Sedum

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Sedum
Biting stonecrop close 800.jpg
Biting Stonecrop (Sedum acre)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Crassulaceae
Subfamily: Sedoideae
Tribe: Sedeae
Subtribe: Sedinae
Genus: Sedum
L.[1]
Species

Many, see text & Wikispecies for more.

Synonyms

Sedum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, members of which are commonly known as stonecrops. The genus has been described as containing up to 600 species [2] of leaf succulents that are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, varying from annual and creeping herbs to shrubs. The plants have water-storing leaves. The flowers usually have five petals, seldom four or six. There are typically twice as many stamens as petals.

A number of species, formerly classified as Sedum, are now a separate genus Hylotelephium.

Well known European Sedums are Sedum acre, Sedum album, Sedum dasyphyllum, Sedum reflexum (also known as Sedum rupestre) and Sedum hispanicum.

Uses[edit]

Ornamental[edit]

Many sedums are cultivated as garden plants, due to their interesting and attractive appearance and hardiness. The various species differ in their requirements; some are cold-hardy but do not tolerate heat, some require heat but do not tolerate cold.

Numerous hybrid cultivars have been developed, of which the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Herbstfreude' ('Autumn Joy')[3]
  • 'Bertram Anderson'[4]
  • 'Matrona'[5]
  • 'Ruby Glow'[6]

As food[edit]

The leaves of most stonecrops are edible,[7] excepting Sedum rubrotinctum, although toxicity has also been reported in some other species. [8]

Sedum reflexum, known as "prickmadam", "stone orpine", or "crooked yellow stonecrop", is occasionally used as a salad leaf or herb in Europe, including the United Kingdom.[9] It has a slightly astringent sour taste.

Sedum divergens, known as "spreading stonecrop", was eaten by First Nations people in Northwest British Columbia. The plant is used as a salad herb by the Haida and the Nisga'a people. It is common in the Nass Valley of British Columbia.[10]

Biting Stonecrop (Sedum acre) contains high quantities of piperidine alkaloids (namely (+)-sedridine, (−)-sedamine, sedinone and isopelletierine), which give it a sharp, peppery, acrid taste and make it somewhat toxic.

Traditional[edit]

S. acre was used to treat epilepsy and skin disease, as well as an abortifacient in ancient Greece.[citation needed] Outright consumption may cause irritations of the mucous membranes, cramps, paralysis, and respiratory paralysis.[citation needed]

Roofing[edit]

Sedum can be used to provide a roof covering in green roofs,[11] where they are preferred to grasses.[12] Ford's Dearborn Truck Plant’s living roof has 10.4 acres (42,000 m2) of sedum. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars plant in Goodwood, England, has a 22,500 square metres (242,000 sq ft) roof complex covered in Sedum, the largest in the United Kingdom.[13] Nintendo of America's roof is covered in some 75,000 square feet of Sedum.[14]

Ecology[edit]

Sedum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Grey Chi. In particular, Sedum spathulifolium is the host plant of the endangered San Bruno elfin butterfly of San Mateo County, California.

Taxonomy[edit]

Sedum demonstrates a wide variation in chromosome numbers, and polyploidy is common. Chromosome number is an important taxonomic feature. ('t Hart 1985)

Species[edit]

Linnaeus originally described 16 species of European Sedum.[15] There are now thought to be approximately 55 European species.[16]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Hylotelephium telephium ssp. maximum, formerly placed in Sedum

Now in Dudleya:

Now in Hylotelephium:

Now in Rhodiola:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sedum L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-11-03. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  2. ^ Hideaki Ohba. The taxonomic status of Sedum telephium and its allied species (Crassulaceae). Shokubutsu-gaku-zasshi March 1977, Volume 90, Issue 1, pp 41-56
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Sedum 'Herbstfreude'". Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Sedum 'Bertram Anderson'". Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Sedum 'Matrona'". Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Sedum 'Ruby Glow'". Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  7. ^ Plants of Coastal British Columbia, including Washington, Oregon, & Alaska, 2004, Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, p. 157
  8. ^ http://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/all/sedum-spp/
  9. ^ "Sedum rupestre - L. Crooked Yellow Stonecrop". Plants for a Future. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  10. ^ Plants of Coastal British Columbia, including Washington, Oregon, & Alaska, 2004, Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon, p. 156
  11. ^ Monterusso, M. A.; Rowe, D. B.; Rugh, C. L. "Establishment and persistence of Sedum spp. and native taxa for green roof applications". American Society for Horticultural Science. 
  12. ^ Kalinowski, Tess (August 4, 2009). "Green roof takes root at Eglinton West". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  13. ^ "Rolls-Royce - Made in Sussex". Sussex Life. October 25, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-19. 
  14. ^ http://kotaku.com/5834386/the-coolest-things-in-nintendos-american-headquarters-and-one-uncool-thing
  15. ^ H. 't Hart and C. E. Jarvis. Typification of Linnaeus's Names for European Species of Sedum subgen. Sedum (Crassulaceae) Taxon Vol. 42, No. 2 (May, 1993), pp. 399-410
  16. ^ H. 't Hart. Chromosome Numbers in Sedum (Crassulaceae) from Greece. Willdenowia Bd. 15, H. 1 (Jul. 30, 1985), pp. 115-135
  17. ^ Wu; Liu; Zhou; Guo; Bi; Guo; Baker; Smith; Luo (2013). "Sedum plumbizincicola X.H. Guo et S.B. Zhou ex L.H. Wu (Crassulaceae): a new species from Zhejiang Province, China". Plant Systematics and Evolution 299 (3): 487–498. doi:10.1007/s00606-012-0738-x. 
  18. ^ Björk, C. (2010). "Sedum valens (Crassulaceae), a new species from the Salmon River Canyon of Idaho". Madroño 57:2 136.

External links[edit]