||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
|Born||Steven Frederic Seagal
April 10, 1952 
Lansing, Michigan, United States
|Rank||Aikido7th degree black belt in|
|Years active||c. 1971-present|
|Occupation||Actor, film producer, martial artist, musician, writer, director, reserve deputy sheriff, entrepreneur|
|Children||seven, including Ayako Fujitani|
Steven Frederic Seagal (born April 10, 1952) is an American actor, film producer, screenwriter, film director, martial artist, musician, reserve deputy sheriff and entrepreneur. A 7th-dan black belt in Aikido, Seagal began his adult life as an Aikido instructor in Japan. He became the first foreigner to operate an Aikido dojo in Japan.
He later moved to the Los Angeles, California, area where he made his film debut in 1988 in Above the Law. By 1991, he starred in three successful films and achieved greater fame in Under Siege (1992), where he played Navy SEALs counter-terrorist expert Casey Ryback. However both On Deadly Ground (1994, which he directed) and Under Siege 2: Dark Territory (1995) did less well at the box office. During the latter half of the 1990s, he starred in three more theatrical films and the direct-to-video (in the US) film The Patriot. Since that time, with the exception of Exit Wounds (2001) and Half Past Dead (2002), his career has shifted almost entirely to direct-to-video films (often low budget productions and shot in Europe or Asia). From 1998 to 2009, he appeared in a total of 22 of these. At the age of 59, he returned to the big screen as Torrez in the 2010 film Machete. In 2011, he filmed the third season of his reality show Steven Seagal: Lawman.
Seagal is a guitarist, recording artist, and the founder of Steven Seagal Enterprises. In addition to his professional achievements, he is also known as an environmentalist, an animal rights activist, and a supporter of the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Aikido
- 3 Hollywood career
- 4 Themes and motifs
- 5 Other ventures
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Allegations and lawsuits
- 8 Activism
- 9 Controversy in Estonia
- 10 Honors
- 11 Stunts
- 12 Filmography
- 13 Discography
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Seagal was born in Lansing, Michigan, where he lived until he was five years old, when the family moved to California. His mother, Patricia (1930–2003), was a medical technician, and his father, Samuel Steven Seagal (1928–1991), was a high school math teacher. His mother was of Irish ancestry and his father was Jewish. In a Russian interview, Seagal stated that he had a Mongolian grandfather (either Buryat or Kalmyk). His parents relocated to Fullerton, California, where Seagal attended Buena Park High School in Buena Park.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
At a very young age, Seagal lied about his age and got a job as a dishwasher at a restaurant named The Wagon Wheel. One of the cooks at the restaurant was a Japanese shotokan karate expert and noticed Seagal moved very quickly around the kitchen. He taught Seagal the basics of karate. Seagal began training in aikido under master Harry Kiyoshi Ishisaka, founder of the Orange County Aikido School (Orange County Aiki Kai) (OCAK) in 1964. Seagal considers him to have been the most important martial arts teacher in his life. Seagal moved to Japan at some point between the ages of 19 and 21 with his father who was visiting for military purposes, and met karate masters and decided to remain in Japan. He received his 1st dan degree (Shodan) under the direction of Koichi Tohei. He continued to train in aikido as a student of Seiseki Abe, Tohei (whose aikido organization, Ki Society, Seagal refused to join in favor of staying with the Aikikai), Kisaburo Osawa, Hiroshi Isoyama and the second doshu Kisshomaru Ueshiba. He attained a 7th dan degree and Shihan in aikido and became the first foreigner to operate an aikido dojo in Japan.
After returning to California in 1974, Seagal met Miyako Fujitani, an aikido instructor teaching in Los Angeles. He returned with her to her native Japan in 1975 where they married. When Seagal's father-in-law, also an aikido instructor, retired, Seagal became the new head of the organization known as Tenshin Aikido in Jūsō, Osaka City (affiliated with the Aikikai). Seagal is known by his students as Take Sensei. When Seagal left his dojo in Osaka, his then-wife Miyako became the caretaker of the dojo which has continued to the present day. Seagal initially returned to Taos, New Mexico, with his student (and later film stuntman) Craig Dunn, where they opened a dojo, although Seagal spent much of his time pursuing other ventures. After another period in Japan, Seagal returned to the U.S. in 1983 with senior student Haruo Matsuoka. They opened an aikido dojo, initially in North Hollywood, California, but later moved it to the city of West Hollywood. Seagal left Matsuoka in charge of the dojo, which he ran until the two parted ways in 1997.
He has helped train Brazilian mixed martial artists Anderson Silva and Lyoto Machida. Silva, who is the former UFC Middleweight Champion, went on to knock out Vitor Belfort with a kick, in their fight at UFC 126 in February 2011, and Machida also credited him for helping him perfect the front kick that he used to knock out Randy Couture at UFC 129 in May 2011.
In 1987, Seagal began work on his first film, Above the Law (titled Nico in Europe), with director Andrew Davis and reportedly as a favor to a former aikido student, the agent Michael Ovitz. Ovitz took Seagal to Warner Brothers to put on an aikido demonstration and the executives were impressed by him and offered him several scripts; Seagal turned them down but agreed to write what would become Above the Law. Following its success, Seagal made three more movies – Hard to Kill, Marked for Death, and Out for Justice – that were box office hits, making him an action hero. Later, he achieved wider, mainstream success in 1992 with the release of Under Siege (1992). That film reunited Seagal with director Andrew Davis, and was a blockbuster in the U.S. and abroad, grossing $156.4 million worldwide.
Seagal then directed On Deadly Ground (1994). This film, in which he also starred, emphasized environmental and spiritual themes, signaling a break with his previous persona as a genre-ready inner-city cop. The film featured Michael Caine as well as R. Lee Ermey and Billy Bob Thornton in minor supporting roles. On Deadly Ground was poorly received by film critics, but despite many critics denouncing Seagal's long environmental speech in the film, Seagal considers it to have been one of the most important and relevant moments in his career. Seagal filmed a sequel to one of his most successful films, Under Siege, titled Under Siege 2: Dark Territory (1995), and cop drama The Glimmer Man (1996). In 1996, he had a role in the Kurt Russell film Executive Decision, in which he played a special ops soldier who only appears in the film's first 45 minutes. He subsequently made another environmentally conscious film, Fire Down Below (1997), wherein he was an EPA agent fighting industrialists dumping toxic waste in the Kentucky hills, but the movie was commercially unsuccessful. This film ended his original multi-picture contract with Warner Bros.
The next year, Seagal made The Patriot, another environmental thriller which was his first direct-to-video release in the United States (though it was released theatrically in most of the world). Seagal produced this film with his own money, and the film was shot on-location on and near his farm in Montana.
After producing Prince of Central Park, Seagal returned to cinema screens with the release of Exit Wounds in March 2001. The film had fewer martial arts scenes than Seagal's previous films, but it was a commercial success, taking almost $80 million worldwide. However, he was unable to capitalize on this success and his next two projects were both critical and commercial failures. The movie Ticker, co-starring Tom Sizemore and Dennis Hopper, was filmed in San Francisco before Exit Wounds, and went straight to DVD. Half Past Dead, starring rap star Ja Rule, made less than $20 million worldwide.
All of the films Seagal has made since the latter half of 2001 have been released direct-to-video (DTV) in North America, with some theatrical releases to other countries around the world. Seagal is credited as a producer and sometimes a writer on many of these DTV movies, which include Black Dawn, Belly of the Beast, Out of Reach, Submerged, Kill Switch, Urban Justice, Pistol Whipped, Against the Dark, Driven to Kill, A Dangerous Man, Born to Raise Hell and The Keeper, a movie released in Japan fifteen weeks earlier than the United States.
Return to the big screen and television work
In 2009, A&E Network premiered the reality television series; Steven Seagal: Lawman, focusing on Seagal as a deputy in Louisiana. In 2010, Seagal appeared in his first theatrically released film in nearly a decade, as the main villain in Robert Rodriguez' Machete. In 2011, Steven Seagal produced and starred in a 13-episode television series entitled True Justice.
Themes and motifs
Many of Seagal's films share unique elements which have become characteristic of his body of work. His characters often have an elite past affiliation with the CIA, Special Forces or Black Ops (for example, Casey Ryback in Under Siege, a former Navy SEAL, Jack Cole in The Glimmer Man, an ex-CIA police detective, or Jonathan Cold in The Foreigner and Black Dawn, an ex-CIA Black Ops freelancer.) His characters differ from those of other action movie icons by virtue of their near-invulnerability; they almost never face any significant physical threat, easily overpowering any opposition and never facing bodily harm or even temporary defeat. A notable exception is 2010's Machete, which features Seagal in a rare villainous role.
Seagal's films frequently reflect aspects of his personal life. His music appears in several of his films (for example, Into The Sun and Ticker, where he appears as part of a bar band), as does his fluency in other languages (he speaks Japanese in Into the Sun) and religion (Buddhism features prominently in The Glimmer Man and Belly of the Beast). His past as an aikido teacher is also incorporated into several films, for example Above the Law (which opens with a montage of real-life photos from Seagal's own past) or Shadow Man, where he is seen giving an aikido demonstration. Several of his films also feature prominent political messages, most notably the environmentalism evident in On Deadly Ground, which ends with a lengthy speech in which Seagal (playing ex-CIA firefighter Forrest Taft) accuses big business of rampant environmental degradation:
Big Business is primarily responsible for destroying the water we drink, the air we breathe and the food we eat. They have no care for the world they destroy, only for the money they make in the process... They basically control the legislation, and, in fact, they control the Law... They influence the media so that they can control our minds. They have made it a crime to speak out for ourselves, and if we do so we're called "conspiracy nuts" and we're laughed at... We have to force these companies to operate safely and responsibly, and with all our best interests in mind.
In 2008, author and critic Vern (no last name) published Seagalogy, a work which examines Seagal's filmography using the framework of auteur theory. The book divides Seagal's filmography into different chronological "eras" with distinct thematic elements. The book was updated in 2012 to include more recent films and Seagal's work on the reality TV show Steven Seagal: Lawman.
In addition to acting and aikido, Seagal also plays the guitar, and his songs have been featured in several of his movies (such as Fire Down Below and Ticker). In 2005, he released his first album, Songs from the Crystal Cave, which has a mix of pop, world, country and blues music. It features duets with Tony Rebel, Lt. Stichie, Lady Saw, and Stevie Wonder. The soundtrack to Seagal's 2005 film Into the Sun features several songs from the album. One of his album tracks, "Girl It's Alright", was also released as a single in parts of the world alongside an accompanying music video created for it.
Seagal's second album, titled Mojo Priest, was released in April 2006. Subsequently, he spent summer 2006 touring the United States and Europe with his band, Thunderbox, in support of the album.
Law enforcement work
Seagal is currently a Reserve Deputy Chief in the Jefferson Parish, Louisiana Sheriff's Office. Seagal owns a second home in Louisiana and spends several months a year there. According to the show, Seagal graduated from a police academy in Los Angeles over twenty years ago and has a certificate from Peace Officer Standards & Training (POST), an organization that accredits California police officers. However, POST officials in California and Louisiana have no record of Seagal being certified, and Seagal's rank in Louisiana is ceremonial.
In November 2008, A&E announced that they had begun taping Steven Seagal: Lawman, which follows his work in the Jefferson Parish Sheriff's Office. The series premiered on A&E on December 2, 2009. Seagal stated that "I’ve decided to work with A&E on this series now because I believe it’s important to show the nation all the positive work being accomplished here in Louisiana—to see the passion and commitment that comes from the Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office in this post-Katrina environment." The series premiere drew 3.6 million viewers, ranking as best season opener for any original A&E series ever.
On April 14, 2010, the series was suspended by Jefferson Parish Sheriff Newell Normand due to a sexual trafficking lawsuit filed against Seagal. The suit was later dropped. A&E resumed the show for the second season which began on October 6, 2010.
Outside of his film work, Seagal has volunteered, lending his voice as a narrator for an activist film project, Medicine Lake Video, which seeks to protect sacred tribal ground near his ranch in Siskiyou County.
He owns a dude ranch in Colorado and a home in the Mandeville Canyon section of Brentwood, a wealthy neighbourhood in Los Angeles. He has adopted many animals from shelters. Seagal is a Buddhist. In February 1997, Lama Penor Rinpoche from Palyul monastery announced that Seagal was a tulku, and specifically the reincarnation of Chungdrag Dorje, a 17th-century terton (treasure revealer) of the Nyingma, the oldest sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Seagal's recognition aroused controversy in the American Buddhist community, with Helen Tworkov commenting in Tricycle to doubt the extent of Seagal's "spiritual wisdom" and to suggest that Seagal bought his Buddhahood by donations to Penor's Kunzang Palyul Choling center. Penor Rinpoche responded to the controversy by saying that Seagal, although acting in violent movies had not actually killed people, and that Seagal was merely recognized, whereas enthronement as a tulku would require first a "lengthy process of study and practice".
Relationships and family
Seagal is married and has seven children from his four relationships.
In Japan Seagal married his first wife, Miyako Fujitani, the daughter of an aikido instructor. With Fujitani, he had a son, model and actor Kentaro Seagal, and a daughter, writer and actress, Ayako Fujitani. Seagal left Miyako Fujitani to go back to the United States.
In the United States he married former Days of our Lives actress Adrienne La Russa, despite his divorce to Fujitani not yet being finalized. During his marriage to La Russa, Seagal reportedly saw actress and model Kelly LeBrock in the 1984 Gene Wilder film Woman in Red and said that she was "his destiny". He began a relationship with her and she eventually became pregnant with his child. When news of this emerged, Seagal's marriage to La Russa was annulled and he then married LeBrock on 5 September 1987. His three children with LeBrock are daughters Annaliza and Arissa, and son Dominic. In 1994, LeBrock filed divorce papers citing "irreconcilable differences". During this time it emerged that Seagal was having an affair with Arissa Wolf, who was hired to be a nanny to Seagal and Lebrock's children. Seagal has a daughter with Arissa Wolf, Savannah.
Seagal is currently married to Erdenetuya Batsukh (Mongolian: Эрдэнэтуяа Батсүх), better known as Elle, and with whom he has a son, Kunzang. Elle is from Mongolia. She trained as a dancer from her early age at the Children's Palace in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. After her graduation from high school and the Children's Palace, she pursued a career as a professional dancer. She won numerous dancing contests and she was considered as the top female dancer in Mongolia. She particularly excelled in ballroom dance. Erdenetuya first worked as Seagal's interpreter when he visited Mongolia in 2001.
In addition to his biological children, he is the guardian to a Tibetan child, Yabshi Pan Rinzinwangmo. Rinzinwangmo, or "Renji", is the only child of the 10th Panchen Lama of Tibet. Renji studied in the United States at American University, and Seagal was her guardian and bodyguard.
In addition to his seven children, he has two grandchildren by his eldest son Kentaro Seagal born in 2006 and 2007.
Allegations and lawsuits
Seagal has often been accused of sexual harassment during his film productions. In May 1991 during the filming of Out for Justice, Warner Brothers employees Raenne Malone, Nicole Selinger, Christine Keeve and another woman accused Seagal of sexual harassment. Malone and another women reportedly received around $50,000 each in return for a pledge of confidentiality in an out of court settlement.
In 1995, Seagal was charged with employment discrimination, sexual harassment and breach of contract. Cheryl Shuman filed a case against Seagal, accusing him of threatening and beating her during the filming of On Deadly Ground. The case was dismissed by Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Hiroshi Fujisaki in August 1995 as "repetitive and unintelligible."
On April 12, 2010, 23-year-old Kayden Nguyen filed a lawsuit against Seagal in Los Angeles County Superior Court claiming sexual harassment, illegal trafficking of females for sex, failure to prevent sexual harassment, retaliation, wrongful termination, and false representation about employment, that specified damages exceeding one million dollars. On April 13, 2010, the day after Nguyen made the claims, Seagal's attorney, Marty Singer, released this written statement to CBS news: "The lawsuit filed by Kayden Nguyen against Steven Seagal is a ridiculous and absurd claim by a disgruntled ex-employee who was fired for using illegal narcotics." Seagal personally denied the claims, yet he was forced to suspend his show, Steven Seagal: Lawman, while his attorneys attempted to resolve the case privately. On July 14, 2010, three months after Nguyen made her claims against Seagal, the case was voluntarily dismissed by the plaintiff without any public explanation.
On August 30, 2011, Steven Seagal was threatened with a lawsuit over his part in a police raid that was taped for his A&E reality show. Jesus Sanchez Llovera is seeking $100,000 in damages and wants a "formal written apology" from Seagal to his children for the death of their puppy, "a beloved family pet." Llovera says his 11-month-old puppy was shot and killed during the raid and that police also killed more than 100 of his roosters. The lawsuit was dismissed in January of 2013.
Controversy in Estonia
In July 2014 Steven Seagal was announced as a music performer at an Estonian music festival Augustibluus in the Western Estonian city of Haapsalu. The announcement immediately drew strong criticism in Estonian social media, based on Steven Seagal's alleged affiliation with the so-called Ukrainian separatist forces. Influential Estonian musicians including local rock legend Tõnis Mägi, as well as political figures such as minister of Foreign Affairs Urmas Paet and Parliament's Foreign Affair's chairman Marko Mihkelson strongly condemned inviting Steven Seagal into the country, claiming him having “recently actively participating in politics” in the way “not acceptable to democracy”.  The organizers of the events complained about receiving numerous threats, but defended action star by saying his visit in not political.
In 1999, Seagal was awarded a PETA Humanitarian Award.
|1982||The Challenge||martial arts coordinator|
|1983||Never Say Never Again||martial arts instructor|
|1985||A View To A Kill||martial arts choreographer|
|1988||Above the Law||martial arts coordinator|
|1990||Hard to Kill||martial arts coordinator|
|Marked for Death||martial arts coordinator|
|1988||Above the Law||Nico Toscani||Also receives "Story by" credit.|
|1990||Hard to Kill||Mason Storm|
|Marked for Death||John Hatcher|
|1991||Out for Justice||Det. Gino Felino|
|1992||Under Siege||Casey Ryback|
|1994||On Deadly Ground||Forrest Taft||Also director.
Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Director
Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture
Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actor
|1995||Under Siege 2: Dark Territory||Casey Ryback|
|1996||Executive Decision||Lt. Colonel Austin Travis||Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor|
|The Glimmer Man||Lt. Jack Cole|
|1997||Fire Down Below||Jack Taggart||Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture
Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actor
Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Screen Couple/Ensemble
Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Original Song
|1998||My Giant||Himself||Cameo appearance|
|1998||The Patriot||Dr. Wesley McClaren||First film to go direct-to-video|
|2001||Exit Wounds||Orin Boyd|
|2002||Half Past Dead||Sasha Petrosevitch||Last film with Seagal in a starring role to get a wide theatrical release in the USA.
Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actor
|2003||The Foreigner||Jonathan Cold|
|Out for a Kill||Prof. Robert Burns|
|Belly of the Beast||Jake Hopper|
|2004||Out of Reach||William Lansing|
|2005||Into the Sun||Travis Hunter||Also receives "Story by" credit and co-writer.|
|Today You Die||Harlan Banks|
|Black Dawn||Jonathan Cold|
|2006||Mercenary for Justice||John Seeger|
|Shadow Man||Jack Foster||Also co-writer.|
|Attack Force||Cmdr. Marshall Lawson||Also co-writer.|
|2007||Flight of Fury||John Sands||Also co-writer. Uncredited remake of 1998's Black Thunder.|
|Urban Justice||Simon Ballister|
|2008||Pistol Whipped||Matt Conlin|
|The Onion Movie||Cock Puncher|
|Kill Switch||Jacob||Also writer.|
|2009||Against the Dark||Tao|
|Driven to Kill||Ruslan|
|The Keeper||Roland Sallinger|
|2010||A Dangerous Man||Shane Daniels|
|Sheep Impact||Paul Weland||Short film.|
|2011||Born to Raise Hell||Samuel Axel||Also writer.|
|2013||Force of Execution||Mr. Alexander|
|2014||Gutshot Straight||Paulie Trunks|
|A Good Man|
|1991||Saturday Night Live||Host||Episode: "Steven Seagal/Michael Bolton"|
|2009–present||Steven Seagal: Lawman||Himself||Creator, Executive producer|
|2011–2012||True Justice||Elijah Kane||Creator, Writer, Executive producer|
- [dead link]
- Goldstein, Patrick (1988-02-14). "Steven Seagal Gets a Shot at Stardom". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- [dead link]
- "Steven Seagal Enterprises Launches New Line of Energy Drinks".
- "Steven Seagal Biography (1952?-)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Steven Seagal and the mob". Retrieved 2008-11-06.
- "Steven Seagal — EthniCelebs - Celebrity Ethnicity |What Nationality Background Ancestry Race". Ethnicelebs.com. 2009-08-15. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Sure, He's Making a Box-Office Killing—but Who Is Steven Seagal?". People. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- "HOLY CRAP! Anderson Silva trains with Steven Seagal - FIGHT VIDEO forum". Mmator.com. 2010-06-20. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Maggie Hendricks. "Steven Seagal helped Anderson Silva with KO front kick". Yahoo!.
- John Morgan. "Machida credits training changes, Seagal for UFC 129 win over Couture". MMAjunkie.
- "UFC 129 main card results: St-Pierre outjabs Shields, Aldo retains in thrilling finish". MMAjunkie.
- Goldstein, Patrick (1988-02-14). "Steven Seagal Gets a Shot at Stardom". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-11-29.
- "Business Data for Under Siege (1992)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "On Deadly Ground". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- IMDB.com (2010). "The Keeper (2009/I) – Release dates". IMDB.com. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- Vern (2008). Seagalogy: A Study of the Ass-Kicking Films of Steven Seagal. Titan Books.
- "IMDb quote page". IMDB.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Seagalogy: Updated and Expanded Edition « The Life and Art of Vern". Outlawvern.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Strauss, Gary (2009-12-02). "'Lawman' finds Steven Seagal fighting crime for real". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
- Glover, Scott (December 2, 2009). "Steven Seagal gets to play cop". Los Angeles Times.
- Andy Denhart (2008-11-23). "Steven Seagal: Lawman coming to A&E". realityblurred.com. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- "Steven Seagal's TV Show – Suspended By Cops". TMZ.
- Larry Carroll (2005-08-22). "Steven Seagal's Next Target? The Nap – Action star creates energy drink called Lightning Bolt". MTV.com. Retrieved 2006-05-07.
- "Medicine Lake Video". 2001. Retrieved 2007-01-07.
- "The People's Princess Yabshi-Pan-Rinzinwangmo". DorjeShugden.com. 30 January 2010.
- Schell, Orville (2001). "Tinseltown Tulkus". Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La from the Himalayas to Hollywood. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 73–74.
- Paul Smith. "E! TV- "E! True Hollywood Story" – Steven Seagal". E!. Retrieved 2006-06-25.
- "Mini Facts". Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC. 1993-07 - 1993-08. p. 58-. ISSN 08901759. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- "Spiritually Retreat With Steven Seagal". Luke Ford. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- "Steven Seagal Wife and Kelly LeBrock!". News.lalate.com. 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Proud father of seven Steven Seagal shows off baby son on reality show". Daily Mail (London). 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
- "Los Angeles City Ethics Commission - Search Contributions to Candidates and Officeholders". Ethics.lacity.org. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Charles Carreon. "Steven Seagal Comes Out of the Buddhist Closet". American Buddha Online Library. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
- Isabel Hilton (2003-04-02). "Buddha's daughter: A young Tibetan-Chinese woman". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2006-06-30. Retrieved 2006-05-07.
- "kentaro profile". Tenshindojous.com. 1975-10-03. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Black Belt. Active Interest Media, Inc. June 1995. p. 21. ISSN 02773066. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Hadden, Briton; Luce, Henry Robinson (1993). Time. Time Incorporated. p. 55. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- People Entertainment Almanac. People Magazine, Cader Books. 1 November 2000. p. 522. ISBN 978-1-929049-07-3. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Buchanan, Kyle (2010-04-16). "EXCLUSIVE: The Full Steven Seagal Story Jenny McCarthy Told Movieline in 1998". Movieline. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Steven Seagal sued for sexual assault". BBC. April 14, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- Martinez, Edecio (April 14, 2010). "Kayden Nguyen (NEW PICTURES): I Manipulate Men, Says Steven Seagal "Sex Toy" Accuser". CBS. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- "Steven Seagal Sued for Sex Trafficking, Assault". Fox News. April 13, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- "Steven Seagal sexual harassment case dismissed". BBC. July 15, 2010. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
- "Steven Seagal's Sex Trafficking 'n' Harassment Suit Dismissed". E! Online. 2010-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Steven Seagal Threatened With Lawsuit Over Police Raid Taped for Reality Show (Report) - Yahoo TV". Tv.yahoo.com. 2011-08-30. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Laveen man pleads guilty to cockfighting". Azcentral.com. 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Steven Seagal (2003-02-07). "Letter to Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra of Thailand by Steven Seagal" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-05-07.[dead link]
- "Steven Seagal's upcoming performance in Estonia draws criticism". Baltic News. 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2014-07-17.
- "IMDB Trivia". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Steven Seagal.|