Storytelling is the conveying of events in words, images, and sounds, often by improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation, and to instill moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters, and narrative point of view.
Historical perspective 
Storytelling predates writing, with the earliest forms of storytelling primarily oral combined with gestures and expressions. In addition to being part of religious ritual, rock art may[original research?] have served as a form of storytelling for many ancient cultures. The Australian aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was then told using a combination of oral narrative, music, rock art, and dance, which bring understanding and meaning of human existence through remembrance and enactment of stories. People have used the carved trunks of living trees and ephemeral media (such as sand and leaves) to record stories in pictures or with writing. Complex forms of tattooing may also represent stories, with information about genealogy, affiliation, and social status.
With the advent of writing and the use of stable, portable media, stories were recorded, transcribed, and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, scratched, painted, printed or inked onto wood or bamboo, ivory and other bones, pottery, clay tablets, stone, palm-leaf books, skins (parchment), bark cloth, paper, silk, canvas, and other textiles, recorded on film, and stored electronically in digital form. Oral stories continue to be committed to memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the world.
Contemporary storytelling 
Modern storytelling has a broad purview. In addition to its traditional forms (fairytales, folktales, mythology, legends, fables etc.), it has extended itself to representing history, personal narrative, political commentary, and evolving cultural norms. Contemporary storytelling is also widely used to address educational objectives. New forms of media are creating new ways for people to record, express, and consume stories. Tools for asynchronous group communication can provide an environment for individuals to reframe or recast individual stories into group stories. Games and other digital platforms, such as those used in interactive fiction or interactive storytelling, may be used to position the user as a character within a bigger world. Documentaries, including interactive web documentaries, employ storytelling narrative techniques to communicate information about their topic.
Oral traditions 
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Albert Bates Lord examined oral narratives from field transcripts of Yugoslav oral bards collected by Milman Parry in the 1930s, and the texts of epics such as the Odyssey and Beowulf. Lord found that a large part of the stories consisted of text which was improvised during the telling process.
Lord identified two types of story vocabulary. The first he called "formulas": "rosy-fingered dawn", "the wine-dark sea", and other specific set phrases had long been known of in Homer and other oral epics. Lord, however, discovered that across many story traditions, fully 90% of an oral epic is assembled from lines which are repeated verbatim or which use one-for-one word substitutions. In other words, oral stories are built out of set phrases which have been stockpiled from a lifetime of hearing and telling stories.
The other type of story vocabulary is theme, a set sequence of story actions that structure a tale. Just as the teller of tales proceeds line-by-line using formulas, so he proceeds from event-to-event using themes. One near-universal theme is repetition, as evidenced in Western folklore with the "rule of three": three brothers set out, three attempts are made, three riddles are asked. A theme can be as simple as a specific set sequence describing the arming of a hero, starting with shirt and trousers and ending with headdress and weapons. A theme can be large enough to be a plot component. For example: a hero proposes a journey to a dangerous place / he disguises himself / his disguise fools everybody / except for a common person of little account (a crone, a tavern maid or a woodcutter) / who immediately recognizes him / the commoner becomes the hero's ally, showing unexpected resources of skill or initiative. A theme does not belong to a specific story, but may be found with minor variation in many different stories. Themes may be no more than handy prefabricated parts for constructing a tale, or they may represent universal truths – ritual-based, religious truths, as James Frazer saw in The Golden Bough, or archetypal, psychological truths, as Joseph Campbell describes in The Hero With a Thousand Faces.
The story was described by Reynolds Price, when he wrote:
A need to tell and hear stories is essential to the species Homo sapiens – second in necessity apparently after nourishment and before love and shelter. Millions survive without love or home, almost none in silence; the opposite of silence leads quickly to narrative, and the sound of story is the dominant sound of our lives, from the small accounts of our day's events to the vast incommunicable constructs of psychopaths.
Märchen and Sagen 
Folklorists sometimes divide oral tales into two main groups: Märchen and Sagen. These are German terms for which there are no exact English equivalents, however we have approximations:
Märchen, loosely translated as "fairy tale(s)" (lit. little stories), take place in a kind of separate "once-upon-a-time" world of nowhere-in-particular. They are clearly not intended to be understood as true. The stories are full of clearly defined incidents, and peopled by rather flat characters with little or no interior life. When the supernatural occurs, it is presented matter-of-factly, without surprise. Indeed, there is very little effect, generally; bloodcurdling events may take place, but with little call for emotional response from the listener.
Sagen, best translated as "legends", are supposed to have actually happened, very often at a particular time and place, and they draw much of their power from this fact. When the supernatural intrudes (as it often does), it does so in an emotionally fraught manner. Ghost and lovers' leap stories belong in this category, as do many UFO stories and stories of supernatural beings and events.
Another important examination of orality in human life is Walter J. Ong's Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (1982). Ong studies the distinguishing characteristics of oral traditions, how oral and written cultures interact and condition one another, and how they ultimately influence human epistemology.
Storytelling and learning 
Storytelling is a means for sharing and interpreting experiences. Stories are universal in that they can bridge cultural, linguistic, and age-related divides. Storytelling can be adaptive for all ages leaving out notion of age segregation. Storytelling can be used as a method to teach ethics, values, and cultural norms and differences. Learning is most effective when it takes place in social environments that provide authentic social cues about how knowledge is to be applied. Stories provide a tool to transfer knowledge in a social context.
Human knowledge is based on stories and the human brain consists of cognitive machinery necessary to understand, remember, and tell stories. Humans are storytelling organisms that both individually and socially, lead storied lives. Stories mirror human thought as humans think in narrative structures and most often remember facts in story form. Facts can be understood as smaller versions of a larger story thus storytelling can supplement analytical thinking. Because storytelling requires auditory and visual senses from listeners, one can learn to organize their mental representation of a story, recognize structure of language, and express his/her thoughts.
Stories are effective educational tools because listeners become engaged and therefore remember. While the storylistener is engaged, they are able to imagine new perspectives, inviting a transformative and empathetic experience. This involves allowing the individual to actively engage in the story as well as observe, listen and participate with minimal guidance. Listening to a storyteller can create lasting personal connections, promote innovative problem solving, and foster a shared understanding regarding future ambitions. The listener can then activate knowledge and imagine new possibilities. Together a storyteller and listener can seek best practices and invent new solutions,because stories often have multiple layers of meanings, listeners have to listen close to identify the underlying knowledge in the story. Storytelling is used as a tool to teach children the importance of respect through practice of listening. It is also used to teach children to have respect for all life, value inter-connecteadness, and always work to overcome adversity. To teach this they would use a Kinesthetic learningstyle, they would involve the listener's through music, dream interpretation, or dance.
In the Quechua community of Highland Peru, there is no separation between adults and children. This allows for children to learn storytelling through their own interruptions of the given story. Therefore, children in the Quechua community are encouraged to listen to the story that is being told in order to learn about their identity and culture. Sometimes, children are expected to sit quiet and listen actively to engage in activities as independent learners who do not depend on adult's teaching.
Stories tend to be based on experiential learning, but learning from an experience is not automatic. Often a person needs to attempt to tell the story about that experience before realizing its value. In this case it is not only the listener that learns, but also the teller who becomes aware of their own unique experiences and backgrounds. This process of storytelling is empowering as the teller effectively conveys ideas and with practice is able to demonstrate the potential of human accomplishment. Story taps into existing knowledge and creates bridges both culturally and motivationally toward a solution.
Storytelling in Indigenous Cultures 
For indigenous cultures of the Americas, storytelling is used as an oral form of language that is associated with practices and values that are essential to develop one’s identity. Therefore, everyone in the community can add their own touch and perspective to the narrative collectively. Stories in indigenous communities differ from other forms of stories because they are not only told for entertainment, but to teach values. For example, the Sto:lo community in Canada focuses on reinforcing children’s identity by telling stories about the land to explain their roles.
For many indigenous people, experience has no separation between the physical world and the spiritual world. Thus, Indigenous people communicate to their children through ritual, storytelling, or dialogue for everything comes from the Great Spirit or Creator and is one. Everything, including inanimate objects, has a soul and is to be respected. These values, learned through storytelling, help to guide the future generation and aid in identity formation.
Stories are based on values passed down by older generations to shape the foundation of the community. Storytelling is used as a bridge for knowledge and understanding that allow for the values of the "self" and "community" to connect and be learned as a whole. Body movements and gestures help to communicate values and keep stories alive, as well as available to future generations. These values can include family and indigenous history, including teachings of the land. Elders, parents, and grandparents would be involved in teaching the children the cultural ways, along with the community values.
Storytelling also serves as a spiritual and ceremonial function. The ceremonial use of storytelling and the unity of message rather than of time, place, and character bring indigenous story themes and characters together. This meaning that, the story is told for telling a message and once the message is delivered, the story is finished. As cycles of tales are told and retold, story units can recombine, showing various outcomes for a person’s actions.
As art form 
The art of narrative is, by definition, an aesthetic enterprise, and there are a number of artistic elements that typically interact in well-developed stories. Such elements include the essential idea of narrative structure, with identifiable beginnings, middles, and endings, or exposition-development-climax-resolution-denouement, normally constructed into coherent plot lines; a strong focus on temporality, which includes retention of the past, attention to present action, and protention/future anticipation; a substantial focus on characters and characterization which is "arguably the most important single component of the novel"; a given heterogloss of different voices dialogically at play – "the sound of the human voice, or many voices, speaking in a variety of accents, rhythms and registers"; possesses a narrator or narrator-like voice, which by definition "addresses" and "interacts with" reading audiences (see Reader Response theory); communicates with a Wayne Booth-esque rhetorical thrust, a dialectic process of interpretation, which is at times beneath the surface, conditioning a plotted narrative, and other at other times much more visible, "arguing" for and against various positions; relies substantially on now-standard aesthetic figuration, particularly including the use of metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony (see Hayden White, Metahistory for expansion of this idea); is often enmeshed in intertextuality, with copious connections, references, allusions, similarities, parallels, etc. to other literatures; and commonly demonstrates an effort toward bildungsroman, a description of identity development with an effort to evince becoming in character and community.
Storytelling festivals feature the work of several storytellers. Elements of the oral storytelling art form include visualization (the seeing of images in the mind's eye), and vocal and bodily gestures. In many ways, the art of storytelling draws upon other art forms such as acting, oral interpretation, and performance studies.
Several storytelling organizations started in the US during the 1970s. One such organization was the National Association for the Perpetuation and Preservation of Storytelling (NAPPS), now the National Storytelling Network and the International Storytelling Center. NSN is a professional organization that helps to organize resources for tellers and festival planners. The ISC runs the National Storytelling Festival in Jonesborough, TN. Australia followed their American counterparts with the establishment of storytelling guilds in the late 1970s. Australian storytelling today has individuals and groups across the country who meet to share their stories. The UK's Society for Storytelling was founded in 1993, brings together tellers and listeners, and each year since 2000 has run a National Storytelling Week in the first week of February.
Currently, there are dozens of storytelling festivals and hundreds of professional storytellers around the world, and an international celebration of the art on World Storytelling Day.
Emancipation of the story 
In oral traditions, stories are kept alive by being re-told again and again. The material of any given story naturally undergoes several changes and adaptations during this process. When and where oral tradition was pushed back in favor of print media, the literary idea of the author as originator of a story's authoritative version changed people's perception of stories themselves. In the following centuries, stories tended to be seen as the work of individuals, rather than a collective effort. Only recently, when a significant number of influential authors began questioning their own roles, the value of stories as such – independent of authorship – was again recognized. Literary critics such as Roland Barthes even proclaimed the Death of the Author.
In business 
Within the workplace 
For many multi-media communication complex institutions, communicating by using fiction storytelling techniques can be a more compelling and effective route than using only dry facts. Uses include:
Using narrative to manage conflicts
For managers storytelling is an important way of resolving conflicts, addressing issues, and facing challenges. Managers used narrative discourse to deal with conflicts, because direct action was often impossible.
Using narrative to interpret the past and shape the future
In a group discussion a process of collective narration can help to influence others and unify the group by linking the past to the future. In discussions, the managers transformed problems, requests, and issues into stories. Jameson calls the collective group construction storybuilding.
Using narrative in the reasoning process
Storytelling plays an important role in reasoning processes and in convincing others. In the meetings, the managers preferred stories instead of abstract arguments or statistical measures. When situations were complex, narrative allowed them to involve more context.
In marketing 
Storytelling is increasingly used in advertising today in order to build customer loyalty. According to Giles Lury, this marketing trend echoes the deeply rooted need of all humans to be entertained. Stories are illustrative, easily memorable, and allow any firm to create stronger emotional bonds with the customers.
See also 
- Cajete, Gregory, Donna Eder, and Regina Holyan. Life Lessons through Storytelling: Children's Exploration of Ethics. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2010
- Birch, Carol and Melissa Heckler (Eds.) 1996. Who Says?: Essays on Pivotal Issues in Contemporary Storytelling’’ Atlanta GA: August House
- Paulus, Trena M.; Marianne Woodside, Mary Ziegler (2007). ""Determined women at work" Group construction of narrative meaning". Narrative Inquiry 17 (2): 299.
- Lord, Albert Bates (2000). The singer of tales, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Price, Reynolds (1978). A Palpable God, New York:Atheneum, p.3.
- Atta-Alla, M.N. (2012). Integrating language skills through storytelling. English Language Teaching Journal, 5(12), 1-13. Retrieved from www.ccsenet.org/elt
- Davidson, Michelle (2004). "A phenomenological evaluation: using storytelling as a primary teaching method". Nurse Education and Practice 4 (3): 184–189.
- Andrews, Dee; Hull, Donahue (September 2009). "Storytelling as an Instructional Method:: Descriptions and Research Question". The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning. 2 3: 6–23.
- Wyer, Robert (1995). Knowledge and Memory: The Real Story. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 1–85. ISBN 0-8058-1446-9.
- Connelly, F. Michael; D. Jean Clandinin (Jun. - Jul.). "Stories of Experience and Narrative Inquiry". Educational Researcher. 5 19: 2–14.
- McKeough, A.,et al (2008). Storytelling as a Foundation to Literacy Development for Aboriginal Children: Culturally and Developmentally Appropriate Practices. Canadian Psychology. 49 (2). doi: 10.1037/0708-5522.214.171.124
- Rossiter, Marsha (2002). "Narrative and Stories in Adult Teaching and Learning". Educational Resources Information Center 'ERIC Digest' (241).
- Battiste, Marie. Indigenous Knowledge and Pedagogy in First Nations Education: A Literature Review with Recommendations. Ottawa, Ont.: Indian and Northern Affairs, 2002
- Denning, Stephen (2000). The Springboard: How Storytelling Ignites Action in Knowledge-Era Organizations. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-7355-9.
- Archibald, Jo-Ann. (2008). Indigenous Storywork: Educating The Heart, Mind, Body and Spirit. Vancouver, British Columbia: The University of British Columbia.
- Fisher-Yoshida, Beth, Kathy Dee. Geller, and Steven A. Schapiro. Innovations in Transformative Learning: Space, Culture, & the Arts. New York: Peter Lang, 2009.
- Bolin, Inge. (2006). Growing Up in a Culture of Respect: Child Rearing in Highland Peru. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas Press.
- Doty, Elizabeth. "Transforming Capabilities: Using Story for Knowledge Discovery & Community Development". Storytelling In Organizations.
- Archibald,Jo-Ann, (2008). Indigenous Storywork: Educating The Heart, Mind, Body and Spirit. Vancouver, British Columbia: The University of British Columbia Press.
- Vannini, Phillip, and J. Patrick Williams. Authenticity in Culture, Self, and Society. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub., 2009.
- Jeff Corntassel, Chaw-win-is, and T’lakwadzi. "Indigenous Storytelling, Truth-telling, and Community Approaches to Reconciliation." ESC: English Studies in Canada 35.1 (2009): 137-59)
- Battiste, Marie. Indigenous Knowledge and Pedagogy in First Nations Education: A Literature Review with Recommendations. Ottawa, Ont.: Indian and Northern Affairs, 2002.
- Fisher, Mary Pat. Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B. Tauris, 1997
- Hornberger, Nancy H. Indigenous Literacies in the Americas: Language Planning from the Bottom up. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 1997
- VanDeusen, Kira. Raven and the Rock: Storytelling in Chukotka. Seattle [u.a.: Univ. of Washington [u.a., 1999.
- David Lodge The Art of Fiction 67
- Lodge The Art of Fiction 97
- Wolf, Eric James. Connie Regan-Blake A History of the National Storytelling Festival Audio Interview, 2008
- By Jason Hensel, One+. "Once Upon a Time." February 2010.
- Cornell University. "Jameson, Daphne A Professor." Retrieved Oct 19, 2012.
- Jameson, Daphne A. (2001). Narrative Discourse and Management Action. Journal of Business Communication, 38 (4), p. 476-511
- Lury, Giles (2004). Brand Strategy, Issue 182, p. 32
- Plain Language at Work. "The best story wins." Mar 25, 2012. Retrieved Dec 19, 2012.
- Caitlin Fitzsimmons, The Guardian. "Coca-Cola launches new 'Happiness Factory' ad." Mar 13, 2009. Retrieved Oct 19, 2012.
Further reading 
- Beyer, Jürgen, "Prolegomena to a history of story-telling around the Baltic Sea, c. 1550-1800", Electronic Journal of Folklore, vol. 4 (1997), 43-60
- Bruner, Jerome S. Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1986. ISBN 0-674-00365-9
- Bruner, Jerome S. Making Stories: Law, Literature, Life. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-20024-6
- Friedman, Stew. How a 2-Minute Story Helps You Lead, Harvard Business Review. August 4, 2009.
- Gargiulo, Terrence L. Stories at Work: Using Stories to Improve Communication and Build Relationships. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. 2006. ISBN 0-275-98731-0
- Gargiulo, Terrence L. The Strategic Use of Stories in Organizational Communication and Learning. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. 2005. ISBN 0-7656-1413-8
- Greiner-Burkert, Barbara The magical art of telling fairy tales: A practical guide to enchantment. Munich, Germany: tausendschlau Verlag. 2012. ISBN 978-3-943328-64-6
- Hensel, Jason. Storytelling and Your Quest for Business Success. One + Magazine. February 2010.
- Hoffman, Lou. Aligning PR with Storytelling for the "Happily Ever After", Ishmael's Corner. June 14, 2010.
- Hsu, Jeremy. The Secrets of Storytelling: Why We Love a Good Yarn ( Preview ), Scientific American. August 2008.
- Leith, Sam. Grand Theft Auto, Twitter and Beowulf all demonstrate that stories will never die, Telegraph UK. November 2008.
- Leitch, Thomas M. What Stories Are: Narrative Theory and Interpretation. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. 1986. ISBN 0-271-00431-2
- Lodge, David. The Art of Fiction, New York: Viking, 1992.
- McKee, Robert. Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting. New York: ReganBooks. 1997. ISBN 0-06-039168-5
- Mitchoff, Kate Houston. "Ignite the story within: a librarian makes a case for using storytelling to increase literacy". School Library Journal. New York: R.R. Bowker Xerox. 1961. ISSN 0362-8930 OCLC 99656380 (REPRINT: 2005, February. ERIC Document EJ710440.)
- MONTECARLO, SNIJDERS, Eva y HERRERA, Angel María. "El Consejo", Alienta Editorial. 2011. ISBN 978-84-92414-56-7
- Randall, W. "Restorying a Life: Adult Education and Transformative Learning." In Aging and Biography: Explorations in Adult Development. Edited by James E. Birren et al., pp. 224–247. New York: Springer Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-8261-8980-6
- Reis, Pamela Tamarkin. "Genesis as Rashomon: The creation as told by God and man." Bible Review 17 (3). Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society. 2001. ISSN 8755-6316
- Shedlock, Marie L. The Art of the Story-teller. D. Appleton & Company, New York, 1917. ISBN 1-4068-1522-5
- White, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1975.
- Wiessner, C. A. Stories of Change: Narrative in Emancipatory Adult Education. Thesis Ed. D. dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University. 2001. OCLC 80185345
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