Stockbridge, Hampshire

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Coordinates: 51°06′50″N 1°29′26″W / 51.114003°N 1.490646°W / 51.114003; -1.490646

Stockbridge
Stockbridge 033.JPG
Stockbridge High Street looking west
Stockbridge is located in Hampshire
Stockbridge
Stockbridge
 Stockbridge shown within Hampshire
Population 757 [1]
OS grid reference SU355351
Civil parish Stockbridge
District Test Valley
Shire county Hampshire
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town STOCKBRIDGE
Postcode district SO20
Dialling code 01264
Police Hampshire
Fire Hampshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Romsey and Southampton North
Website Stockbridge Parish Council
List of places
UK
England
Hampshire

Stockbridge is a small conservation area[2] town and civil parish in west Hampshire, England, 65 miles (105 km) from London. It has an acreage of 1,323 acres (5.35 km2) and a population of little under 600 people according to the 2001 census.[1] It sits by the Test (in the Test Valley borough which shares local government with Hampshire County Council) at the foot of the Iron Age tumuli of Stockbridge Down including Woolbury Ring.[3]

Location[edit]

The A30 road goes through the town, which once carried most of the traffic from London to Dorset, south Somerset, Devon and Cornwall in the South West. However, engineering of the A303 dual carriageway today provides a flatter, unimpeded route in the north by Andover used for travel between the regions mentioned, just as the M4 replaced the A4. The bridge over the Test led to the town's name[4] as a coach stop as provisions (stock) could be taken aboard; though Salisbury is 15 miles (24 km) by road. Winchester is 8.3 miles (13.4 km) by the B3049 road that joins the A30 by the town, this historic town is en route from the medieval cathedral cities of Winchester and Salisbury.

The town's street crosses the River Test, marking the border of the parishes of Stockbridge and Longstock by a low bridge of three arches rebuilt and widened in 1799.[5][6]

Five smaller river channels also flow through the town, split into for a brief time, eight artificial ditches just above the town to provide space for fish.

The town is also on a shared pedestrian/footpath, the Test Way.[7]

History and economy[edit]

The wet foot of the Test Valley contain a source of peat and is the only non-freedraining higher soil for a considerable distance around; plains suitable for grazing and sometimes arable form the surrounding land in Wiltshire and mid-to-north Hampshire[8] hence the early history of the Down, which covers a small part of Woolbury Ring (mostly for local government in the tiny civil parish of Little Somborne).

The town was the scene of the capture of important noble Robert of Gloucester by William of Ypres in 1141.[6] Edward I stayed in Stockbridge in August 1294, (fn. 4) as did the last catholic King, James II, on his way to Salisbury to meet the forces of the Prince of Orange dining at the Swan Inn in November 1688, which still exists.[6]

The town (as the parcel known as The Street in King's Somborne manor) was given the right to hold a market before 1190 in the reign of Richard I,[6] reviewed and confirmed in 1200 and extended to an annual three day fair by Henry III.[6] As in the 12th century, the town consists almost wholly of one long wide street[4][6] and it is to this characteristic that it owed its early name of Le Street. The town grew and propered as an unincorporated mesne borough before, probably by plague, the place became almost deserted and the poverty of the remaining inhabitants was so great that the market which had been confirmed to the town by Henry V and Henry VI was discontinued.[9]

By the mid-Tudor era, under Edward VI, the wealthy burgages numbered 58, partly in consequence of this, in 1562 two members of parliament were granted. Charles I had confirmed the right to annual fairs in 1641, however during the start of the nineteenth century a marked decline in trade was noted at the three increasingly agricultural fairs,[10] with one continuing until after 1911[6] The population of the parish was 853 in 1871, with 185 inhabitated houses.[11]

In more recent times, tourism and local publicity has assisted Stockbridge's many shops, tearooms and coaching inns in their popularity.[12] Similarly, Hampshire's four tourist Pocket Guides cover the traditional towns of Stockbridge, Alresford, Bishops Waltham and Wickham.[13]

Manor[edit]

In the medieval centuries passed as a mentioned part and parcel of King's Somborne manor, not specifically in that manor at Domesday but likely as there was mention of the manor here specifically being in Richard I's time,[6] as when they were forfeited to the crown when Henry IV (of Lancaster) took the throne, in 1402. Then it was let which gave rents of assizes to various men, including to Joseph Foster Barham, MP, on whose death in 1832, it went to his wife who married the Earl of Clarendon to hold for their son; then sold to George G. Maitland then to Charles Warner then to Francis Hardinge and then to the more nationally famous person mentioned below. One of the mills belonged to the lord of Leckford Abbotts in 1548[6]

Buildings[edit]

Name Grade of Listing Century
Fairways The Grosvenor Hotel (frontage protrudes further than the others) II* 19th and an 18th cottage[14]
The Old Town Hall II* 18th, 19th and 20th[15]
Remains of Old Church II* cusp of 13th and 14th[16]
Kings Head House/Lane House (includes Residence, Antiques and Salon) II* 17th, 18th and 19th[17]
The Old Rectory II 19th[18]
Waterlow II 16th and 18th[19]
The Old Three Cups Hotel II 17th, 18th and 20th[20]
Elizabeth Viney Antiques/John Robertson, Butchers II 17th, 18th, 19th and new glazing/door[21]
J and L Inglis Stables of Vine Inn II 18th and 19th[22]
Vine Inn II 18th and 19th[23]
Mulberry II 18th and 19th[24]
Stokes Restaurant (formerly N J Stokes Garage) II 19th, see famous people.[25]
Stockbridge Motors, The Cottage II 17th, 18th and 19th[26]
Stockbridge Antiques / Stockbridge Pharmacy / Trout Cottage II 18th, 19th and 20th[27]
Sheriff House Hotel II 18th and 19th[28]
White Hart Inn II 18th and 19th[29]
Seven Gables II 18th, part 20th[30]
Leet Cottage / The Greyhound II 18th, part 19th[31]
Manor House II 16th, 17th, 18th and refronted 19th[32]
Touchwood II 18th and 20th[33]
Church of St Peter II 19th but some windows 13th and 15th[34]

Political history[edit]

Stockbridge elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons - Elizabeth I granted the two members of parliament in 1562;[6] elections proved corrupted and a private Bill for the disfranchisement of the borough was introduced in 1693 but was rejected at the third reading.[6] In 1714, Mr Steele one of the members of parliament (see Stockbridge) was forced out for bribery and writing seditious pamphlets.

Due to the Industrial Revolution and population growth that led to the urbanisation of much larger boroughs and cities, leading to dozens of village-sized towns having strong, often bought, parliamentary representation, finally the Reform Act 1832 was introduced, resulting in the end of the borough.

Stockbridge had a railway station on the Andover & Redbridge Railway (colloquially the Sprat and Winkle Line), later a branch line of the LSWR. This closed in 1967 under the Beeching cuts.

In film/television[edit]

Stockbridge is a recurring setting for several Doctor Who stories (comics Doctor Who Magazine, Big Finish audio plays, novels); not only being the temporary home for the Fifth Doctor, it is the home of fictional companions Izzy Sinclair and Maxwell Edison.[citation needed]

Religious buildings[edit]

One of the branches of the River Test which flow under the High Street with the spire of St Peter's in the background

Only the chancel measuring about 8 metres by 5 metres, some of the windows[n 1][6] and the graveyard survive of the original parish church at the eastern end of the town, now known as Old St Peter's Church. A license to give divine service from 1323-1333 was given to John Fromond, architecturally this places about a century after the likely building of the church's chancel.[6] A Victorian Gothic church, St Peter's, designed by J Colson, was built in 1866 at a central location in the High Street.[35] The Roman Catholic church of St Thomas More is a modern brick built hall off of the High Street near the Town Hall.[36]

Sport and leisure[edit]

One of the UK's most exclusive clubs, described by Country Life as the dream of every fly-fisher, with exclusive fishing rights over 13 miles of prime trout breeding and fishing waters, the Houghton Fly Fishing Club founded in 1822, for many years met socially at The Grosvenor Hotel, a current landmark by its prominent jutting out into the pavement.[6][14][37]

Stockbridge has the Non-League football club Stockbridge F.C., which plays at The Recreation Ground.

Due to its hatchery south of the town and many channels, Stockbridge is renowned for trout fishing.[4]

Famous residents[edit]

  • Hicks Withers-Lancashire was Lord of the Manor from a date in the 1890s until 1902, when sold was to Mr R. P. Attenborough.[6]
  • Lillie Langtry, mistress to the United Kingdom monarch who succeeded Queen Victoria, Edward VII lived at the property that is now NJ Stokes Garage.[25]
  • Jim Davidson lives in Stockbridge with his girlfriend.

Notes and references[edit]

notes
  1. ^ 12th-century date. One of these windows, serving as the west window of the north aisle, is of two lancet lights with a circular light over and an external label with grotesque animal drips
references
  1. ^ a b "Parish Headcounts, Area: Stockbridge CP". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  2. ^ Test Valley B.C. Conservation Areas
  3. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1003531)". National Heritage List for England .
    10 bowl barrows on Stockbridge Down are in seven small groups: English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1013631)". National Heritage List for England . English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1013636)". National Heritage List for England . English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (101367)". National Heritage List for England . English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (101368)". National Heritage List for England . English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1013639)". National Heritage List for England . English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1013981)". National Heritage List for England . English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1014782)". National Heritage List for England .
  4. ^ a b c Stockbridge Pocket Guide, 2011, Test Valley Borough Council, for distribution centres other than Andover and Romsey see Council website
  5. ^ "Stockbridge Bridge". Hampshire County Council. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Parishes: Stockbridge, William Page (editor), Institute of Historical Research, 1911, A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 4, retrieved 8 October 2012
  7. ^ Test Valley cycle route missing link funded, Test Valley B.C.
  8. ^ Soilscapes UK map - Cranfield University
  9. ^ Duchy of Lancaster Misc. Bks, 1911, xxb folio 2b.
  10. ^ Duchy of Lancaster Misc. Bks, 1911, xxb folio 3b.
  11. ^ William White (1878) History, Gazetter and Directory of the County of Hampshire p 582-3
  12. ^ Yellow Pages, e.g. Stockbridge lists many traditional shops
  13. ^ Putting Stockbridge on the map Test Valley Council
  14. ^ a b English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093088)". National Heritage List for England .
  15. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093093)". National Heritage List for England .
  16. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1302362)". National Heritage List for England .
  17. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093091)". National Heritage List for England .
  18. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093089)". National Heritage List for England .
  19. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093090)". National Heritage List for England .
  20. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093092)". National Heritage List for England .
  21. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093094)". National Heritage List for England .
  22. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093095)". National Heritage List for England .
  23. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093096)". National Heritage List for England .
  24. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093130)". National Heritage List for England .
  25. ^ a b English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1093131)". National Heritage List for England .
  26. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1178379)". National Heritage List for England .
  27. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1178416)". National Heritage List for England .
  28. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1178444)". National Heritage List for England .
  29. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1178517)". National Heritage List for England .
  30. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1302390)". National Heritage List for England .
  31. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1302477)". National Heritage List for England .
  32. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1339443)". National Heritage List for England .
  33. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1339444)". National Heritage List for England .
  34. ^ English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1339465)". National Heritage List for England .
  35. ^ "St Peter's Church, Stockbridge". British Listed Buildings Photographs website. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  36. ^ "St Thomas More, Stockbridge". hampshiredowns.org. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  37. ^ [1]

External links[edit]

Media related to Stockbridge, Hampshire at Wikimedia Commons