Mannlicher M1895

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Mannlicher Model 1895
Mannlicher M1895.jpg
Mannlicher M1895 (Long) Infrantry Rifle.
Type Bolt-action rifle
Place of origin  Austria-Hungary
Service history
In service 1895–1945
1895-1918 Austria-Hungary
Used by See Users
Wars Boxer Rebellion
Balkan Wars
World War I
Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20)
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Spanish Civil War[1]
World War II
Production history
Designer Ferdinand Mannlicher
Designed 1895
Manufacturer Œ.W.G. in Steyr
F.G.GY. in Budapest
Produced 1896–1918
Number built approx. 3,500,000[2]
Variants See Variants
Specifications (M95 infantry rifle)
Weight 3.78 kilograms (8.3 lb)
Length 127.2 centimetres (50.1 in)
Barrel length 76.5 centimetres (30.1 in)

Cartridge M95: 8×50mmR
M95/30 and M95/31: 8×56mmR
M95M and M95/24: 8×57mm IS
Action Straight-pull bolt action
Rate of fire approx. 30-35 rounds/min
Maximum firing range 2600 schritt or 2000 meters
Feed system 5-round en bloc clip (stripper clip in M95/24 and M95M), internal box magazine
Sights Iron sights or telescopic sight.

The Mannlicher M1895, also known as the M.95 (Model 95) rifle is a bolt-action rifle, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher that used a refined version of his revolutionary straight-pull action bolt. It was nicknamed the "Ruck-Zuck" ("right now" or "very quick") by Landsers (German slang for "troops").

The M1895 is unusual in employing a straight-pull bolt action, as opposed to the more common rotating bolt-handle of other rifles. It consequently renowned for combining a high rate of fire (around 30–35 rounds per minute) with reliability and sturdiness, although this requires decent care and maintenance with an extractor that is vulnerable to breakage due to a lack of primary extraction.

History[edit]

It was initially adopted and employed by the Austro-Hungarian Army throughout World War I, and retained post-war by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. The main foreign user was Bulgaria, which, starting in 1903, acquired large numbers and continued using them throughout both world wars. After Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, many were given to other Balkan states as war reparations. Numbers of these rifles also saw use in World War II, particularly by second line, reservist, and partisan units in Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy, and to lesser degree, Germany. Post war many were sold as cheap surplus, with some finding their way to the hands of African guerrillas in the 1970s and many more being exported to the United States as sporting and collectible firearms. The M1895 bolt also served as an almost exact template for the ill-fated Canadian M1905 Ross rifle, though the later M1910 used a complicated interrupted-thread instead of two solid lugs.

Ammunition[edit]

The M1895 was originally chambered in the 8mm M.1893 scharfe Patrone (8×50mmR Mannlicher) cartridge. Between the world wars, both Austria and Hungary converted the majority of their rifles to fire the more powerful 8×56mmR round. Greece[3] and Yugoslavia[4] converted at least some of their captured M1895s to 7.92×57mm Mauser, fed by stripper clips instead of the original model's en bloc clip system. This conversion was designated M95/24 in Greece and M95M in Yugoslavia. The M95/24 is often mistakenly attributed to Bulgaria, but 8×57mm IS was never a standard caliber of the Bulgarian military.[5] These conversions are prized by collectors for their relative scarcity and chambering in a commonly available round, but suffer from a fragile extractor and a lack of replacement parts.

Variants[edit]

M95 Infrantry Rifle[edit]

This was the basic variant. It was chambered 8x50mmR Mannlicher. The iron sights were graduated from 300-2600 paces (225-1950m). It was used during World War I by majority of the Austro-Hungarian Army troops.

M95 short rifle[edit]

This carbine was mainly used by special troops (i.e. Storm troops). It was chambered 8x50mmR Mannlicher. The sights were graduated from 500-2400 paces (375-1800m).

Weight: 3.09 kilograms (6.8 lb)
Length: 1,003 millimetres (39.5 in)
Barrel length: 500 millimetres (20 in)

M95 cavalry carbine[edit]

It was chambered 8x50mmR Mannlicher and used by cavalry units of the Austro-Hungarian Army as a replacement to the Mannlicher M1890. The sights were graduated from 500-2400 schritt (375-1800m). It didn't have bayonet lugs.

Conversions[edit]

M95/30 was a conversion by the First Austrian Republic. They were converted to 8x56mmR cartridge by Österreichische Waffenfabriksgesellschaft in Steyr. One of the changes was the conversion of sights from the older pace unit to meters (300-2000m). These rifles carry the letter S stamped on the barrel.

The Mannlicher M95/30

M95/31 was a conversion to 8x56mmR by the Kingdom of Hungary. These rifles carry the letter H stamped on the barrel.

M95M was a conversion to 8x57mm IS by the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

M95/24 was a conversion to 8x57mm IS used by the Kingdom of Greece.

Bayonets[edit]

The left bayonet is a standard service bayonet, other two have NCO knots.

Standard bayonet[edit]

The weapon was issued with a ten-inch blade knife bayonet that was unusual in that the edge faced upwards when mounted on the rifle. Majority of them were made by Œ.W.G. and F.G.GY., some marked 'BMF' by (Berndorfer Maschinenfabrik), some marked with two crossed hammers and two crossed swords by Ludwig Zeitler, Vienna and some marked 'Ernst Busch Solingen' were made by a manufacturer in Germany. The overall length was 360mm and the blade was 248mm long.

Ersatz bayonet[edit]

When late in World War I resources were limited they started manufacturing replacemet bayonets. They were fast to produce, cheap and made completely out of metal.[6]

Users[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.carbinesforcollectors.com/spanishcivilwar1.html
  2. ^ John Walter (25 March 2006). Rifles of the World. Krause Publications. p. 265. ISBN 0-89689-241-7. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  3. ^ "Greek Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Yugoslavian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Bulgarian Mannlicher M.95 Rifles and Carbines". Manowar's Hungarian Weapons & History. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 
  6. ^ http://www.old-smithy.info/bayonets/HTNL%20DOCUMNETS/austrian%20ersatz.htm
  7. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Al.htm
  8. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Bu.htm
  9. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Cz.htm
  10. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Fi.htm
  11. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Ge.htm
  12. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Gr.htm
  13. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95It.htm
  14. ^ "Karabin i karabinek 8mm wz.1895 "Mannlicher" - Kampania Wrześniowa 1939.pl". Kampania Wrześniowa 1939. Retrieved June 5, 2012. 
  15. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Ru.htm
  16. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Po.htm
  17. ^ http://www.worldwar2.ro/foto/?id=484&area=31
  18. ^ А. Б. Жук. Энциклопедия стрелкового оружия: револьверы, пистолеты, винтовки, пистолеты-пулеметы, автоматы. М., АСТ — Voyenizdat, 2002, p. 587
  19. ^ http://milpas.cc/rifles/ZFiles/Rifles%20of/Hungary/Hungary%201897-1950/M95-type%20Rifles%20and%20Carbines/Other%20Countries/Yasnikov%27s%20Mannlicher%20M95-15%20Prototype.htm
  20. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Se.htm
  21. ^ "Rifle: Yugoslavian Mannlicher M95M and M95/24". C&Rsenal. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  22. ^ http://www.hungariae.com/Mann95Se.htm

External links[edit]