Steven Emerson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other people of the same name, see Steve Emerson (disambiguation).
Steven Emerson
Steve Emerson-color corrected.jpg
Emerson at a convention in June 2008
Occupation Journalist; author; executive director of the Investigative Project on Terrorism (IPT)
Nationality U.S.
Alma mater Brown University (B.A., 1976; M.A., 1977)
Subject National security, terrorism, and Islamic extremism
Notable works Jihad in America
Notable awards 1994 George Polk Award for best television documentary; top prize for best investigative report from Investigative Reporters and Editors

Steven Emerson is an American journalist, author, and pundit on national security, terrorism, and Islamic extremism.

Emerson is the author of six books, and co-author of two more. His television documentary Jihad in America won the 1994 George Polk Award for best Television Documentary, and top prize for best investigative reporting from Investigative Reporters and Editors. He is also the Executive Director of the Investigative Project on Terrorism (IPT), a data-gathering center on Islamist groups.[1][2] Emerson frequently testifies before Congressional committees on al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations.[3]

Education and early career[edit]

Emerson received a Bachelors of Arts from Brown University in 1976, and a Master of Arts in sociology in 1977.

He went to Washington, D.C., in 1977 with the intention of putting off his law school studies for a year.[2] He worked on staff as an investigator for the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee until 1982, and as an executive assistant to Democratic Senator Frank Church of Idaho.[4][5]

Journalist and commentator[edit]

Emerson was a freelance writer for The New Republic, for whom he wrote a series of articles in 1982 on the influence of Saudi Arabia on U.S. corporations, law firms, public-relations outfits, and educational institutions. In their pursuit of large contracts with Saudi Arabia, he argued, U.S. businesses became unofficial, unregistered lobbyists for Saudi interests.

He expanded this material in 1985 in his first book, The American House of Saud: The Secret Petrodollar Connection.

Emerson has contributed commentaries to Newsmax since July 2009, covering terrorism-related topics.[6]

U.S. News and World Report and CNN[edit]

From 1986 to 1989 he worked for U.S. News and World Report as a senior editor specializing in national security issues.[4][7] In 1988, he published Secret Warriors: Inside the Covert Military Operations of the Reagan Era, a strongly critical review of Ronald Reagan-era efforts to strengthen U.S. covert capabilities. Reviewing the book, The New York Times wrote: "Among the grace notes of Mr. Emerson's fine book are many small, well-told stories".[8] In 1990, he co-authored The Fall of Pan Am 103: Inside the Lockerbie Investigation, which argued for the alternate theory that Iran was behind the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. Reviewing the book, The New York Times wrote: "Mr. Emerson and Mr. Duffy have put together a surpassing account of the investigation to date, rich with drama and studded with the sort of anecdotal details that give the story the appearance of depth and weight."[9] The newspaper listed it as an "editors' choice" on their Best Sellers List, and cited it as a "notable book of the year".[10][11]

In 1990, he joined CNN as an investigative correspondent and continued to write about terrorism. In 1991, he published Terrorist: The Inside Story of the Highest-Ranking Iraqi Terrorist Ever to Defect to the West, detailing how Iraq spread and increased its terror network in the 1980s with U.S. support.

Jihad in America[edit]

Emerson left CNN in 1993 to work on a documentary, Terrorists Among Us: Jihad in America, for the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). The documentary, filmed between 1988 and 1993 at rallies in half a dozen U.S. cities as he posed as an inquisitive journalist exploring the tenets of Islam, instead attempted to portray clandestine operations of Islamist groups in the U.S.[12] It aired as a Frontline TV broadcast in November 1994.

In the documentary, he stood in front of the Twin Towers and warned:

"The survivors of the explosion at the World Trade Center in 1993 are still suffering from the trauma, but as far as everyone else is concerned, all this was a spectacular news event that is over. Is it indeed over? The answer is: apparently not. A network of Muslim extremists is committed to a jihad against America. Their ultimate aim is to establish a Muslim empire."[2]

Emerson noted at the outset that "the overwhelming majority of Muslims are not members of militant groups." But the message of the documentary was that Muslim organizations have ties with militants who preach violence against moderate Muslims, as well as against Christians and Jews, and that charitable contributions to those organizations inevitably become "extremist." He documented meetings in American hotels at which Muslims called for a holy war, raised funds for "terror" organizations (remember that Nelson Mandela was recently removed from a State Department "Terrorist" List, and "predicted" that "terror" would ultimately come to the U.S. despite saying nothing whatever about longstanding U.S. government operations in support of those Emerson considers foreign-based actors).[2] He also filmed Muslim-American youth training with weapons in summer camps, and interviewed supporters of terror who he claims operated under the cover of charitable organizations.[2]

He showed videos of Muslim speakers such as Abdullah Azzam in Brooklyn urging his audience to wage jihad in America (which Azzam explains "means fighting only, fighting with the sword"), Fayiz Azzam (a cousin of Abdullah) telling an Atlanta audience:

"Blood must flow. There must be widows; there must be orphans, hands and limbs must be severed, and limbs and blood must be spread everywhere in order that Allah's religion can stand on its feet",[13][14]

Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman

and Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman in Detroit (later convicted of conspiring to blow up several New York City landmarks, and sentenced to life in prison) calling for jihad against the infidel. Sheik Mohammed Al-Asi of Chicago said: "If the Americans are placing their forces in the Persian Gulf, we should be creating another war front for the Americans in the Muslim world," and at a November 1993 Hamas rally in New Jersey hundreds chanted: "We buy paradise with the blood of the Jews."[15]

Near the end of the strung-together quotations, Emerson editorialized that: "As the activities of Muslim radicals expand in the United States, future attacks seem inevitable. Combating these groups within the boundaries of the Constitution will be the greatest challenge to law enforcement since the war on organized crime."[16]

The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), a Muslim organization in Washington noted that PBS denied requests by Arab and Muslim journalists to screen the program before its showing, and that Emerson was promoting scapegoating and bigotry. The New York Times opined that CAIR's concerns "prove understandable (which is not to say the pressure to change or cancel the documentary was justified)," writing that Emerson's polemic "is likely to awaken viewers' unease" over what some some Muslim groups in the United States "may be up to".[14]

After the film aired in South Africa, Emerson said that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) informed him that a South African Muslim group had dispatched a team to the U.S. to assassinate him. According to Slate, people who visit his Washington, D.C., office are blindfolded en route, and employees call it "the bat cave". [17]

He received the 1994 George Polk Award for "Best Television Documentary."[18][19] He also received the top prize for best investigative report from the Investigative Reporters and Editors Organization (IRE).[20]

Emerson elaborated on this subject in his 2006 book, Jihad Incorporated: A Guide to Militant Islam in the U.S.[21]

Voiced concerns[edit]

It was Emerson's 1994 documentary Jihad in America that first linked Sami Al-Arian to the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ).[22] When in February 2003 the U.S. indicted Al-Arian, accusing him of being the North American leader of PIJ and financing and helping support suicide bombings, The New York Times noted that Emerson "has complained about Mr. Al-Arian's activities in the United States for nearly a decade."[23] In 2006, Al-Arian pleaded guilty to conspiracy to help a "specially designated terrorist" organization, PIJ, and was sentenced to 57 months in prison, after a jury deadlocked on 9 charges (8 of which the government agreed to drop as part of the plea bargain) and acquitted him on another 8.[24] Al-Arian said that he knew of the terrorist group's violent acts, though no evidence was admitted at trial showing that he was involved with violent acts.[24]

In the wake of the bombing of the Oklahoma City Federal Building (by Timothy McVeigh), Emerson said, in what a The Boston Globe article termed a "shrill prediction", that it bore the "trait" of "Middle Eastern terrorists" because it "tried to kill as many as possible."[25] Emerson responded to criticism of his comment by saying that he was referring only to a fanatical minority in the Islamic community, and pointed out that he was one of many experts interviewed after the bombing who concluded that there were similarities between Oklahoma City and Middle Eastern terrorism.[26]

In testimony on March 19, 1996, to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Emerson described the Holy Land Foundation as "the main fund-raising arm for Hamas in the United States."[27] In 2007, federal prosecutors brought charges against Holy Land for funding Hamas and other Islamic terrorist organizations. In 2009, the founders of Holy Land were given life sentences for "funneling $12 million to Hamas."[28]

In early 1997, Emerson told the Middle East Quarterly that the threat of terrorism "is greater now than before the World Trade Center bombing [in 1993] as the numbers of these groups and their members expands. In fact, I would say that the infrastructure now exists to carry off twenty simultaneous World Trade Center-type bombings across the United States."[29]

On February 24, 1998, Emerson testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee: "The foreign terrorist threat in the United States is one of the most important issues we face.... We now face distinct possibilities of mass civilian murder the likes of which have not been seen since World War II."[30] And just a few months before 9/11, he wrote on May 31, 2001: "Al-Qaeda is ... planning new attacks on the US.... [It has] learned, for example, how to destroy large buildings.... Al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups ... have silently declared war on the US; in turn, we must fight them as we would in a war."[31]

In January 2001 it was reported that Emerson pointed out that the U.S. had missed clues that would have allowed it to focus on al-Qaeda early on. One of the men convicted in the World Trade Center bombing, Ahmad Ajaj, returned to the U.S. from Pakistan in 1992 with a bomb manual later seized by the U.S. An English translation of the document, entered into evidence in the World Trade Center trial, said that the manual was dated 1982, that it had been published in Amman, Jordan, and that it carried a heading on the front and succeeding pages: "The Basic Rule". But those were all errors, as Emerson pointed out. The heading said "al-Qaeda" – which translates as "The Base". In addition, the document was published in 1989, a year after al-Qaeda was founded, and the place of publication was Afghanistan, not Jordan.[32]

In 2010, The New York Times quoted Emerson criticizing the Obama administration’s solicitation of Muslim and Arab-American organizations such as the Islamic Society of North America, which was listed as an unindicted co-conspirator in a 2008 case against the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, whose leaders were convicted of funneling money to Hamas, saying: "I think dialogue is good, but it has to be with genuine moderates. These are the wrong groups to legitimize."[33] ISNA denies any links to terrorism.[33]

The Investigative Project on Terrorism Foundation[edit]

Emerson is also the founder and Executive Director of The Investigative Project on Terrorism, a large intelligence archive on Islamist groups around the world.[2] He started the Project in 1995, after the broadcast of Jihad in America. In 1995, he incorporated his company, SAE Productions, in Delaware, and also established his private think-tank, The Investigative Project to conduct investigations into radical Islamist groups and terrorist activities. Emerson maintained a sharp focus on terrorism which resulted in wide recognition for his think tank.[34] Since September 2001, Emerson has testified numerous times before committees of both houses of Congress on terrorist funding, and the operational structures of groups including al-Qaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah, and Islamic Jihad.[2] He has also given interviews debunking 9/11 conspiracy theories, and is a contributing expert to the Counterterrorism Blog.[35]

In March 2004, Newsweek ran an article entitled "How Clarke 'Outsourced' Terror Intel; the Former Counterterrorism Chief Tapped a Private Researcher to Develop Intelligence on Al-Qaeda. The Disclosure Sheds New Light on White House Frustrations with the FBI". The article detailed the high level of reliance Clarke placed on Emerson's information, in lieu of that of the FBI.[36]

In April 2006, Emerson organized The Investigative Project on Terrorism Foundation as a nonprofit organization, and serves as its Executive Director. In January 2007, the IRS granted the organization tax exempt status. The organization's nonprofit status received a great deal of scrutiny from critics. According to an article published in the Tennessean by Bob Smietana, allegations of ties between the newly organized charity, and Emerson's for-profit company, SAE, were brought to the attention of the IRS.[37] It was alleged that the foundation's tax free dollars were being funneled to Emerson's production company in violation of the law. A spokesperson for Emerson's SAE Productions said the approach had already been vetted by the group's lawyers and declared legal, that it was set up that way for security reasons, and he further explained that Emerson does not take any profits from SAE Productions. No formal charges were made, or disciplinary actions taken against Emerson. The foundation maintained its nonprofit status.[38]

Reception[edit]

Praise[edit]

Emerson has been referred to by The New York Times as "an expert on intelligence", and by the New York Post as "the nation's foremost journalistic expert on terrorism".[39][40] Articles in other newspaper publications have referred to Emerson as either a counter-terrorist or terrorism[41] expert.

Richard Clarke, former head of counter-terrorism for the United States National Security Council, said of Emerson:

"I think of Steve as the Paul Revere of terrorism ... We'd always learn things [from him] we weren’t hearing from the FBI or CIA, things which almost always proved to be true."[42]

Philip Jenkins, in his 2003 book, Images of terror: what we can and can't know about terrorism responded that certain groups criticize Emerson in order to silence and delegitimize his views.[43]

Libertarian[44] journalist[45] Stephen Suleyman Schwartz wrote an article defending Emerson that attempted to explain why Islamists dislike him.[46]

Mixed[edit]

A review by Michael Wines in The New York Times of The Fall of Pan Am 103, while noting that the authors were "respected journalists" and "not to be lightly dismissed," and that they "talked to 250 people, including senior law enforcement and intelligence officials in seven nations", opined that charges of Iranian complicity were presented "without much substantiation" although Wines did go on to say that: "They build a convincing circumstantial case against Iran and its terrorist agents."[47]

Criticism[edit]

Gloria Cooper of the Columbia Journalism Review gave a "dart" to Emerson and co-author Brian Duffy for their "want of professional manners", saying a number of passages in their The Fall of Pan Am 103 bore "a striking resemblance, in both substance and style" to reports in the Syracuse Post-Standard.[48]

Adrienne Edgar, writing in The New York Times Book Review described Emerson and Cristina del Sesto's 1991 book Terrorist, as "marred by factual errors (such as mistranslations of Arabic names) and marked by "a pervasive anti-Arab and anti-Palestinian bias."[49] Emerson and del Sesto responded: "We defy anyone to point to any passages that suggest such bias.... these characterizations of the book are wild figments of Ms. Edgar's political imagination."[50]

In a 1995 editorial in The Nation, Robert I. Friedman accused Emerson of "creating mass hysteria against American Arabs."[51]

A 1999 article in the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram Weekly criticized the detention of two Saudi airplane passengers who mistakenly tried to open the cockpit door of the plane they were on, thinking it was the bathroom. The newspaper claimed Emerson was the cause of the "Islamophobia" that led to the authorities' overreaction, as he had "turned denigrating Islam into a full-time job."[52]

Emerson was also criticized in a 2002 review of American Jihad in Salon by Eric Boehlert. Boehlert called Emerson a "heavy-handed scaremonger who fails to grasp – or deliberately blurs – the most rudimentary distinctions between different radical groups." Boehlert also criticizes Emerson for saying that Ghazi Ibrahim abu Mezer, a Palestinian immigrant who planned to blow up a Brooklyn, N.Y., subway station,[53][54] was a member of Hamas when James Kallstrom, head of the New York FBI office, said that he wasn't.[55]

Boehlert also criticized Emerson for suggesting that Katherine Smith, a 49-year-old Tennessee motor vehicles inspector who died when her car exploded was the victim of assassination even though authorities denied this. Boehlert quotes a former director of counterterrorism for the CIA Vincent Cannistraro who said of Emerson's thesis:

"He's trying to say people who move to this country and set up charities and think tanks and are associated with Hamas and Islamic Jihad and Hezbollah, that there's some kind of connection between them and Sept. 11, that there's a liaison or support network. He doesn't know what he's talking about."[55]

In their report "Fear, Inc. The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America", the liberal advocacy group Center for American Progress accused Emerson of being an "misinformation expert" who, through his testimonies, exaggerates the presence of Sharia law in America and terrorism sympathizers in mosques.[56]

Controversies[edit]

Emerson has played a role in criminal prosecutions. In the Sami Al-Arian case he was a major source of information and advice to the federal prosecutors and the Tampa Tribune.[57] He has a close relationship to Gordon Kromberg, a federal prosecutor in the Eastern District of Virginia.[58] The Holy Land Foundation prosecution relied on evidence produced by Emerson’s Investigative Project.[59]

Boston Marathon Bombing[edit]

On April 17, 2013, Emerson stated on the Fox News program Hannity that he had been informed by an official in the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) that a Saudi national who was present during the Boston Marathon bombing was suspected of playing a role in it and was being deported to Saudi Arabia at behest of the Saudi government, claiming that “this is the way things are done with Saudi Arabia. You don’t arrest their citizens, you deport them because they don’t want them to be embarrassed and that’s the way we appease them.”[60] Emerson also told C-SPAN that day that "[the Saudi national] has not been convicted, but the burns on his skin match the explosive residue of the bomb that exploded".[61] The following day, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, whose department supervises the ICE, dismissed Emerson's allegation during a meeting with the House Homeland Security Committee, claiming "it is so full of misstatements and misapprehensions."[62] US officials also refuted allegations that the Saudi national, identified as 22 year-old Abdulrahman Ali Alharbi,[63] had been regarded as a suspect and stated that had he had only been questioned by authorities as a witness.[64]

After viewing about videos allegedly posted by the suspects of the Boston Marathon bombing on YouTube, on April 19, 2013, Emerson alleged that the suspects, Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev, "were jihadists."[65] Many local, state and federal officials, including President Barack Obama, have cautioned against jumping to conclusions while there's an ongoing investigation.[66]

Media and testimony[edit]

Books[edit]

Chapters[edit]

Documentaries[edit]

Select articles[edit]

Select testimony[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Biography", Steveemerson.com.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Landau, Benny (December 26, 2009). "Foresight, hindsight". Haaretz. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  3. ^ countercurrents.org. 
  4. ^ a b Emerson, Steven. Secret Warriors: Inside the Covert Military Operations of the Reagan Era, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1988 (see bio on back flap).
  5. ^ "How Saudis manipulated to win the sale of AWACS, ''The Miami News'', February 17, 1982, accessed January 28, 2010". News.google.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  6. ^ Emerson, Steve. "Steve Emerson - Radical Monitor". Newsmax. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  7. ^ "Mink, Eric, "Fitting 'Iran-Contra' Into U.S. History," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 30, 1989, accessed January 28, 2010". Nl.newsbank.com. January 30, 1989. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  8. ^ Powers, Thomas (June 26, 1988). "Powers, Thomas, "Solderies of Misfortune," ''The New York Times'', June 26, 1988, accessed January 28, 2010". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  9. ^ Wines, Michael, "On the Trail of the Terrorists," The New York Times, April 29, 1990, accessed January 28, 2010
  10. ^ ""Best Sellers", ''The New York Times'', May 6, 1990, accessed January 28, 2010". Nytimes.com. May 6, 1990. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  11. ^ ""Notable Books of the Year," ''The New York Times'', December 2, 1990, accessed January 28, 2010". Nytimes.com. December 2, 1990. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  12. ^ ''Terrorism today'', Christopher C. Harmon, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 0-7146-4998-8, accessed January 29, 2010. Books.google.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  13. ^ Gabriel, Brigitte, "Because they hate: a survivor of Islamic terror warns America," Macmillan, 2006, ISBN 0-312-35837-7, accessed January 29, 2010. Books.google.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  14. ^ a b Goodman, Walter (November 21, 1994). "Goodman, Walter, "Television Review; In 'Jihad in America,' Food for Uneasiness," ''The New York Times'', November 21, 1994, accessed January 21, 2010". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Emerson, Steven, "Islamic Extremists Are Active in U.S.," ''The New York Times'', February 18, 1995, accessed January 29, 2010". Nytimes.com. February 18, 1995. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  16. ^ Mink, Eric, "Was 'Jihad' Extremely Prophetic?," The New York Daily News, April 21, 1995, accessed January 28, 2010
  17. ^ Plotz, David (March 14, 2003). "''The Slate field guide to Iraq Pundits''". Slate.msn.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  18. ^ "George Polk Award". Brooklyn.liu.edu. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  19. ^ Perez, Richard (March 7, 1995). "Perez-Pena, Richard, "Report on Nicotine Levels Wins Polk Award," ''The New York Times'', March 7, 1995, accessed January 28, 2010". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  20. ^ Steven Emerson's biography at speakers' bureau Web site.
  21. ^ Jihad Incorporated, interview with Steve Emerson, FrontPageMagazine, October 16, 2006
  22. ^ "Silvestrini, Elaine, "Al-Arian To Be Deported", ''The Tampa Tribune'', April 15, 2006, accessed January 20, 2010". Tampatrib.com. April 15, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  23. ^ Lichtblau, Eric (February 21, 2003). "Lichtblau, Eric, and Miller, Judith, "Indictment Ties U.S. Professor and 8 Others to Terror Group," ''The New York Times'', February 21, 2003, accessed January 29, 2010". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. [dead link]
  24. ^ a b MegLaughlin, In his plea deal, what did Sami Al-Arian admit to?, St. Petersburg Times, April 23, 2006.
  25. ^ [Sennott, Charles M., "After bombings, America faces up to prejudice", The Boston Globe, June 21, 1995, accessed May 2, 2010]
  26. ^ Bender, Penny. "Penny Bender Fuchs, American Journalism Review ''Jumping to Conclusions in Oklahoma City?'' June 1995". Ajr.org. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Defending Judith Miller, II", The New York Sun, September 30, 2004, accessed January 29, 2010
  28. ^ "Holy Land founders get life sentences", JTA, May 28, 2009, accessed January 29, 2010]
  29. ^ Pipes, Daniel, "U.S. Failure; The tactical blame falls on the U.S. government," National Review, September 11, 2001, accessed January 28, 2010
  30. ^ ''Let Freedom Ring: Winning the War of Liberty Over Liberalism'', Sean Hannity, HarperCollins, 2004, ISBN 0-06-073565-1, accessed January 29, 2010. Books.google.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  31. ^ Jacoby, Jeff, "Steven Emerson and the NPR Blacklist," Jewish World Review, February 8, 2002, accessed January 20, 2010
  32. ^ Miller, Judith; Engelberg, Stephen (January 14, 2001). "Holy Warriors; A Network of Terror; One Man and a Global Web of Violence," ''The New York Times'', January 14, 2001, accessed January 29, 2010". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  33. ^ a b Elliott, Andrea (April 18, 2010). "White House Quietly Courts Muslims in U.S.". NYTimes.com. Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  34. ^ George Michael (2010). Middle East Quarterly. pp. 15–25 http://www.meforum.org/2578/steven-emerson-combating-radical-islam.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ Steven Emerson, Counterterrorism Blog.
  36. ^ "Terror Watch: How Clarke 'Outsourced' Terror Intel; the Former Counterterrorism Chief Tapped a Private Researcher to Develop Intelligence on Al-Qaeda. The Disclosure Sheds New Light on White House Frustrations with the FBI", Newsweek, March 31, 2004, accessed January 29, 2010
  37. ^ Bob Smietana (October 24, 2010). The Tennessean, a Gannet Co. http://www.tennessean.com/article/20101024/NEWS01/10240374/The+price+of+fear.  Missing or empty |title= (help); |chapter= ignored (help)
  38. ^ Laura Rozen (October 24, 2010). Politico http://www.politico.com/blogs/laurarozen/1010/Nonprofit_groups_ties_to_forprofit_entity_draws_scrutiny.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. ^ Martin Tolchin and Richard Halloran, "Washington Talk Briefing; Undercover Talk," The New York Times, June 1, 1988, accessed January 28, 2010
  40. ^ Oppenheim, Noah, "Extremism and Its Apologists," The [[Harvard Crimson]], October 22, 1999. Retrieved January 29, 2010].
  41. ^ Neuman, Johanna (2009-01-25). "Obama criticized for associating with Ingrid Mattson". LATimes. 
  42. ^ Brown Alumni Magazine, November–December 2002.
  43. ^ Philip Jenkins (2003). Images of terror: what we can and can't know about terrorism. NY: Aldine De Gruyter. p. 60. ISBN 0-202-30679-8. 
  44. ^ Michael Totten (February 14, 2011). "From San Francisco to Sarajevo". Pajamas Media. 
  45. ^ E.g., see Schwartz's Intellectuals and Assassins (2001).
  46. ^ Schwartz, Stephen. "Why the Islamists Target Steve Emerson". Why the Islamists Target Steve Emerson. Center for Islamic Pluralism. 
  47. ^ "Michael Wines, ''NY Times Books'', '' On the Trail of the Terrorists'', April 29, 1990". New York Times. April 29, 1990. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  48. ^ Gloria Cooper (July 1990). "Darts and Laurels". Columbia Journalism Review 29 (2): 14. 
  49. ^ Adrienne Edgar (May 19, 1991). "A Defector's Story". New York Times. 
  50. ^ Steven Emerson, Cristina Del Sesto (June 16, 1991). "A Defector's Story – Letter". New York Times. 
  51. ^ Robert I. Friedman (May 15, 1995). "One Man's Jihad (Editorial)". The Nation 260 (19).  reprinted in "Counterproductive Counterterrorism: How Anti-Islamic Rhetoric is Impeding America’s Homeland Security" (PDF). Muslim Public Affairs Council. December 2004. p. 18. Retrieved May 1, 2010. [dead link]
  52. ^ Atia, Tarek, "Mistaken identities, part X," Al-Ahram Weekly, November 25 – December 1, 1999, accessed January 29, 2010
  53. ^ Azadeh Moaveni (2002). "Could Suicide Bombings Happen Here?". Time Magazine. 
  54. ^ Joseph P.Fried (1998). "Palestinian Gets Life Sentence For Planning to Bomb Subway". New York Times. 
  55. ^ a b "Books | Terrorists under the bed". Salon.com. March 5, 2002. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  56. ^ http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/religion/report/2011/08/26/10165/fear-inc/
  57. ^ Perry, Mitch. "John Sugg on why won’t the Tampa Trib tell you what people in Nashville know about Steve Emerson?". Retrieved July 2012. 
  58. ^ Gerstein, Josh. "A Prosecutor Is Called 'Relentless'". New York Sun. Retrieved July 2012. 
  59. ^ Andrew Cochran (2007-11-29). "Special Public Event: Panel on Holy Land Foundation & Muslim Brotherhood". Retrieved March 2014. 
  60. ^ . Fox News Insider http://foxnewsinsider.com/2013/04/18/terrorism-expert-saudi-national-questioned-boston-bombings-being-deported-national. Retrieved April 19, 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  61. ^ salon.com, 16 April 2013, Why is Steve Emerson still a “terrorism expert”?
  62. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex. "GOP Rep. embraces Boston conspiracy theory". Salon.com. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  63. ^ Johnson, Cord. "Steve Emerson Bungles It Again: Saudi National Not Being Deported". Gawker.com. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  64. ^ Miller, Greg (April 16, 2013). "Injured Saudi is a witness, not a suspect, in Boston bombing". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  65. ^ FoxNews.com
  66. ^ President Barack Obama statement, The Telegraph
  67. ^ http://www.granddeception.com/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]