|Repeating Rifle Model 1895|
Mannlicher M1895 (Long) Infrantry Rifle.
|Place of origin||Austria-Hungary|
|Used by||See Users|
World War I
Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20)
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Spanish Civil War
World War II
|Manufacturer||Œ.W.G. in Steyr
F.G.GY. in Budapest
|Number built||approx. 3,500,000|
|Specifications (M95 infantry rifle)|
|Weight||3.78 kilograms (8.3 lb)|
|Length||127.2 centimetres (50.1 in)|
|Barrel length||76.5 centimetres (30.1 in)|
M95/30 and M95/31: 8×56mmR
M95M and M95/24: 8×57mm IS
|Action||Straight-pull bolt action|
|Rate of fire||approx. 30-35 rounds/min|
|Maximum firing range||2000 meters (2600 paces)|
|Feed system||5-round en bloc clip (stripper clip in M95/24 and M95M), internal box magazine|
|Sights||Iron sights or telescopic sight.|
The Repeating Rifle Model M1895, better known as the Mannlicher M1895 rifle is a bolt-action rifle, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher that used a refined version of his revolutionary straight-pull action bolt. It was nicknamed the Ruck-Zu(rü)ck (German slang for "back and forth") by Landser (a German term for "troops").
The M1895 is unusual in employing a straight-pull bolt action, as opposed to the more common rotating bolt-handle of other rifles. It consequently renowned for combining a high rate of fire (around 30–35 rounds per minute) with reliability and sturdiness, although this requires decent care and maintenance with an extractor that is vulnerable to breakage due to a lack of primary extraction.
It was initially adopted and employed by the Austro-Hungarian Army throughout World War I, and retained post-war by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. The main foreign user was Bulgaria, which, starting in 1903, acquired large numbers and continued using them throughout both world wars. After Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, many were given to other Balkan states as war reparations. Numbers of these rifles also saw use in World War II, particularly by second line, reservist, and partisan units in Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy, and to lesser degree, Germany. Post war many were sold as cheap surplus, with some finding their way to the hands of African guerrillas in the 1970s and many more being exported to the United States as sporting and collectible firearms. The M1895 bolt also served as an almost exact template for the ill-fated Canadian M1905 Ross rifle, though the later M1910 used a complicated interrupted-thread instead of two solid lugs.
The M1895 was originally chambered in the 8 mm M.1893 scharfe Patrone (8×50mmR Mannlicher) cartridge. Between the world wars, both Austria and Hungary converted the majority of their rifles to fire the more powerful 8×56mmR round. Greece and Yugoslavia converted at least some of their captured M1895s to 7.92×57mm Mauser, fed by stripper clips instead of the original model's en bloc clip system. This conversion was designated M95/24 in Greece and M95M in Yugoslavia. The M95/24 is often mistakenly attributed to Bulgaria, but 8×57mm IS was never a standard caliber of the Bulgarian military. These conversions are prized by collectors for their relative scarcity and chambering in a commonly available round, but suffer from a fragile extractor and a lack of replacement parts.
M95 Infantry Rifle
This was the basic variant. It was chambered 8x50mmR Mannlicher. The iron sights were graduated from 300-2600 paces (225-1950m). It was used during World War I by majority of the Austro-Hungarian Army troops.
M95 short rifle
Weight: 3.09 kilograms (6.8 lb)
Length: 1,003 millimetres (39.5 in)
Barrel length: 500 millimetres (20 in)
M95 cavalry carbine
It was chambered 8x50mmR Mannlicher and used by cavalry units of the Austro-Hungarian Army as a replacement to the Mannlicher M1890. The sights were graduated from 500-2400 schritt (375-1800m). It didn't have bayonet lugs.
M95/30 was a conversion by the First Austrian Republic. They were converted to 8x56mmR cartridge by Österreichische Waffenfabriksgesellschaft in Steyr. One of the changes was the conversion of sights from the older pace unit to meters (300-2000m). These rifles carry the letter S stamped on the barrel.
The weapon was issued with a ten-inch blade knife bayonet that was unusual in that the edge faced upwards when mounted on the rifle. Majority of them were made by Œ.W.G. and F.G.GY., some marked 'BMF' by (Berndorfer Maschinenfabrik), some marked with two crossed hammers and two crossed swords by Ludwig Zeitler, Vienna and some marked 'Ernst Busch Solingen' were made by a manufacturer in Germany. The overall length was 360 mm and the blade was 248 mm long.
- Albania: Approx. 4000 rifles were ordered by the Albanian Revolutionary Committee in 1911. Albania also received a number of rifles after First World War as war reparations.
- First Austrian Republic: In service from October 1918 to the Anschluss.
- Austria-Hungary: In service from 1895 to Dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918. They saw a lot of action during World War I as the primary weapon of the Austro-Hungarian Army.
- Kingdom of Bulgaria: In use from 1903.
- Czechoslovakia: Czechoslovakia had about 300,000 Mannlichers of all models in their possession. The M95 was the most common.
- Finland: Finland obtained approximately 2300 rifles in the 8x50mmR Mannlicher caliber. They were marked SA and are very valuable among collectors.
- Nazi Germany: Used by German police during WW2.
- Kingdom of Greece: Greece had a number of M95/24 rifles chambered for the 8×57mm IS and after the Axis occupation of Greece in April 1941 arrived at the disposal of the Wehrmacht under the designation Gewehr 306(g).
- Kingdom of Hungary
- Kingdom of Italy: Captured on the Italian Front and received as war reparations.
- Ottoman Empire
- Second Polish Republic: Received by armed police in the 1920s.
- Francoist Spain: During the Spanish Civil War, the Soviet NKVD Agency supplied the Communist Republican Forces in Spain with 20,000 Mannlicher Wz.95 rifles and carbines purchased from the Polish Ministry of Defense. The rifle shipment did not reach the Reds, it was captured by Franco's Nationalists. Most Spanish Civil War weapons ended up on the U.S. surplus market during 1959–62. These guns may have additional Spanish Civil War markings and various graffity.
- Kingdom of Romania: Issued to second line troops.
- Russian Empire: During the First World War, captured rifles were widely used in the Russian army because of the lack of domestic rifles and cartridges for them. Russian captured rifles may carry a Cyrillic letter П (P).
- Kingdom of Serbia: Received as war reparations in original caliber, around 122,000 were converted to 8x57 IS as M95M.
- Kingdom of Yugoslavia: Some were converted to 7.92x57mm Mauser caliber as M95M and M95/24.
- Mannlicher M1890
- Mannlicher M1888
- Dutch Mannlicher
- Weapons of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
- M1895 Lee Navy — An American straight-pull rifle
- Ross rifle — A Canadian straight-pull rifle
- "Mannlicher, Ferdinand Ritter von (österreichischer Adel 1892)". Deutsche Biographie (in German). Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- "spanishcivilwar1". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- John Walter (25 March 2006). Rifles of the World. Krause Publications. p. 265. ISBN 0-89689-241-7. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Greek Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- "Yugoslavian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- "Bulgarian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- "Austrian Ersatz Bayonets". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines, Albania". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Bulgaria Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines Austro-Hungarian Weapons". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Czech Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Finnish Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "German Mannlicher M.95 Stutzens & Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Greek Austro-Hungarian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Mannlicher M95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Karabin i karabinek 8 mm wz.1895 "Mannlicher" - Kampania Wrześniowa 1939.pl". Kampania Wrześniowa 1939. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
- "Mannlicher Yasnikov M.95-type Automatic Rifle Prototype". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Polish Austro Hungarian Mannlicher Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "WorldWar2.ro". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- А. Б. Жук. Энциклопедия стрелкового оружия: револьверы, пистолеты, винтовки, пистолеты-пулеметы, автоматы. М., АСТ — Voyenizdat, 2002, p. 587
- "Mannlicher Yasnikov M.95-type Automatic Rifle Prototype". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Serbia Yugoslavia Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Rifle: Yugoslavian Mannlicher M95M and M95/24". C&Rsenal. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mannlicher M1895.|
- M95, M90, and identifying marks
- Modern Firearms – M95/30 (M1895)
- Photogallery of carabine Mannlicher M.95