Mannlicher M1895

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Repeating Rifle Model 1895
Mannlicher M1895.jpg
Mannlicher M1895 Rifle.
Type Bolt-action rifle
Place of origin  Austria-Hungary
Service history
In service 1895–1945
1898–1918 Austria-Hungary[1]
Used by See Users
Wars Boxer Rebellion
Balkan Wars
World War I
Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20)
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Spanish Civil War[2]
World War II
Production history
Designer Ferdinand Mannlicher
Designed 1895
Manufacturer Œ.W.G. in Steyr
F.G.GY. in Budapest
Produced 1896–1918
Number built approx. 3,500,000[3]
Variants See Variants
Specifications (M95 Rifle)
Weight 3.78 kilograms (8.3 lb)
Length 127.2 centimetres (50.1 in)
Barrel length 76.5 centimetres (30.1 in)

Cartridge M95: 8×50mmR
M95/30 & M95/31: 8×56mmR
M95M & M95/24: 8×57mm IS
Action Straight-pull bolt action
Rate of fire approx. 30-35 rounds/min
Feed system 5-round en bloc clip (stripper clip in M95/24 and M95M), internal box magazine
Sights Rear V-notch flip-up sight graduated to 2600 paces (1950 meters) and front post (telescopic sight on scoped variant)

The Repeating Rifle Model M1895, better known as the Mannlicher M1895 rifle is a bolt-action rifle, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher that used a refined version of his revolutionary straight-pull action bolt, much like the Mannlicher M1890 carbine. It was nicknamed the Ruck-Zu(rü)ck (German slang for "back and forth") by Landser (a German term for "troops").

The M1895 is unusual in employing a straight-pull bolt action, as opposed to the more common rotating bolt-handle of other rifles. It consequently renowned for combining a high rate of fire (around 30–35 rounds per minute) with reliability and sturdiness, although this requires decent care and maintenance with an extractor that is vulnerable to breakage due to a lack of primary extraction.

History[edit]

It was initially adopted and employed by the Austro-Hungarian Army throughout World War I, and retained post-war by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. The main foreign user was Bulgaria, which, starting in 1903, acquired large numbers and continued using them throughout both world wars. After Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, many were given to other Balkan states as war reparations. A number of these rifles also saw use in World War II, particularly by second line, reservist, and partisan units in Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy, and to lesser degree, Germany. Post war many were sold as cheap surplus, with some finding their way to the hands of African guerrillas in the 1970s and many more being exported to the United States as sporting and collectible firearms. The M1895 bolt also served as an almost exact template for the ill-fated Canadian M1905 Ross rifle, though the later M1910 used a complicated interrupted-thread instead of two solid lugs.

Ammunition[edit]

The M1895 was originally chambered in the 8mm M.1893 scharfe Patrone (8×50mmR Mannlicher) cartridge. Between the world wars, both Austria and Hungary converted the majority of their rifles to fire the more powerful 8×56mmR round. Greece[4] and Yugoslavia[5] converted at least some of their captured M1895s to 7.92×57mm Mauser, fed by stripper clips instead of the original model's en bloc clip system. This conversion was designated M95/24 in Greece and M95M in Yugoslavia. The M95/24 is often mistakenly attributed to Bulgaria, but 8×57mm IS was never a standard caliber of the Bulgarian military.[6] These conversions are prized by collectors for their relative scarcity and chambering in a commonly available round, but suffer from a fragile extractor and a lack of replacement parts.

Variants[edit]

M95 Rifle[edit]

This was the basic variant. It was chambered 8x50mmR Mannlicher. The iron sights were graduated from 300-2600 paces (225-1950m). It was used during World War I by majority of the Austro-Hungarian Army troops.

M95 Short Rifle[edit]

This short rifle (aka. Stuzten) was mainly used by special troops (i.e. Storm troops) during WWI and auxiliary soldiers in WWII. It chambered the 8x50mmR Mannlicher cartridge. Its sights were graduated from 500-2400 paces (375-1800m).

Weight: 3.09 kilograms (6.8 lb)
Length: 1,003 millimetres (39.5 in)
Barrel length: 500 millimetres (20 in)

M95 Carbine[edit]

It was chambered 8x50mmR Mannlicher and used by cavalry units of the Austro-Hungarian Army as a replacement to the Mannlicher M1890. The sights were graduated from 500-2400 paces (375-1800m). It didn't have bayonet lugs.

Conversions[edit]

The Mannlicher M95/30

M95/30 was a conversion in the First Austrian Republic by Steyr-Mannlicher during 1930-1940. These rifles carry the letter S meaning Spitzer stamped on the barrel. Main modification was the rechambering to 8x56mmR cartridge. Other changes were the conversion of rear sights from the older pace unit to meters and addition of a brass front sight protector (in Bulgaria these were removed). Most of the long rifles were cut down to Stutzen length, these can be indentified by a band mounted front sight. [7]

31.M or M95/31 was a conversion done in the Kingdom of Hungary. Rifles were converted 1931-1935 by FÉG in Budapest and carry the letter H stamped on top of the chamber. The conversion included rebarreling to the new 8x56mmR pointed bullet cartridge, new metric back sights and front-sight protectors. Most long rifles were cut down to carbine length and designated 31/a.M. A small number were rebarreled but weren't cut down for the Hungarian Governmental Guards, these had special long bayonets. They weren't used for much time and were withdrawn to storage when the new 35M rifle was introduced. Some were reissued during WW2.[8]

M95M or M95/24 was a conversion to 7.92x57mm cartridge by the Kragujevac Arsenal in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. These rifles feature rear sights almost identical to those of the Yugoslavian M24 Mauser, are fed by 5-round stripper clips and are prone to extractor malfunction. Some of these rifles were found in the Kingdom of Greece by the German forces durng WWII and were mistakenly attributed Greek origin.[9][10]

Table of features[edit]

Cartridge Length Weight Sling Swivels Bayonet Lug
Rifle Model 1895 8x50mmR 128.2 cm (50.5 in) 3.63 kg (8.0 lb) Under Yes
Carbine Model 1895 8x50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 2.95 kg (6.5 lb) Side No
Short Rifle Model 1895 8x50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.13 kg (6.9 lb) Under Yes
Carbine Model 1895 with Short Rifle lug 8x50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.18 kg (7.0 lb) Side Yes
Carbine-Short Rifle Model 1895 8x50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.22 kg (7.1 lb) Either Yes
Short Rifle-Carbine Model 1895 8x50mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.27 kg (7.2 lb) Both Yes
Rifle Model 1895/30 8x56mmR 128.2 cm (50.5 in) 3.63 kg (8.0 lb) Under Yes
Short Rifle Model 1890/30 8x56mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.22 kg (7.1 lb) Either Yes
Short Rifle Model 1895/30 from Long Rifle 8x56mmR 100 cm (39 in) 3.22 kg (7.1 lb) Either Yes
Rifle M95M and M95/24 7.92x57mm 110 cm (43 in) 3.86 kg (8.5 lb) Both Yes

[11]

Accessories[edit]

The bayonet on the left is a standard service bayonet, the other two were used by NCOs.

Bayonet[edit]

The weapon was issued with a standard ten-inch blade knife bayonet that was unusual in that the edge faced upwards when mounted on the rifle. Majority of them were made by Œ.W.G. and F.G.GY., some marked 'BMF' by (Berndorfer Maschinenfabrik), some marked with two crossed hammers and two crossed swords by Ludwig Zeitler in Vienna and some marked Ernst Busch Solingen were made by a manufacturer in Germany. The overall length was 360mm and the blade was 248mm long.

Late in World War I resources were limited and they started manufacturing replacemet (German: Ersatz) bayonets. These were fast to produce, cheap and made completely out of metal.[12]

Users[edit]

  •  Ottoman Empire
  •  Second Polish Republic:[20] Received by armed police in the 1920s.[21]
  •  Portugal
  •  Francoist Spain: During the Spanish Civil War, the Soviet NKVD Agency supplied the Communist Republican Forces in Spain with 20,000 Mannlicher Wz.95 rifles and carbines purchased from the Polish Ministry of Defense. The rifle shipment did not reach the Reds, it was captured by Franco's Nationalists. Most Spanish Civil War weapons ended up on the U.S. surplus market during 1959–62. These guns may have additional Spanish Civil War markings and various graffity.[22]
  •  Kingdom of Romania: Issued to second line troops.[23]
  •  Russian Empire: During the First World War, captured rifles were widely used in the Russian army because of the lack of domestic rifles and cartridges for them.[24] Russian captured rifles may carry a Cyrillic letter П (P).[25]
  •  Kingdom of Serbia: Received as war reparations in original caliber, around 122,000 were converted to 8x57 IS as M95M.[26]
  •  Turkey
  •  Kingdom of Yugoslavia: Rifles in original configuration were used by the Gendarmerie. Some were converted to 7.92x57mm Mauser caliber as M95M and M95/24.[26][27]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mannlicher, Ferdinand Ritter von (österreichischer Adel 1892)". Deutsche Biographie (in German). Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  2. ^ "spanishcivilwar1". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  3. ^ John Walter (25 March 2006). Rifles of the World. Krause Publications. p. 265. ISBN 0-89689-241-7. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  4. ^ "Greek Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Yugoslavian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Bulgarian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 
  7. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann9530.htm
  8. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann31.htm
  9. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Se.htm
  10. ^ http://candrsenal.com/rifle-yugoslavian-mannlicher-m95m-and-m9524/
  11. ^ http://candrsenal.com/a-quick-and-dirty-guide-mannlichers-straight-pull-rifles/
  12. ^ "Austrian Ersatz Bayonets". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines, Albania". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "Bulgaria Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines Austro-Hungarian Weapons". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "Czech Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  16. ^ "Finnish Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "German Mannlicher M.95 Stutzens & Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "Greek Austro-Hungarian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "Mannlicher M95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  20. ^ "Karabin i karabinek 8 mm wz.1895 "Mannlicher" - Kampania Wrześniowa 1939.pl". Kampania Wrześniowa 1939. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Mannlicher Yasnikov M.95-type Automatic Rifle Prototype". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  22. ^ "Polish Austro Hungarian Mannlicher Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  23. ^ "WorldWar2.ro". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  24. ^ А. Б. Жук. Энциклопедия стрелкового оружия: револьверы, пистолеты, винтовки, пистолеты-пулеметы, автоматы. М., АСТ — Voyenizdat, 2002, p. 587
  25. ^ "Mannlicher Yasnikov M.95-type Automatic Rifle Prototype". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  26. ^ a b "Serbia Yugoslavia Mannlicher M.95-type Rifles and Carbines". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  27. ^ "Rifle: Yugoslavian Mannlicher M95M and M95/24". C&Rsenal. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 

External links[edit]