The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals occurred in the period between approximately 1909 and 1969, although in some places children were still being taken until the 1970s.
Documentary evidence, such as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a range of rationales. Motivations evident include child protection, beliefs that given their catastrophic population decline after white contact that Aboriginal people would die out, and a fear of miscegenation by full-blooded Aboriginal people.
- 1 Emergence of the child removal policy
- 2 The policy in practice
- 3 Social impact on members of the Stolen Generations
- 4 Public awareness and recognition
- 5 Australian federal parliament apology
- 6 Legal status and compensation
- 7 Historical debates over the Stolen Generations
- 8 Films and books
- 9 Notable persons
- 10 Comparisons
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Emergence of the child removal policy
One view suggests that the motivation and purpose of the laws providing for the removal of Aboriginal children from their parents was child protection, with government policy makers and officials responding to an observed need to provide protection for neglected, abused or abandoned mixed-descent children. An example of the abandonment of mixed race children in the 1920s is given in a report by Walter Baldwin Spencer that many mixed-descent children born during construction of The Ghan railway were abandoned at early ages with no one to provide for them. This incident and others spurred the need for state action to provide for and protect such children.
Other 19th- and early 20th-century contemporaneous documents indicate that the policy of removing Aboriginal children from their parents related to different beliefs: that given the catastrophic population decline of Aboriginal people after white contact that they would die out, that the full-blood tribal Aboriginal population would be unable to sustain itself, and was doomed to inevitable extinction.
This supposed that the civilisation of northern Europeans was superior to that of Aborigines, based on comparative technological advancement. Some adherents to these beliefs considered any proliferation of mixed-descent children (labelled half-castes, 'crossbreeds', quadroons and octoroons) to be a threat to the nature and stability of the prevailing civilisation, or to a perceived racial or civilisational "heritage". For example, in the 1930s, the Northern Territory Protector of Natives, Dr. Cecil Cook, perceived the continuing rise in numbers of "half-caste" children as a problem. His proposed solution was:
Generally by the fifth and invariably by the sixth generation, all native characteristics of the Australian Aborigine are eradicated. The problem of our half-castes will quickly be eliminated by the complete disappearance of the black race, and the swift submergence of their progeny in the white.
Eliminate in future the full-blood and the white and one common blend will remain. Eliminate the full blood and permit the white admixture and eventually the race will become white.
But the context of the whole article indicates that Mr Neville was referring only to some perceived problem at the time in multiple physical colours of skin in a society. The wider point he was making was that there were members of society that were being let down by the European community and Aboriginal communities and there is no reason why the European community should fear assimilation and were morally bound to provide for the disadvantaged.
The policy in practice
The earliest introduction of child removal to legislation is recorded in the Victorian Aboriginal Protection Act 1869. The Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines had been advocating such powers since 1860, and the passage of the Act gave the colony of Victoria a wide suite of powers over Aboriginal and 'half-caste' persons, including the forcible removal of children, especially 'at risk' girls. By 1950, similar policies and legislation had been adopted by other states and territories.
The child removal legislation resulted in widespread removal of children from their parents and exercise of sundry guardianship powers by Aboriginal protectors over Aborigines up to the age of 16 or 21. Policemen or other agents of the state (such as 'Aboriginal Protection Officers') were given the power to locate and transfer babies and children of mixed descent from their mothers or families or communities into institutions. In these Australian states and territories, half-caste institutions (both government and missionary) were established in the early decades of the 20th century for the reception of these separated children. Examples of such institutions include Moore River Native Settlement in Western Australia, Doomadgee Aboriginal Mission in Queensland, Ebenezer Mission in Victoria and Wellington Valley Mission in New South Wales.
The exact number of children removed is unknown, and disputed within a large range. The Bringing Them Home Report is often quoted as saying that "at least 100,000" children were removed from their parents, but this figure is arrived at by multiplying the Aboriginal population in 1994 (303,000), by the report's maximum estimate of "one in three". This is not something done in the actual report which stated "between one in three and one in ten" which referred only to children. The real figures are difficult to establish, given differing populations over a long period of time, different policies at different times in different states, and incomplete records. Australian historian Robert Manne suggests "approximately 20,000 to 25,000" were removed between 1910 and 1970, based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics report of 1994. Other writers, such as Keith Windschuttle, have argued for a much lower figure.
The Bringing Them Home Report stated:
Nationally we can conclude with confidence that between one in three and one in ten Indigenous children were forcibly removed from their families and communities in the period from approximately 1910 until 1970. In certain regions and in certain periods the figure was undoubtedly much greater than one in ten. In that time not one family has escaped the effects of forcible removal (confirmed by representatives of the Queensland and WA Governments in evidence to the Inquiry). Most families have been affected, in one or more generations, by the forcible removal of one or more children.
The report closely examined the distinctions between "forcible removal", "removal under threat or duress", "official deception", "uninformed voluntary release", and "voluntary release". The evidence indicated that in a large number of cases children were brutally and forcibly removed from their parent or parents, possibly even from the hospital shortly after their birth. Aboriginal Protection Officers often made the judgement on removal. In some cases, families were required to sign legal documents to relinquish care to the state. In Western Australia, the Aborigines Act 1905 removed the legal guardianship of Aboriginal parents and made their children all legal wards of the state, so no parental permission was required.
In 1915, in New South Wales, the Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915 gave the Aborigines' Protection Board authority to remove Aboriginal children "without having to establish in court that they were neglected"; it was alleged by Professor Peter Read that Board members sometimes wrote simply "For being Aboriginal" as the explanation when recording a removal, however the number of files bearing such a comment appear to be on the order of either one or two with two others bearing only the word "Aboriginal". At the time, some members of Parliament objected to the amendment; one member stated it enabled the board to "steal the child away from its parents", and at least two members argued that the amendment would result in children being subjected to unpaid labour tantamount to "slavery".
In 1911, the Chief Protector of Aborigines in South Australia, William Garnet South, reportedly "lobbied for the power to remove Aboriginal children without a court hearing because the courts sometimes refused to accept that the children were neglected or destitute". South argued that "all children of mixed descent should be treated as neglected". His lobbying reportedly played a part in the enactment of the Aborigines Act 1911; this made him the legal guardian of every Aboriginal child in South Australia, including so-called "half-castes".
The Bringing Them Home report also identified instances of official misrepresentation and deception, such as when caring and able parents were incorrectly described by Aboriginal Protection Officers as not being able to properly provide for their children, or when parents were told by government officials that their children had died, even though this was not the case. One first hand account referring to events in 1935 stated:
I was at the post office with my Mum and Auntie [and cousin]. They put us in the police ute and said they were taking us to Broome. They put the mums in there as well. But when we'd gone [about ten miles (16 km)] they stopped, and threw the mothers out of the car. We jumped on our mothers' backs, crying, trying not to be left behind. But the policemen pulled us off and threw us back in the car. They pushed the mothers away and drove off, while our mothers were chasing the car, running and crying after us. We were screaming in the back of that car. When we got to Broome they put me and my cousin in the Broome lock-up. We were only ten years old. We were in the lock-up for two days waiting for the boat to Perth.
The report discovered that removed children were, in most cases, placed into institutional facilities operated by religious or charitable organisations, although a significant number, particularly females, were "fostered" out. Children taken to such places were frequently punished if caught speaking local indigenous languages, and the intention was specifically to prevent them being socialised in Aboriginal cultures, and raise the boys as agricultural labourers and the girls as domestic servants. Many Europeans at the time worked in similar occupations.
A common aspect of the removals was the failure by these institutions to keep records of the actual parentage of the child, or such details as the date or place of birth. As is stated in the report:
… the physical infrastructure of missions, government institutions and children's homes was often very poor and resources were insufficient to improve them or to keep the children adequately clothed, fed and sheltered.
The report said that among the 502 inquiry witnesses, 17% of female witnesses and 7.7% of male witnesses reported experiencing a sexual assault while in an institution, at work, or with a foster or adoptive family.
Social impact on members of the Stolen Generations
The social impacts of forced removal have been measured and found to be quite severe. Although the stated aim of the "resocialisation" programme was to improve the integration of Aboriginal people into modern society, a study conducted in Melbourne and cited in the official report found that there was no tangible improvement in the social position of "removed" Aborigines as compared to "non-removed", particularly in the areas of employment and post-secondary education.
Most notably, the study indicated that removed Aboriginal people were actually less likely to have completed a secondary education, three times as likely to have acquired a police record and were twice as likely to use illicit drugs. The only notable advantage "removed" Aboriginal people possessed was a higher average income, which the report noted was most likely due to the increased urbanisation of removed individuals, and hence greater access to welfare payments than for Aboriginal people living in remote communities.
On the other hand, "removed" children were often those deemed "at risk" in the first place. Less doubtful is the negative social & psychological impact of being separated from their families and extended families, an implication now generally recognised, but not well understood by authorities at the time.
By around the age of 18 the children were released from government control and where it was available were sometimes allowed to view their government file. According to the testimony of one Aboriginal person:
I was requested to attend at the Sunshine Welfare Offices, where they formerly (sic) discharged me from State wardship. It took the Senior Welfare Officer a mere 20 minutes to come clean, and tell me everything that my heart had always wanted to know...that I was of 'Aboriginal descent', that I had a Natural mother, father, three brothers and a sister, who were alive...He placed in front of me 368 pages of my file, together with letters, photos and birthday cards. He informed me that my surname would change back to my Mother's maiden name of Angus.
The Bringing Them Home report condemned the policy of disconnecting children from their "cultural heritage". Said one witness to the commission:
I've got everything that could be reasonably expected: a good home environment, education, stuff like that, but that's all material stuff. It's all the non-material stuff that I didn't have — the lineage… You know, you've just come out of nowhere; there you are.
On the other hand, some Aboriginal people do not condemn the government's past actions, as they see that part of their intention was to offer opportunities for education and an eventual job. According to the testimony of one Aboriginal person:
I guess the government didn't mean it as something bad but our mothers weren't treated as people having feelings…Who can imagine what a mother went through? But you have to learn to forgive.
I was put in a mission dormitory when I was eight, nine. I cried for two nights, then I was right with the rest of those kids. We weren't stolen; our family was there. It was a good system. Or a better system than now. At least my generation learnt to read and write properly.
Public awareness and recognition
Historian Professor Peter Read, at the time at the Australian National University, was the first to use the phrase 'stolen generation'. It was used by him first as a title for a magazine article which was followed by a book, The Stolen Generations (1981). Widespread awareness of the Stolen Generations, and the practices which created it, only began to enter the public arena in the late 1980s through the efforts of Aboriginal and white activists, artists and musicians (Archie Roach's "Took the Children Away" and Midnight Oil's "The Dead Heart" being examples of the latter). The extensive public interest in the Mabo case had the side effect of throwing the media spotlight on all issues related to Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia, and most notably the Stolen Generations.
In early 1995 Rob Riley of the Aboriginal Legal Service published Telling Our Story which brought to the public attention the effect of past government policies that saw thousands of Aboriginal children removed from their families and reared in missions, orphanages, reserves and white foster homes.
The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families commenced in May 1995, presided over by Sir Ronald Wilson, the president of the (Australian) Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission, and Mick Dodson, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner at the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC). During the ensuing 17 months, the Inquiry visited every state and Territory in Australia, heard testimony from 535 Aboriginal Australians, and received submissions of evidence from over 600 more. In April 1997 the official Bringing Them Home Report was released.
Between the commissioning of the National Inquiry and the release of the final report in 1997, the conservative government of John Howard had replaced the Keating government. Howard was quoted as saying "Australians of this generation should not be required to accept guilt and blame for past actions and policies."
As a result of the report, formal apologies were tabled and passed in the state parliaments of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales, and also in the parliament of the Northern Territory. On 26 May 1998 the first "National Sorry Day" was held, and reconciliation events were held nationally, and attended by over a million people. As public pressure continued to increase, Howard drafted a motion of "deep and sincere regret over the removal of Aboriginal children from their parents" which was passed by the federal parliament in August 1999. Howard went on to say that the Stolen Generation represented "...the most blemished chapter in the history of this country."
In July 2000, the issue of the Stolen Generation came before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in Geneva who heavily criticised the Howard government for its manner of attempting to resolve the issues related to the Stolen Generation. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination concluded its discussion of Australia's 12th report by acknowledging "the measures taken to facilitate family reunion and to improve counselling and family support services for the victims", but expressed concern "that the Commonwealth Government does not support a formal national apology and that it considers inappropriate the provision of monetary compensation for those forcibly and unjustifiably separated from their families, on the grounds that such practices were sanctioned by law at the time and were intended to 'assist the people whom they affected'." and recommended "that the State party consider the need to address appropriately the extraordinary harm inflicted by these racially discriminatory practices".
Global media attention turned again to the Stolen Generations issue during the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics. A large "Aboriginal tent city" was established on the grounds of Sydney University to bring attention to Aboriginal issues in general. The Aboriginal athlete Cathy Freeman (who was chosen to light the Olympic flame and went on to win the gold medal in the 400 metre sprint) disclosed in interviews that her own grandmother was a victim of forced removal. The internationally successful rock group Midnight Oil obtained worldwide media interest when they performed at the Olympic closing ceremony wearing black sweatsuits with the word "SORRY" emblazoned across them.
Prior to the Sydney Olympics a mockumentary called The Games was broadcast on ABC TV. In the episode shown on 3 July 2000 the actor John Howard made a recording "for international release" of an apology to the Stolen Generation, ostensibly on behalf of the Australian people.
In 2000, Phillip Knightley summed up the Stolen Generations in these terms:
This cannot be over-emphasized—the Australian government literally kidnapped these children from their parents as a matter of policy. White welfare officers, often supported by police, would descend on Aboriginal camps, round up all the children, separate the ones with light-coloured skin, bundle them into trucks and take them away. If their parents protested they were held at bay by police.
Australian federal parliament apology
On 11 December 2007, the then newly installed Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, announced that an apology would be made to Indigenous Australians, the wording of which would be decided in consultation with Aboriginal leaders. On 27 January 2008, Rudd announced that the apology would be made on or soon after the first day of parliament in Canberra, on 12 February. The date was later set to 13 February, when it was ultimately issued.
Stances on the proposed apology
For more than a decade since the Bringing Them Home report on forced separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was handed to Liberal prime minister, John Howard, he and his conservative coalition colleagues consistently rejected calls for a formal government apology (though coalition government members stated that they were personally sorry for the outcomes of the policy). The main reasons put forward for the rejection were concerns that a formal apology could be construed as an admission of deliberate wrongdoing, rather than reflect on the claimed original "well intentioned aim of Child Protection". It was also suggested that the government would admit liability in any duty-of-care legal proceedings (by admission that there was deliberate wrongdoing)
The announcement of an apology by the new Labor prime minister led to a split reaction from the Liberal Party whose leader Brendan Nelson initially said that an apology would risk encouraging a "culture of guilt" in Australia. However, other senior Liberals expressed support for an apology, e.g., Malcolm Turnbull, Peter Costello, Bill Heffernan and former Liberal prime minister Malcolm Fraser. Former Liberal minister Judi Moylan said: "I think as a nation we owe an apology. We shouldn't be thinking about it as an individual apology — it's an apology that is coming from the nation state because it was governments that did these things."
Nelson himself later declared he supported the apology. Following a party meeting, the Liberal Party as a whole expressed its support for an apology, which thereby achieved bipartisan consensus. Brendan Nelson stated: "I, on behalf of the Coalition, of the alternative government of Australia, are [sic] providing in-principle support for the offer of an apology to the forcibly removed generations of Aboriginal children."
Lyn Austin, chairwoman of Stolen Generations Victoria, stated her view on why she believed an apology was necessary, recalling her experiences as a stolen child:
I thought I was being taken just for a few days. I can recall seeing my mother standing on the side of the road with her head in her hands, crying, and me in the black FJ Holden wondering why she was so upset. A few hundred words can't fix this all but it's an important start and it's a beginning[...] I see myself as that little girl, crying myself to sleep at night, crying and wishing I could go home to my family. Everything's gone, the loss of your culture, the loss of your family, all these things have a big impact.
The text of the apology did not make reference to compensation to Aboriginal people as a whole or to members of the Stolen Generations specifically.
That today we honour the Indigenous peoples of this land, the oldest continuing cultures in human history.
We reflect on their past mistreatment.
We reflect in particular on the mistreatment of those who were Stolen Generations—this blemished chapter in our nation's history.
The time has now come for the nation to turn a new page in Australia's history by righting the wrongs of the past and so moving forward with confidence to the future.
We apologise for the laws and policies of successive Parliaments and governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these our fellow Australians.
We apologise especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, their communities and their country.
For the pain, suffering, and hurt of these Stolen Generations, their descendants and for their families left behind, we say sorry.
To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up of families and communities, we say sorry.
And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud people and a proud culture, we say sorry.
We the Parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology be received in the spirit in which it is offered as part of the healing of the nation.
For the future we take heart; resolving that this new page in the history of our great continent can now be written.
We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying claim to a future that embraces all Australians.
A future where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the past must never, never happen again.
A future where we harness the determination of all Australians, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us in life expectancy, educational achievement, and economic opportunity.
A future where we embrace the possibility of new solutions to enduring problems where old approaches have failed.
A future based on mutual respect, mutual resolve and mutual responsibility.
A future where all Australians, whatever their origins, are truly equal partners, with equal opportunities and with an equal stake in shaping the next chapter in the history of this great country, Australia.
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Rudd followed the apology with a 20-minute speech to the house about the need for the apology, which was widely applauded among both Indigenous Australians and the non-indigenous general public.
Opposition leader's parliamentary reply and reaction
The Leader of the Opposition Brendan Nelson then also delivered a 20-minute speech, which while apparently endorsing the apology, appeared to include a significant qualification. In his speech Nelson made reference to the 'under-policing' of child welfare in aboriginal communities, as well as a host of social ills blighting the lives of aborigines.
The Alice Springs Crown Prosecutor Nanette Rogers with great courage revealed to the nation in 2006 the case of a four-year-old girl drowned while being raped by a teenager who had been sniffing petrol. She told us of the two children – one a baby – sexually assaulted by two men while their mothers were off drinking alcohol. Another baby was stabbed by a man trying to kill her mother.
Nelson's speech was considered controversial and received mixed reactions. Thousands of people who had gathered in Canberra and Melbourne turned their backs on the screens displaying Nelson giving his speech, while in Perth people booed and jeered until the screen was eventually switched off. In Parliament House's Great Hall elements of the audience began a slow clap, with some finally turning their backs. There were similar reactions and walk-outs in Sydney and elsewhere.
After the ceremony the House of Representatives unanimously adopted the proposed motion, although six members of Nelson's opposition caucus — Don Randall, Sophie Mirabella, Dennis Jensen, Wilson Tuckey, Luke Simpkins and Alby Schultz — made themselves absent in protest at the apology. Peter Dutton was also the only Opposition front bencher to abstain from the apology.
Later that day, a motion for an apology in identical terms was considered by the Senate. The Leader of the Greens, Senator Bob Brown, attempted to amend the motion to have it include words committing parliament to offering compensation to those who suffered loss under past indigenous policies, but was opposed by all the other parties. The original motion was passed unanimously.
Reference in Pecan Summer
The final part of the indigenous opera Pecan Summer by Deborah Cheetham, which premiered in Mooroopna in October 2010, is set at Federation Square, in Melbourne, on the day of Kevin Rudd's apology, and quotes some of his words.
Legal status and compensation
The legal circumstances regarding the Stolen Generations remain unclear. Although some compensation claims are pending, it is not possible for a court to rule on behalf of plaintiffs simply because they were removed, as, at the time, such removals were authorised under Australian law. Australian federal and state governments' statute law and associated regulations provided for the removal from their birth families and communities of mixed-race Aboriginal children, or those who appeared mixed.
The apology is not expected to have any legal impact on claims for compensation.
Cubillo and Gunner
In the Federal Court of Australia cases of Cubillo and Gunner, their claims failed. The presiding judge, Justice Maurice O'Loughlin, noted in his summary judgment that he was not ruling that there would never be valid cases for compensation with regard to the Stolen Generations, only that in these two specific cases he could not find evidence of illegal conduct by the officials involved. Investigations revealed that Cubillo, aged eight years, was removed from a remote station in 1947 when her father went missing and her mother and grandmother were dead. Gunner, it turned out, had been sent to Alice Springs to get an education with the consent of his mother.
On 1 August 2007, in a decision in the Supreme Court of South Australia by Justice Thomas Gray, Bruce Trevorrow, a member of the Stolen Generation, was awarded $775,000 compensation. The SA government announced that it would pay the compensation awarded to Trevorrow but at the same time, seek to review in the High Court to clarify the court's findings of law and fact.
Trevorrow did not have long to celebrate his victory in the courts. He died in Victoria on 20 June 2008, at the age of 51, less than a year after the court decision.
The West Australian newspaper reported Trevorrow's story as follows:
Mr. Trevorrow was separated from his mother in December 1957 after he was admitted to Adelaide's Children's Hospital with gastroenteritis. More than six months later, his mother wrote to the state's Aboriginal Protection Board, which had fostered him out, asking when she could have her son back. "I am writing to ask if you would let me know how Bruce is and how long before I can have him back home," she wrote in July 1958. "I have not forgot I got a baby in there". The Court was told the board lied to her, writing her son was "making good progress" and that the doctors still needed him for treatment.
(See Bringing them Home, Appendix 6 for a listing and interpretation of South Australian acts regarding 'Aborigines' and Bringing them home education module regarding relevant South Australian law and policy.)
Historical debates over the Stolen Generations
||The neutrality of this section is disputed. (February 2014)|
Nomenclature and debates over the use of "stolen"
Terms such as "stolen" were used in the context of taking children from their families – the Hon P. McGarry, a member of the Parliament of New South Wales, objected to the Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915 which then enabled the Aborigines' Protection Board to remove Aboriginal children from their parents without having to establish that they were in any way neglected or mistreated; McGarry described the policy as "steal[ing] the child away from its parents".
In 1924, in the Adelaide Sun an article stated "The word 'stole' may sound a bit far-fetched but by the time we have told the story of the heart-broken Aboriginal mother we are sure the word will not be considered out of place."
Indigenous Australians in most jurisdictions were "protected", effectively being wards of the State. The protection was done through each jurisdiction's Aboriginal Protection Board; in Victoria and Western Australia these boards were also responsible for applying what were known as Half-Caste Acts.
More recent usage was Peter Read's 1981 publication of The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal Children in New South Wales 1883 to 1969. The 1997 publication of Bringing Them Home – Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families brought broader awareness of the Stolen Generations. The acceptance of the term in Australia is illustrated by 13 February 2008 formal apology to the Stolen Generations, led by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, and passed by both houses of the Parliament of Australia. Previous apologies had been offered by State and Territory governments in the period 1997–2001.
There remains opposition to acceptance of the validity of the term "Stolen Generations". This was illustrated by the former Prime Minister John Howard refusing to apologise and the then Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, John Herron controversially disputing the usage in April 2000. Others who dispute the validity of the term include: Peter Howson, Minister for Aboriginal Affairs in 1971–72 and Keith Windschuttle. Others argue against these critics, responding to Windschuttle in particular.
Despite the lengthy and detailed findings set out in the Bringing Them Home report, the nature and extent of the removals documented in the report have been debated and disputed within Australia, with some commentators questioning the findings and asserting that the Stolen Generations has been exaggerated. Sir Ronald Wilson, former President of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission and a Commissioner on the Inquiry, has stated that none of the more than 500 witnesses who appeared before the Inquiry were cross-examined. This failure to cross-examine has been the basis of criticism by the anthropologist Ron Brunton as well as by the centre-right Liberal Party Federal Government, which was in power at the time that the report, commissioned by the previous Labor Party Government, was delivered.
An Australian Federal Government submission has questioned the conduct of the Commission which produced the report, arguing that the Commission failed to critically appraise or test the claims on which it based the report and fails to distinguish between those separated from their families "with and without consent, and with and without good reason". Not only has the number of children removed from their parents been questioned (critics often quote the ten percent estimate, which they say does not constitute a 'generation'), but also the intent and effects of the government policy.
Keith Windschuttle argued in his 2009 book, The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Volume Three: The Stolen Generations 1881-2008, that "not only is the charge of genocide unwarranted, but so is the term 'Stolen Generations'. Aboriginal Children were never removed from their families in order to put an end to Aboriginality or, indeed, to serve any improper government policy or program. The small numbers of Aboriginal child removals in the twentieth century were almost all based on traditional grounds of child welfare."
In April 2000, controversy stirred when the then Aboriginal Affairs Minister in the conservative Howard Government, John Herron, tabled a report in the Australian Parliament that questioned whether or not there had been "Stolen Generations", on the semantic distinction that as "only 10% of Aboriginal children" had been removed, they did not constitute an entire "generation". The report received media attention and there were protests. Dr Herron apologised for the "understandable offence taken by some people" as a result of his comments, although he refused to alter the report as it had been tabled.
The term "generation" was first used by historian Peter Reed. Robert Manne has stated that when people refer to the "generation that lost their lives in the First World War", we don't mean 50 per cent or 90 per cent of young people, but use it as a metaphor for a collective experience. Similarly, the Aboriginal community use the term to describe their collective suffering.
Some commentators such as Sir Ronald Wilson have alleged that the Stolen Generations was nothing less than a case of attempted genocide, because it was widely believed at the time that the policy would cause Aborigines to die out. In its 12th report to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination the Australian Government denied that this was a breach of the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
Robert Manne argues that the expressed views of government bureaucrats, such as A.O. Neville, to merge the Aboriginal race into the white population by means of "breeding out the colour", and therefore eventually resulting in the former being "forgotten", bore strong similarities to the views of the Nazis in 1930s Nazi Germany. Manne points out that, though the term 'genocide' had not yet entered the English language, the policies of Neville and others were termed by some contemporaries as the 'die out' or 'breed out' policy, giving an indication of their proposed intent. Nevertheless, he also states that it is now "generally acknowledged" by academics that the authors of the Bringing Them Home report were wrong to argue that Australian authorities had committed genocide by removing indigenous children from their families, because assimilation has never been regarded in law as equivalent to genocide.
Conservative Australian historian Keith Windschuttle contends that no genocide has ever taken place in Australia. He concedes there were "obnoxious" attempts to "breed out" Aboriginality in Western Australia and the Northern Territory but says those policies concentrated on intermarriage, not child removal, and were undercut by the ineptitude of the bureaucrats involved.
Paul Bartrop, co-author of The Dictionary of Genocide with US scholar Samuel Totten, rejects the use of the word genocide to describe Australian colonial history in general, but says the use of the term can be "sustained relatively easily" when describing the Stolen Generations. Dr Bartrop, who wrote the entry in the dictionary entitled "Australia, Genocide in:", said he used the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, as cited by Ronald Wilson in his 1997 Bringing Them Home report, as the benchmark for the use of the term genocide.
Historian Inga Clendinnen suggests that the term genocide rests on the question of intentionality. "There's not much doubt, with great murderous performances that were typically called genocide, that they were deliberate and intentional," she argues. "Beyond that, it always gets very murky."
Films and books
Lousy Little Sixpence
This 1983 documentary was the first film to deal with the Stolen Generations. Directed and produced by Alec Morgan, it won several international and Australian awards. Despite this, it took two years for the government-run Australian Broadcasting Corporation to be convinced to broadcast it. It is now standard fare in educational institutions, and has been highly influential, including on the Australian Prime Minister's apology to the Stolen Generations, more than a quarter of a century after the film's release.
The 2002 Australian film Rabbit-Proof Fence, directed by Phillip Noyce was based on the book Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence by Doris Pilkington Garimara. It concerns the author's mother and two other mixed-race Aboriginal girls who ran away from Moore River Native Settlement, north of Perth, to return to their Aboriginal families, by following a rabbit-proof fence. In a subsequent interview with the ABC, Doris recalled her removal from her mother at age three or four, arriving at the settlement in 1931. She was not reunited with her mother until she was 25 and, until that time, she believed that her mother had given her away. When they were reunited, Doris was unable to speak her native language and had been taught to regard Indigenous culture as evil.
The principal persona of Melanie Hogan's film Kanyini, Bob Randall, is an elder of the Yankunytjatjara people and one of the listed traditional owners of Uluru. He was taken away from his mother as a child. He remained at the government reservation until he was 20, working at various jobs, including as a carpenter, stockman and crocodile hunter. He helped establish the Adelaide Community College and lectured on Aboriginal cultures. He served as the director of the Northern Australia Legal Aid Service and established Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander centres at the Australian National University, University of Canberra and University of Wollongong. He was named 'Indigenous Person of the Year' in 1999 and inducted into the Northern Territory musical hall of fame for songs such as "Brown Skin Baby," "Red Sun" and "Black Moon" (about the Coniston massacre). He is also the author of two books: his autobiography Songman and a children's book, Tracker Tjginji.
Bryce Courtenay's novel Jessica tells in the history a case brought in a New South Wales court against the Aboriginal Protection Board challenging the Aboriginal Protection Act of 1909 in order to return two children from Cootamundra Domestic Training Home for Aboriginal Girls to the Aboriginal mother.
Aboriginal artist and author Sally Morgan has written several novels documenting the lives of herself and her family members, featuring intimate portrayals of the impact of forced removal on individuals, their families and communities, although Sally herself was not a stolen child. Her first, My Place, involves her quest to uncover her Aboriginal heritage which had previously been denied by her family, who insisted "as a survival mechanism" that they were of Indian extraction.
- My Place (Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press. first published 1987) ISBN 1-86368-278-3.
- Sally's story (Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press, 1990.) edited by Barbara Ker Wilson ('My Place' for young readers, part 1. For children.) ISBN 0-949206-78-4.
- Arthur Corunna's story (Narkaling Productions, 1995) edited by Barbara Ker Wilson ('My Place' for young readers, part 2. For children.) ISBN 0-949206-77-6.
- Mother and daughter: The story of Daisy and Glady's Corunna (Narkaling Productions, 1994) Edited by Barbara Ker Wilson ('My Place' for young readers, part 3. For children.) ISBN 0-949206-79-2.
- Wanamurraganya, the story of Jack McPhee (Narkaling Productions, 1990) ISBN 0-949206-99-7.
Stolen by Jane Harrison
Stolen is a play by Australian playwright Jane Harrison. It tells the story of five indigenous people who dealt with the issues for forceful removal by the Australian government.
Stolen tells the story of five fictional Aboriginal children by the names of Sandy, Ruby, Jimmy, Anne, and Shirley.
- Sandy has spent his entire life on the run, never having a set home to live in. Stolen tracks his quest for a place to be, a place where he doesn't have keep hiding from the government (even though they are no longer after him), and a place he can call home.
- Ruby was forced to work as a domestic from a young age and was sent insane by the constant pressure forced upon her by her white masters. She spends a lot of her time mumbling to herself, whilst her family desperately try to help her.
- Jimmy was separated from his mother at a very young age, and she spent her entire life looking for him. He spent a lot of time in prison and, on the day he finally got out, he was told about his mother's search. As he went to meet her, she died, and he committed suicide in anger.
- Anne was removed from her family and placed in a Caucasian family's home. She was materially happy in this home, a lot happier than many of the other characters, but when her indigenous family tried to meet her, she was caught in crossfire between her two "families".
- Shirley was removed from her parents and had her children removed from her. She only felt relief, safety, and comfort when her granddaughter was born and not removed.
Benang by Kim Scott
Benang is Indigenous Australian Kim Scott's second novel. Benang in about forced assimilation and finding how one can return to their own culture. The novel presents how difficult it is to form a working history of a population who had been historically uprooted from their past.
- Benang follows Harley, a young man who has gone through the process of "breeding out the colour", as he pieces together his family history through documentation, such as photograph and his grandfather's notes, as well as memories and experiences.
- Harley and his family have undergone a process of colonial scientific experimentation called "breeding of the colour" which separated individuals from their indigenous families and origins.
- Debra Hocking, co-chair, Stolen Generations Alliance.
- Ken Colbung, political activist and leader.
- Katherine Mary Clutterbuck (Sister Kate).
- Belinda Dann, born as Quinlyn Warrakoo, forced name change to Belinda Boyd. Deceased at 107 years of age making her the longest lived member of the stolen generation.
- Polly Farmer, Australian rules footballer.
- Sue Gordon, retired Perth Children's Court magistrate.
- Helen Moran, co-chair of National Sorry Day Committee.
- A. O. Neville, W.A Protector Of Aborigines from 1915–45 and advocate of the removal of children.
- May O'Brien, W.A. educator and author.
- Doris Pilkington Garimara, author of Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence.
- Bob Randall, Indigenous Australian of the Year.
- Rob Riley (deceased), CEO of the Aboriginal Legal Service 1990–1995, author of Telling Our Story which instigated the National Inquiry into Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families.
- Archie Roach, musician.
- The late Ruby Hunter, musician.
- Cedric Wyatt, Chief Executive Officer of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs in WA.
- Bill Simon Author of "Back on the Block"; Redfern worker
- Deborah Cheetham Aboriginal soprano, actor, composer and playwright
- Ningali Cullen (deceased), co-chair of the National Sorry Day Committee
The White Stolen Generations
The white stolen generations are so-called to distinguish them from the indigenous stolen generations. It is estimated that around 250,000 Australian born non-Indigenous children were removed from their mothers from the 1930s to 1982 in what was widely seen by society as a whole at the time as a positive thing for both the mothers and the children. The mothers were sometimes drugged, tied to beds or told their babies had died. Many hospitals engaged in what is now known as institutionalised baby farming, whereby those children deemed "inferior" were taken and adopted into the middle class.
Organisations such as the Apology Alliance and Adoption Loss Adult Support have actively campaigned for a parliamentary apology similar to that given for the [Aboriginal] Stolen Generations. In 2001, then treasurer of NSW Michael Egan made a statement of public acknowledgement in the NSW Parliament. In October 2010, West Australian Premier, Colin Barnett delivered a parliamentary apology on behalf of state institutions involved in the aggressive adoption practices. Prime minister Julia Gillard made a personal public apology.
- Blood tax (Ottoman Empire), the Ottoman devşirme system where children were taken and raised to serve as Janissaries. An estimated 500,000 to one million non–Muslim (primarily Balkan Christian) adolescent males partook
- Baby Scoop Era (United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia)
- Native schools of New Zealand
- Kidnapping of children by Nazi Germany (only 25,000 children out of the 200,000 reported missing were returned home)
- Argentina During the military dictatorship in the 1970s, a great number of children whose parents had been abducted and murdered by the Regime were given to adoptive parents who ignored or decided to hide those children's true identities. The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo is an association with the aim of finding the babies stolen that was originally founded by the Grandmothers and other relatives of said children.
- Home Children the child migration scheme founded by Annie MacPherson in 1869, under which more than 100,000 children were sent to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa from the United Kingdom.
- The Kinder der Landstrasse ("children of the highway") program in Switzerland: Until the 1970, 590 children of the Yeniche people were taken from their parents and institutionalized in orphanages, mental institutions and prisons.
- The 300,000 children stolen and brainwashed by as Lost children of Francoism
- Marten, J.A., (2002), Children and War, NYU Press, New York, p. 229 ISBN 0-8147-5667-0
- Australian Museum (2004). "Indigenous Australia: Family Life". Retrieved 28 March 2008.[dead link]
- Read, Peter (1981). The Stolen Generations:(bringing them home) The Removal of Aboriginal Children in New South Wales 1883 to 1969 (PDF). Department of Aboriginal Affairs (New South Wales government). ISBN 0-646-46221-0.
- In its submission to the Bringing Them Home report, the Victorian government stated that "despite the apparent recognition in government reports that the interests of Indigenous children were best served by keeping them in their own communities, the number of Aboriginal children forcibly removed continued to increase, rising from 220 in 1973 to 350 in 1976" (Bringing Them Home: "Victoria"[dead link]).
- Wendy Lewis, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.
- Social and Emotional Wellbeing: Removal from Natural Family in 4704.0 – The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, Oct 2010, Released at 11:30 AM 17 February 2011
- Bates, Daisy (1938). "The Passing of the Aborigines: A Lifetime spent among the Natives of Australia". Project Gutenberg of Australia. p. 243.
I did what I set out to do – to make their passing easier and to keep the dreaded half-caste menace from our great continent
- Bates, Daisy (1938). "The Passing of the Aborigines: A Lifetime spent among the Natives of Australia". Project Gutenberg of Australia.
Half-castes came among them, a being neither black nor white, whom they detested.
- Peter Howson, Legal Notes: The Stolen Generations True Believers Take One Step Back, National Observer, No. 49, Winter 2001.
- Article on Baldwin Spencer in the Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Peter Howson, Academia's Sorry Obsession: Manne et al. would help Aborigines more by looking at the present, not the past, The Age, 3 April 2001 on the Institute for Private Enterprise website.
- Neville, AO (1930). West Australian, 18 April.
- Western Australia State Archives, 993/423/38, "Absorption of Half Castes into the White Population".
- Russell McGregor, Imagined Destinies. Aboriginal Australians and the Doomed Race Theory, 1900–1972, Melbourne: MUP, 1997.
- Anderson, Warwick. The Cultivation of Whiteness: Science, Health and Racial Destiny in Australia. 2003, p. 308.
- Anderson, Warwick. The Cultivation of Whiteness: Science, Health and Racial Destiny in Australia. 2003, p. 231.
- Anderson, Warwick. The Cultivation of Whiteness: Science, Health and Racial Destiny in Australia. 2003, p. 160.
- HumanRights.gov.au[dead link]
- "COLOURED FOLK.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 18 April 1930. p. 9. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- M.F. Christie, Aboriginal People in Colonial Victoria, 1835–86, pp. 175–176.
- Such as the Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1897 (Qld), the Aborigines Ordinance 1918 (NT), the Aborigines Act 1934 (SA) and the 1936 Native Administration Act (WA). For more information, see Bringing them Home, appendices listing and interpretation of state acts regarding 'Aborigines'[dead link].
- Tim Richardson on The Stolen Generations: Robert Manne.
- Robert Manne (February 2010). "Comment: Keith Windschuttle". The Monthly. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
- Bringing them Home – 2 National Overview.
- Bringing them Home – Scope of the Inquiry[dead link].
- The Bringing Them Home Report documents several cases of such removals in all states and territories. See http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/stolen/stolen06.html
- Bringing them Home – 7 Western Australia.
- Aborigines Act of 1905.
- Bringing Them Home report, part 2, chapter 3.
- Read, Peter (18 February 2008). "Don't let facts spoil this historian's campaign". The Australian. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- Bringing Them Home report: "South Australia"[dead link].
- Bringing them Home, Appendices listing and interpretation of state acts regarding 'Aborigines'[dead link]: Appendix 1.1 NSW[dead link]; Appendix 1.2 ACT[dead link]; Appendix 2 Victoria[dead link]; Appendix 3 Queensland[dead link]; Tasmania[dead link]; Appendix 5 Western Australia[dead link]; Appendix 6 South Australia[dead link]; Appendix 7 Northern Territory[dead link].
- Bringing them Home – 10 Childrens [sic] Experiences.
- Bereson, Itiel. Decades of Change: Australia in the Twentieth Century. Richmond, Victoria: Heinemann Educational Australia, 1989.
- Confidential submission 133, Victoria.
- Confidential evidence 305, South Australia.
- John Van Tiggelen, 'Remove children' plea at Aurukun, The Age, 14 March 2008.
- Rob Riley, CEO ALS 1990–1995 Telling Our Story ALSWA[dead link].
- Opening Ceremony Speeches[dead link].
- "No stolen generation: Australian Govt". The 7.30 Report (ABC). 3 April 2000. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
- Paragraphs 104–114 of report at UNHCHR.ch[dead link]
- Concluding Observations by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination : Australia. 19 April 2000. CERD/C/304/Add.101. (Concluding Observations/Comments) para 13. at UNHCHR.ch
- "The sun sets on Midnight Oil". The Age. 4 December 2002. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
- "Apology by John Howard, actor". The Sydney Morning Herald. 3 July 2000. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
- Phillip Knightley, Australia: A Biography of a Nation, Vintage, 2001 , ISBN 0-09-977291-4, p.113
- Peatling, Stephanie (11 December 2007). "How to say sorry and heal the wounds". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
- Lewis, Steve (27 January 2008). "Kevin Rudd racing to historic Aboriginal apology". Daily telegraph (Australia). Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- "Liberals ready to think about saying sorry", Steve Lewis, Herald Sun, 1 February 2008.
- "Liberal division grows on apology", Misha Schubert, The Age, 30 January 2008.
- "Howard will not attend apology", Sydney Morning Herald, 8 February 2008.
- "Opposition joins rush to say sorry", Daniel Hoare, ABC News, 7 February 2008.
- "'Sorry' statement should acknowledge cultural loss, says state leader", Dewi Cooke, The Age, 1 February 2008.
- "The words Rudd will use to say 'sorry'"[dead link], ABC, 12 February 2008.
- "Rudd says sorry", Dylan Welch, Sydney Morning Herald, 13 February 2008.
- "Video: Watch Kevin Rudd's full apology". Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- "Full text of Kevin Rudd's speech". News Limited. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- "Thunderous applause in Sydney for Rudd's speech", Australian Associated Press, Sydney Morning Herald, 13 February 2008.
- "Speech gets standing ovation in Redfern" Leesha McKenny, Sydney Morning Herald, 13 February 2008.
- Sydney Morning Herald. 13 February 2008.
- Fury over Nelson's 'sorry' response: The Age 13 February 2008.
- Senate Hansard, 13 February 2008[dead link].
- Brown defeated in 'sorry' compo bid[dead link].
- "Apology will not legally impact compo claims: Law Society" ABC News, 13 February 2008.
- Stolen Generations Fail to Court Justice, The Law Report, ABC Radio National, Tuesday 15 August 2000[dead link]. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
- Cubillo v Commonwealth of Australia (includes summary) (2001) FCA 1213 (31 August 2001).
- Bolt, A., Stolen generations: My Melbourne Writers' Festival speech, 5 September 2006, Herald Sun, Melbourne, Australia.
- The Advertiser, Adelaide, Thur 2 August 2007.
- The West Australian, Thursday 2 August 2007.
- Bringing them Home, Appendix 6 – South Australia
- RightsED: Bringing them home | Australian Human Rights Commission
- The Haebich interview gives the year as 1923, but see Foster, Robert. 'endless trouble and agitation': Aboriginal agitation in the protectionist era. Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia, 2000;28:15–27.
- Interview with Dr Anna Haebich, The Stolen Generation, Ockham's Razor, ABC Radio National, broadcast Sunday 6 January 2002. Retrieved 10 August 2012. Anna is author of Broken Circles, Fragmenting Indigenous Families 1800–2000, Fremantle, Fremantle Arts Centre Press ISBN 1-86368-305-4.
- Foster, Robert. 'endless trouble and agitation': Aboriginal agitation in the protectionist era. Journal of the Historical Society of South Australia,2000;28:15–27 gives the reference to the clipping on this case as #81: The Sun, 16 April 1924; Register 9 April 1924; Sport's Newsclipping Books GRG 52/90 SRSA (State Records of South Australia). see Kooriweb.org
- Timeline of Legislation Affecting Aboriginal People[dead link], Government of South Australia, Aboriginal Education and Employment Services
- "Documenting Democracy at National Archives of Australia: Australia's Story In Victoria, for example, "The (Aboriginal Protection) Act gave powers to the Board for the Protection of Aborigines which subsequently developed into an extraordinary level of control of people's lives including regulation of residence, employment, marriage, social life and other aspects of daily life"". Foundingdocs.gov.au. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Bringing them home: The 'Stolen Children' report". Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2006.
- "Kevin Rudd says sorry", Dylan Welch, Sydney Morning Herald 13 February 2008.
- List of Apologies by State and Territory Parliaments (1997–2001) at HREOC.
- Senator the Hon John Herron, Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs to the Senate Legal And Constitutional References Committee, 'Inquiry Into The Stolen Generation' Federal Government Submission, March 2000.
- Disputing the appropriateness of the term: Windschuttle, Keith (9 February 2008). "Don't let facts spoil the day". The Australian. argues that the removals were done for the children's good and that Peter Read in Read, Peter (1981). The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal children in New South Wales 1883 to 1969 (PDF). Department of Aboriginal Affairs (New South Wales government). ISBN 0-646-46221-0. misrepresented the evidence,
- Dr Naomi Parry, Debunking Windschuttle's benign interpretation of history, Crikey, 12 February 2008, also Peter Read addresses Windschuttle's article of 9 February 2008 in Read, Peter (18 February 2008). "Don't let facts spoil this historian's campaign". The Australian. Retrieved 18 February 2008., and Manne, Robert (18 February 2008). "The cruelty of denial". The Age. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- Stolen Generations[dead link], Background Briefing, ABC Radio National, broadcast 2 July 2000. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- Keith Windschuttle: The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Volume Three: The Stolen Generations 1881-2008, Macleay Press, (2009), p17
- No stolen generation: Australian Govt, The 7.30 Report ABC TV 3 April 2000. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- Academics debate contents of Stolen Generations report The 7.30 Report 29 March 2001
- "A Stolen Generation Cries Out". Reuters. May 1997.
- Paragraphs 115–118 of report at UNHCHR.ch[dead link]
- Robert Manne, "Sorry Business: The Road to the Apology", The Monthly, March 2008, pp. 22–31.
- Imre Salusinszky, Aboriginal 'genocide' claim denied, The Australian, 9 February 2008.
- Rosemary Sorensen and Ashleigh Wilson, Stolen Generations listed as genocide, The Australian, 24 March 2008.
- Doris Pilkington.
- "Review by Peter Thompson, Channel 9 ''Sunday'', 27 August 2006". Sunday.ninemsn.com.au. 7 March 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2010.[dead link]
- Review by Scott Murray, The Age 8 September 2006[dead link].
- Sacha Molitorisz Kanyini: Film review, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 September 2006.
- Bob Randall – 'Uncle Bob'[dead link] Kayini official website, accessdate: 21 February 2008.
- White mothers of stolen children also deserve an apology Sydney Morning Herald 8 December 2010
- 'Your son is gone. He's with his adoptive parents' Brisbane Times 24 December 2010
- Governor-General's Speech : Address in Reply : Senator Andrew Murray Parliament House – Canberra 12 March 2008
- A.E. Vacalopoulos. The Greek Nation, 1453—1669, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 1976, p.41; Vasiliki Papoulia, The Impact of Devshirme on Greek Society, in War and Society in East Central Europe, Editor—in—Chief, Bela K. Kiraly, 1982, Vol. II, pp. 561—562.
- Gitta Sereny, "Stolen Children", Jewish Virtual Library
Bibliography and guides
- Stolen Generations Bibliography: A select bibliography of published references to the separation of Aboriginal families (and) the removal of Aboriginal children Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS)
- Background note: "Sorry": the unfinished business of the Bringing Them Home report, Australian Parliamentary Library, 4 February 2008[dead link]
- Bibliography on Kahlin Compound at the Northern Territory Library.[dead link]
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
- Response to government to the national apology to the Stolen Generations' by Tom Calma – 13 February 2008[dead link]
- Resources on Bringing Them Home
- Apologies by State and Territory Parliaments (1997–2001)
- Bringing Them Home oral history interviews at the National Library of Australia
- Moseley, Henry Doyle 1935, Report of the Royal Commissioner appointed to investigate, report, and advise upon matters in relation to the condition and treatment of Aborigines
- Aboriginal welfare : initial conference of Commonwealth and state Aboriginal authorities held at Canberra, 21 to 23 April 1937
- An Index to the Chief Protector of Aborigines Files 1898 – 1908[dead link]
- Guide to Institutions Attended by Aboriginal People in Western Australia Compiled by researchers employed by the State Solicitor's Office[dead link]
- Sister Kate's on the WA Government Heritage Register[dead link]
- West Australian Government history of Noongar in the South West
- Aboriginal Western Australia and Federation
- Senator the Hon John Herron, Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs to the Senate Legal And Constitutional References Committee, "Inquiry Into The Stolen Generation" Federal Government Submission, March 2000
- Queenslanders reflect – digital stories capturing responses to the 2008 Apology[dead link]
- Mount Isa responses to the Apology – digital stories[dead link]
- Cairns, Cooktown and Hope Vale responses to the Apology – digital stories[dead link]
- A Trans-Generational Effect of The Aborigines Act 1905 (WA): The Making of the Fringedwellers in the South-West of Western Australia
- Essay by Robert Manne
- White Over Black: Discourses of Whiteness in Australian Culture in Borderlands eJournal Focuses on debates about representing Australia's colonial history, specifically in regard to child removal.
- Mark Stephen Copland, Calculating Lives: The Numbers and Narratives of Forced Removals in Queensland 1859 – 1972[dead link] Electronic full-text version of PhD Thesis.
- The systematic removal of indigenous children from their families in Australia and Canada: the history – similarities and differences[dead link]
- The stolen generations: implications for Australian civilization, citizenship and governance
- The agony of Australia's Stolen Generation – The first of Australia's Stolen Generations to win compensation. BBC News
- WA's Black Chapter[dead link]
- "Australia's 'stolen' children get apology but no cash", Barbara McMahon, The Observer, 13 January 2008
- "A sorry way to right a terrible wrong", Anne Summers, Sydney Morning Herald, 12 January 2008
- Rob Riley, CEO ALS 1990–1995 Telling Our Story ALSWA[dead link]
- Home page of the Kimberley Stolen Generation Aboriginal Corporation
- Biographical Entry – The Australian Dictionary of Biography Online
- Sue Gordon becomes a force for her people
- Fremantle Arts Centre Press – My Place by Sally Morgan
- History News Network article on Rabbit Proof Fence and Sister Kates[dead link]
- Genocide in Australia by Colin Tatz, AIATSIS Research Discussion Papers No 8
- Journey of Healing: Rabbit Proof Fence[dead link]