Stockwell tube station
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The station entrance
Location of Stockwell in Greater London
|Local authority||London Borough of Lambeth|
|Managed by||London Underground|
|Number of platforms||4|
|London Underground annual entry and exit|
|1890||Opened(C&SLR, as terminus)|
|1900||Became through station|
|1971||Opened (Victoria line)|
|Lists of stations|
|London Transport portalCoordinates:|
Stockwell tube station is a London Underground station in Stockwell, in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is located on the Northern line between Oval and Clapham North, and on the Victoria line between Brixton and Vauxhall. It is the most southerly station that serves more than one London Underground line.[not verified in body] The station is in Travelcard Zone 2.
Stockwell station was ceremonially opened on 4 November 1890 by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), as the most southerly station on the City & South London Railway (C&SLR) - London's first deep level tube railway. Passenger services began just over one month later on 18 December 1890.
The station was built with a single island platform with tracks on either side, an arrangement rarely used on the Underground network, but which exists today at Clapham North and Clapham Common. Stockwell's original platform was further north than the modern ones, and trains pass them today. The other terminal of the C&SLR line was King William Street, which was open for 10 years (1890–1900) and is currently inaccessible following the rebuilding of Regis House above it and other alterations that were made during the extension of the Jubilee line.
In 1900, Stockwell ceased to be a terminus, after the opening of an extension to Clapham Common. A flight of stairs at the south end of the platform was also added to take passengers to a subway that passed over the new northbound tunnel and joined the lift shaft at a higher level.
The original building at Stockwell was similar to – but larger than – the existing surface building at Kennington with a domed roof to the original lift shaft. The two lifts each carried 50 people to and from the platforms until their replacement by escalators in the mid-1920s. Between 1923 and 1924, the station was modernised in advance of the 1926 extension from Clapham Common to Morden (Morden Extension). New surface buildings designed by T. P. Figgis were constructed on the original site, topped by a large decorative dome inside which were a pair of small guide wheels for the wires which controlled the hydraulic lifts. At the same time the platforms were rebuilt to a larger diameter – and with a single platform in each tunnel – south of the original station tunnel.
With the opening of the Victoria line on 23 July 1971, parallel cross-platform interchanges were provided between the two lines in both directions and the 1920s surface buildings were replaced by a modern structure.
Stockwell is one of eight London Underground stations with an adjacent deep-level air-raid shelter, constructed during the Second World War. The shelter is below the current station, and comprises two parallel tunnels, each approximately six times the length of the current platform. These tunnels are 16 feet 6 inches (5.3 m) in diameter (wider than the current platforms), split horizontally into upper and lower levels, with various connecting and branch tunnels used for medical posts, lavatories, and ventilation.
The total capacity of the shelter was around 1,600 people. Access was via the station as well as two further entrance shafts containing spiral staircases, one of which is located at the middle of the junction of South Lambeth Road and Clapham Road, and the other on Studley Road. The shelter was completed in September 1942, and was used by the Government until 1944 when it was opened to the public. It was used for one year as a shelter. After the war it was used for a period to billet military personnel. Like a number of other deep level shelters, it is presently being used for secure archiving.
Branch tunnel and depot
Just north of the station there is a branch tunnel which used to lead to a nearby generating station (closed 1915), depot and workshop located at the junction of Stockwell and Clapham Roads. The tunnel was very steep with an incline of 1:3.5, rolling stock was originally pulled up to the surface using a wire rope and a winch. This system was replaced in 1907 by a hydraulic lift, which could carry one locomotive or one carriage.
During the 1920s, the line was closed for reconstruction and the depot was used as a working site for transporting spoil, equipment and works traffic in and out of the tunnels. The depot and lift were finally taken out of use at the end of 1924. The incline tunnel and the lift shaft were plugged on the surface and several blocks of flats were constructed on the old depot site by the LCC. These flats still stand (as of 2011[update]), as does one retaining wall of the old depot.
Shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes
On 22 July 2005, Jean Charles de Menezes, a Brazilian electrician living in London, was shot dead by plainclothes police officers at Stockwell station. This incident came a day after the failed 21 July 2005 London bombings occurred on Tube trains and a bus in London; however, it later emerged that it was a case of mistaken identity on the part of the police and that Menezes had nothing to do with the attacks.
In the immediate aftermath of the shooting a small shrine to Jean Charles de Menezes was created by mourners outside the station, this has since evolved into a permanent memorial mosaic which was unveiled on 7 January 2010 at Stockwell Tube Station. This was made by local artist, Mary Edwards, with the help of Jean Charles' cousin, Vivian Figueiredo and Chrysoula Vardaxi.
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London Transport Museum Photographic Archive:
|Preceding station||London Underground||Following station|
towards Walthamstow Central