The parish Stensele was created as late as 1822. It was, together with the parish Tärna, made into a municipality in 1863. In 1903 Tärna was detached to form a municipality of its own. The local government reform of 1971 saw the reunification of Stensele and Tärnaby municipalities, thus forming Storuman Municipality with the name taken from its largest village.
The municipality has Sweden's ninth largest area (8,286 km2), but is sparsely populated with a population density of less than 1 inhabitant per km2.
Storuman Municipality has two major roads, E12 and E45, crossing in Storuman. There are two railways, Inlandsbanan and the Storuman-Hällnäs Line. The former is used for tourist trains in the summer, and both for freight trains. The nearest airport for the Eastern part of Storuman Municipality is Vilhelmina Airport. For the Western part there is Hemavan Airport.