give anonymously or not at all?". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Interview to Playboy magazine". Archived from the original on 2012-04-23. Playboy. February 1985. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Dilger, Daniel. "Tim Cook exposes the lie that Steve Jobs ignored philanthropy". Steve Jobs. AppleInsider. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Elkind, Peter (March 5, 2008). "The trouble with Steve Jobs". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2010-05-18. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- Stuart, Elizabeth (October 12, 2011). "Steve Jobs' philanthropy: Did he give anonymously or not at all?". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 2012-04-23. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Bono Defends Steve Jobs After Criticism About Apple Ex-CEO's Philanthropy". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2012-01-08. September 2, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Prios, Jessica (October 7, 2011). "The Steve Jobs Philanthropy Debate". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Bono Praises Steve Jobs as Generous and ‘Poetic’". The New York Times. September 1, 2011.
- Simpson, Mona (October 30, 2011). "A Sister's Eulogy for Steve Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
- ""60 Minutes" full coverage: Steve Jobs". Cbsnews.com. October 23, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Jobs refused to meet father". Cbsnews.com. October 24, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Alan Deutschman, Richard Siklos, Heather Halberstadt, John Brodie, Duff McDonald, Craig Offman and Richard Rushfield, "The New Establishment 2005: The 50 Most Powerful Leaders of the Information Age". Archived from the original on 2013-08-13., Vanity Fair, October 1, 2005.
- Colleen Curry (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs' Estranged Father Never Got Phone Call He Waited For". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs' Biological Father: No Comment on Estranged Son's Death". International Business Times. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs" by Walter Isaacson, page 586
- Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson page 589
- "Videos – Free video downloads and streaming video – CNET TV". Cnettv.cnet.com. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Morgenson, Gretchen (December 28, 1987). "At home with Steve Jobs". Forbes.
- Tallant, Nicola (May 1, 2005). "Bono's E11.5M 'Bargain Buy'". The Sunday People. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20.
- "Laurene Powell Jobs – PARSA". PARSA Community Foundation. 2006. Archived from the original on September 14, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
- Mitchell, Alison (December 27, 1996). "Building a Bulging War Chest: How Clinton Financed His Run". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Gauvin, Peter and Arrington, Vanessa (August 9, 1996). "Waverley Street: Clinton stops by Palo Alto for dinner". Palo Alto Online.
- Kahney, Leander (January 27, 2003). "Jobs for President? Not This Time". Wired. Archived from the original on 2014-02-24. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-4516-4853-9.
- Egelko, Bob (January 10, 2007). "Appeals court says Jobs can't raze Woodside mansion". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2012-01-12.
- Samuels, Diana (February 16, 2011). "Demolition begins on Steve Jobs' Woodside Mansion". Mercury News. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09.
- "Steve Jobs' black turtleneck reportedly explained in biography". The Los Angeles Times. October 11, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-26. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
- "Wear the Exact Outfit of Steve Jobs for $458". Gizmodo. February 28, 2006. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- "The truth about Steve Jobs' number plate". Itwire.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-14. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- White, Charlie (October 30, 2012). "Steve Jobs' yacht revealed, christened 'Venus'". CNN MainSail. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Brade, Ellie (October 28, 2012). "Feadship launch 78m 'Venus'". Superyachtnews. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "Steve Jobs's yacht impounded over unpaid Philippe Starck design bill". London: Guardian (newspaper). December 21, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-12-28. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Andrew S. Ross (November 1, 2011). "Steve Jobs bio sheds light on Obama relationship". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". Newsmeat.com. Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- Graham Smith. "Smith, Graham (October 14, 2011). "Steve Jobs doomed himself by shunning conventional medicine until too late, claims Harvard expert". Daily Mail (London). Archived from the original on 2012-04-25.." Daily Mail October 14, 2011.
- Evangelista, Benny (August 2, 2004). "Apple's Jobs has cancerous tumor removed". San Francisco Chronicle. p. A1. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
- "Steve Jobs and the Celebrity Diagnosis Complete Guide to Tumors of the Pancreas". Celebrity Diagnosis. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Fiore, Kristina (December 28, 2012). "Jobs Leaves Lessons for Cancer Care". MedPage Today. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- Physician Biography for Barrie R. Cassileth. Archived November 13, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Liz Szabo (June 18, 2013). "Book raises alarms about alternative medicine". USA Today. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Ned Potter. "Steve Jobs Regretted Delaying Cancer Surgery 9 Months, Biographer Says". Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. ABC News October 20, 2011
- "Bio Sheds Light on Steve Jobs' Decision to Delay Cancer Surgery, Pursue Herbal Remedies". Fox News. October 20, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-26. Associated Press October 20, 2011
- Dan Childs; Kevin Dolak (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs' Pancreatic Cancer: A Timeline". ABC News. American Broadcasting Company. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25.
- "Pancreatic Cancer Treatment". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Elmer, Philip (June 13, 2008). "Steve Jobs and Whipple". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Kahney, Leander (August 8, 2006). "Has Steve Jobs Lost His Magic?". Cult of Mac (Wired News). Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved August 8, 2006. "Looking very thin, almost gaunt, Jobs used the 90-minute presentation to introduce a new desktop Mac and preview the next version of Apple's operating system, code-named Leopard."
- Meyers, Michelle. "Jobs speech wasn't very Jobs-like". BLOGMA (CNET News.com). Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved August 8, 2006. "[The audience was] uninspired (and concerned) by Jobs' relatively listless delivery"
- Saracevic, Al (August 9, 2006). "Where's Jobs' Mojo?". San Francisco Chronicle. p. C1. Archived from the original on 2012-01-28. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
- Cheng, Jacqui. "What happened to The Steve we know and love?". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved August 8, 2006.
- Claburn, Thomas (August 11, 2006). "Steve Jobs Lives!". InformationWeek. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- "Business Technology: Steve Jobs's Appearance Grabs Notice, Not Just the IPhone". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2009-04-26. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- "Apple says Steve Jobs feeling a little under the weather". Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. in AppleInsider.
- "Steve Jobs and Apple". Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Marketing Doctor Blog. July 24, 2008.
- "Steve Jobs Did Not Have 'Pancreatic Cancer'". Medpagetoday.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Joe Nocera (July 26, 2008). "Apple's Culture of Secrecy". The New York Times. "While his health problems amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug,' they weren't life-threatening and he doesn't have a recurrence of cancer."
- "Steve Jobs's Obituary, As Run By Bloomberg". Gawker Media. August 27, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved August 28, 2008.
- "Bloomberg publishes Jobs obit but why?". Zdnet Blogs. ZDnet. August 28, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
- Mikkelson, Barbara (September 26, 2007). "And Never The Twain Shall Tweet". Snopes.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "Apple posts 'Lets Rock' event video". Macworld. September 10, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
- "Live from Apple's "spotlight turns to notebooks" event". Engadget. October 14, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- Stone, Brad (December 17, 2008). "Apple's Chief to Skip Macworld, Fueling Speculation". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
- "Steve Jobs' Health Declining Rapidly, Reason for Macworld Cancellation". Gizmodo. December 30, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Jobs, Steve (January 5, 2009). "Letter from Apple CEO Steve Jobs" (Press release). Apple Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- "Apple's Jobs admits poor health". BBC News. January 5, 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-08-25. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- "Apple Media Advisory" (Press release). Apple Inc. January 14, 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Steve Jobs recovering after liver transplant". CNN. June 23, 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-03-31. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- "Liver Transplant in Memphis: Jobs' was Sickest Patient on Waiting List". Celebrity Diagnosis. June 24, 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24.
- Helft, Miguel (January 17, 2010). "Apple Says Steve Jobs Will Take a New Medical Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- "Steve Jobs to take medical leave of absence but remain Apple CEO". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04.
- Abell, John (June 8, 2011). "Video: Jobs Pitches New 'Mothership' to Approving Cupertino City Council". Wired. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Letter from Steve Jobs To the Apple Board of Directors and the Apple Community (resignation letter August 24, 2011) Archived 15 April 2012 at WebCite
- "Apple Resignation Letter" (Press release). Apple Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs Resigns as CEO of Apple" (Press release). Apple Inc. August 24, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- Biddle, Sam (October 19, 2011). "Steve Jobs Worked the Day Before He Died". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
- "Rare Pancreatic Cancer Caused Steve Jobs' Death" (Press release). Voice of America. October 7, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-24. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Rushe, Dominic (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs, Apple co-founder, dies at 56". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 2013-06-19.
- Gullo, Karen (October 10, 2011). "Steve Jobs Died at Home of Respiratory Arrest Related to Pancreatic Cancer". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on February 10, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "Apple flies flags at half staff for Steve Jobs". KOKI-TV. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Microsoft lowers flags to half staff in tribute to Steve Jobs". Network World. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Disney World flags at half-staff in memory of Steve Jobs". Bay News 9. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- Tim Cook (October 5, 2011). "Statement by Apple's Board of Directors" (Press release). Apple Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- Pepitone, Julianne (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs: The homepage tributes". CNN. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "Apple website pays tribute to Steve Jobs". The Times of India (India). October 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "Remembering Steve Jobs". Apple Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "Pixar Animation Studios". Pixar. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Ian Sherr; Geoffrey A. Fowler (October 7, 2011). "Steve Jobs Funeral Is Friday". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2013-08-13.
- "Remembering Steve Jobs". Apple Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Fernandez, Sofia M. (October 14, 2011). "Private Steve Jobs Memorial Set for Oct. 16 – The Hollywood Reporter". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs Memorial Service To Be Held Oct. 16". The Wall Street Journal. October 15, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Vascellaro, Jessica E. (October 17, 2011). "Steve Jobs's Family Gave Moving Words at Sunday Memorial – Digits – WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "A Celebration of Steve's Life". Archived from the original on 2013-12-29. Apple.com Retrieved October 26, 2011
- "Steve Jobs Died of Respiratory Arrest Amid Pancreatic Tumor". ABC News. October 10, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Gupta, Poornima (October 10, 2011). "Steve Jobs died of respiratory arrest, tumor". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Griggs, Brandon (October 5, 2011). "Steve Jobs, Apple founder, dies". CNN. Archived from the original on 2014-02-15.
- "Statement by Steve Jobs' Family" (Press release). Steve Jobs's Family. October 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- Yukari Iwatani Kane; Geoffrey A. Fowler (October 6, 2011). "Steven Paul Jobs, 1955–2011: Apple Co-Founder Transformed Technology, Media, Retailing And Built One of the World's Most Valuable Companies". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- Video on YouTube
- "Statement by the President on the Passing of Steve Jobs" (Press release). The White House. October 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25.
- "Prime Minister pays tribute to Steve Jobs". Number10.gov.uk. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs". Thegatesnotes.com. October 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "1955–2011: Steve Jobs". Wired News. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16.
- "Industry Icons Unique Legacy". Sky News. October 6, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Patricia Sellers (October 6, 2011). "George Lucas on Steve Jobs". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2012-01-28. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "TIME's Steve Jobs Covers". Time. April 2, 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-08-31.
- Elmer-DeWitt, Philip (October 6, 2011). "The day Steve Jobs called Walter Isaacson". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2014-03-19. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Roeper, Richard (2011). "Steve Jobs' impact goes far beyond phones, computers". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved October 7, 2011. "Steve Jobs was one of the most foremost pioneers of our time ... he made a difference that will be felt for 560 years to come"
- "Leading article: The sad loss of one of a kind". The Independent (London: INM). October 6, 2011. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved October 6, 2011. "Steve Jobs revolutionised no fewer than six different industries: personal computers, mobile phones, music publishing, animated films, digital publishing and tablet computing ... His genius was unconfined ... an exemplar for all chief executives ... a visionary ... ""
- Fairweather, Alastair (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs: A genius to the end". Mail & Guardian Online (South Africa). Archived from the original on 2012-01-10. Retrieved October 7, 2011. "Through sheer hard work... Jobs changed the world, not once, but three times. His companies and products have delighted and inspired hundreds of millions."
- Rushton, Katherine (October 6, 2011). "Apple: can the company continue the magic of Steve Jobs?". The Daily Telegraph (London). ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Archived from the original on 2012-01-10. Retrieved October 6, 2011. "Steve Jobs encapsulated a rare union of technological genius and an instinctive and perfectionist eye for design ... his death is a major loss to the world at large"
- Lashinsky, Adam (November 5, 2009). "Steve Jobs: CEO of the decade". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Schuman, Michael (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs the businessman: Can Apple thrive without him?". Time. Archived from the original on 2012-01-16. Retrieved October 6, 2011. "[I]n the world of business, he will also be honored as an absolutely brilliant CEO ... Jobs was probably unrivaled in the world today in matching great ideas with savvy marketing and pristine execution"
- Chapman, Glen (October 6, 2011). "Apple 'genius' Steve Jobs dies from cancer". WNCF TV. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 6, 2011. "Tributes flowed in from around the world ... Ordinary people, many of whom learned of his death on their iPhones and iPads, swamped Twitter using the trending hashtag #thankyousteve to pay tribute..."
- Gelernter, David (October 6, 2011). "Steve Jobs and the Coolest Show on Earth". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones). ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved October 6, 2011. "Steve Jobs had a genius for seeing what was good and refining, repackaging and reselling it with dazzling panache. He knew what engineering was for, he understood elegance and he made machines that were works of art."
- Cain Miller, Claire (August 25, 2011). "Where Some Earn Enmity, Jobs Won Affection". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Nocera, Joe (August 26, 2011). "What Makes Steve Jobs Great". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Jon Stewart (October 6, 2011). October 06, 2011 – Jason Sudeikis. Comedy Partners. Event occurs at 19:45. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Gladwell, Malcolm. "The tweaker: The real genius of Steve Jobs". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Rainey, James (October 7, 2011). "Steve Jobs and Apple vs. a free press". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2011-11-06. Retrieved October 25, 2011. "The man and his company's focus on control led to repeated fights with reporters"
- "Richard Stallman's dissenting view on Steve Jobs". Los Angeles Times. October 8, 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Amrutha Gayathri (October 8, 2011). "Richard Stallman's Remarks on Steve Jobs: 'I'm Not Glad He's Dead, but I'm Glad He's Gone'". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 2012-06-26. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- Clarke, Gavin (October 10, 2011). "Stallman: Jobs exerted 'malign influence' on computing". Theregister.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Stallman, Richard (July 1, 2011). "06 October 2011 (Steve Jobs)". Political notes from 2011: July–October. Stallman.org. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- Naughton, John (October 16, 2011). "Dennis Ritchie: the other man inside your iPhone". The Observer (London: Guardian News and Media Limited (Guardian Media Group)). Archived from the original on 2012-01-07. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Mearian, Lucas (October 13, 2011). "Dennis Ritchie and Steve Jobs – quite the juxtaposition". Computer World. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
- Cocks, Jay; Michael Moritz (January 3, 1983). "The Updated Book of Jobs". Time. Archived from the original on 2013-08-13. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- Golden, Frederic (January 3, 1983). "Other Maestros of the Micro". Time. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- "The National Medal Of Technology Recipients 1985 Laureates". Uspto.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- "National Winners | public service awards". Jefferson Awards.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- "25 most powerful people in business – #1: Steve Jobs". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- "Jobs inducted into California Hall of Fame". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08., California Museum. Retrieved 2007.
- "Steve Jobs bigger than Oprah!" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Bo Burlingham and George Gendron (April 1, 1989). "The Entrepreneur of the Decade". Inc. magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- "The most Powerful People on Earth". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15.
- Richard Waters; Joseph Menn (December 22, 2011). "Silicon Valley visionary who put Apple on top". Financial Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012. "In his autobiography, John Sculley, the former PepsiCo executive who once ran Apple, said this of the ambitions of the man he had pushed out: "Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. This was a lunatic plan. High-tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product." How wrong can you be."
- Richard Waters and Joseph Menn, "Silicon Valley visionary who put Apple on top". Archived from the original on 2013-09-21., Financial Times, December 22, 2010. The actual text from the biography is:
Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. That's why it hired a soft-drinks guy in the first place. By now, however, I knew this was a lunatic plan; our race to realize it had been a death march. Technology companies are only superficially in the same category as consumer products companies. We couldn't bend reality to all our dreams of changing the world. The world would also have to change us. Our perspective had been hopelessly wrong. High tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product. The consumer business had collapsed at the end of 1984. Most people who bought computers stuffed them in the closet because balancing a checkbook wasn't reason enough to flick on the switch. Consumers weren't ready to put computers in their homes as easily as they installed telephones, refrigerators, televisions, and even Cuisinarts. They weren't willing to pay a couple of thousand dollars for something they didn't know what to do with.—John Sculley and John A. Byrne, Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple – a journey of adventure, ideas and the future, Harper & Row, 1987
- "Steve Jobs statue unveiled in Hungary science park". GlobalPost. December 21, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-10. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs top young adult list of greatest innovators". Los Angeles Times. January 27, 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- Arico, Joe (December 22, 2011). "Steve Jobs Wins Special Grammy". Mobiledia.com. Retrieved December 28, 2011.
- "Fortune Names Steve Jobs "Greatest Entrepreneur Of Our Time"". Fortune. March 26, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- "John Carter Dedicated to Steve Jobs". Vulture. April 8, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- "Pixar's 'Brave' Pays Ghostly Tribute to Steve Jobs". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10.
- Ford, Rebecca (July 10, 2013). "Steve Jobs, Billy Crystal to Receive Disney Legends Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2014-04-04. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- Steve Jobs Is Getting A Postage Stamp | TechCrunch Archived February 21, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Postage stamp subjects approved by U.S. Postal Service Archived May 7, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Apple's Tim Cook on Steve Jobs (Sept. 12, 2014)". Charlie Rose. Sep 12, 2014. Retrieved Sep 13, 2014.
- "The Steve Jobs Way: iLeadership for a New Generation by Jay Elliot – Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists". Goodreads.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-05. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Nede, Jethro (October 10, 2011). ""MythBusters" stars Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman host the one-hour documentary". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Billion Dollar Hippie
- "Steve Jobs: One Last Thing PBS show website". Pbs.org. October 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- The narrator in the UK version of the show has a British accent, for the purpose of catering to the local market.
- Truta, Filip. "'Steve Jobs: iChanged the World' Documentary Airs Tonight in the UK". Softpedia. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- "Steve Jobs: iChanged the World". http://www.channel4.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
- "Aaron Sorkin reveals Steve Jobs film plot". BBC. November 16, 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-03-29. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- McClintock, Pamela (April 1, 2012). "Joshua Michael Stern will begin shooting the film in May, with Five Star Institute's Mark Hulme producing and financing; Sony is planning a separate Jobs biopic". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2014-01-05.
- "Noah Wyle on playing Steve Jobs". CNN. Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Fortune
- "The Agony and Ecstasy of Steve Jobs". Archived from the original on 2014-01-07., The Public Theater website
- Josh Ong (2014-03-09). "AMC's "Halt and Catch Fire" pilot brilliantly depicts the Wild West of the 1980s PC revolution". The Next Web. Retrieved 2014-08-21.
- Butcher, Lee (1987). Accidental Millionaire: The rise and fall of Steve Jobs at Apple. Paragon House. ISBN 978-0-913729-79-3.
- Caddes, Carolyn (1986). Portraits of Success: Impressions of Silicon Valley Pioneers. Tioga Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-935382-56-3.
- Cringely, Robert X. (1996). Accidental Empires. HarperBusiness. ISBN 978-0-88730-855-0.
- Denning, Peter J.; Frenkel, Karen A. (1989). "A conversation with Steve Jobs". Communications of the ACM 32 (4): 436–433. doi:10.1145/63334.63336.
- Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 978-0-7679-0433-9.
- Freiberger, Paul; Swaine, Michael (1999). Fire in the Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer. McGraw-Hill Trade. ISBN 978-0-07-135892-7.
- Hertzfeld, Andy (2004). Revolution in the Valley. O'Reilly Books. ISBN 978-0-596-00719-5.
- Kahney, Leander (2004). The Cult of Mac. No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-886411-83-8.
- Levy, Steven (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Anchor Press, Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-19195-1.
- Levy, Steven (1994). Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-670-85244-4.
- Malone, Michael S. (1999). Infinite Loop. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-85410-638-4. Bantam Doubleday Dell. ISBN 978-0-385-48684-2.
- Markoff, John (2005). What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-03382-9.
- Schlender, Brent, "The Lost Steve Jobs Tapes", Fast Company magazine, May 2012 issue
- Simon, William L.; Young, Jeffrey S. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs, The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-72083-6.
- Stross, Randall E. (1993). Steve Jobs and The NeXT Big Thing. Atheneum Books. ISBN 978-0-689-12135-7.
- Slater, Robert (1987). Portraits in Silicon. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-19262-0. Chapter 28
- Young, Jeffrey S. (1988). Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward. Scott, Foresman & Co. ISBN 978-0-673-18864-9.
- Wozniak, Steve (2006). iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I invented the personal computer, co-founded Apple and had fun doing it. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-06143-7.
See also: Timeline of Steve Jobs media for a chronological list of his interviews, media appearances, and speaking engagements and their subject matter.
|Find more about Steve Jobs at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Jobs's Macworld keynote in 1997 where he announced the partnership with Microsoft on YouTube
- Steve Jobs (June 2005). Steve Jobs's 2005 Stanford Commencement Address. Stanford University.
- "Thoughts on Flash" by Steve Jobs, April 2010.
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Steve Jobs at the Internet Movie Database
- Works by or about Steve Jobs in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Steve Jobs collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Steve Jobs collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Steve Jobs collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal
- Bloomberg Game Changers: Steve Jobs A 48-minute video on Steve Jobs by Bloomberg
- Steve Jobs Profile at Forbes
- Cammeron, Brenna (October 5, 2011). "Steve Jobs Dies: A Timeline Of His Health". The Huffington Post.
- "Steve Jobs collected news and commentary at". AllThingsD.
- Steve Jobs remembrance notes from the community
- Federal Bureau of Investigation dossier on Steven Paul Jobs.
- The Lost Steve Jobs Speech
- Steve Jobs: Visionary Entrepreneur – a 2013 documentary produced by the Silicon Valley Historical Association. It incorporates footage from a 1994 interview with Jobs conducted by the historical association.
- Steve Jobs 1994 Uncut Interview – an unedited 1994 interview with Jobs produced by the Silicon Valley Historical Association
- "The Career of Apple and Steve Jobs". Time. 2007. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Hertzfeld, Andy. "The Original Macintosh". folklore.org. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Lohr, Steve (January 12, 1997). "Creating Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Booth, Cathy; Jackson, David S.; Marchant, Valerie (October 6, 2011). "STEVE'S JOB: RESTART APPLE". Time. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Elkind, Peter (March 5, 2008). "The trouble with Steve Jobs". Fortune. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- McCracken, Harry (October 5, 2011). "Steve Jobs, 1955–2011: Mourning Technology's Great Reinventor". Time. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- "The FBI File on Steve Jobs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Steve Jobs in 1994: The Rolling Stone Interview, Rolling Stone – 1994, republished January 17, 2011. Archived URL
- PDF (143 KB) – April 20, 1995.
- The Seed of Apple's Innovation, BusinessWeek – October 12, 2004.
- How Big Can Apple Get?, Fortune – February 21, 2005.
- 'Good for the Soul' at the Wayback Machine (archived October 22, 2006) Newsweek, October 15, 2006.
- Bill Gates and Steve Jobs (video and transcript of on stage interview), AllThingsD, May 30, 2007.
- Videotaped Deposition of Steven P. Jobs in front of the Securities and Exchange Commission, March 18, 2008
- Interview with Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, Jobs's biological father, by Mohannad Al-Haj Ali, published in Al Hayat and reprinted by Ya Libnan, February 28, 2011
- "Steve Jobs's Appearances at D, the Full Video Sessions". AllThingsD.
|CEO of Apple