Strategic Air Command

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Strategic Air Command
Shield Strategic Air Command.png
Shield of Strategic Air Command
Active 1947–92: Flag of the United States Air Force.svg US Air Force
1946–47: US Army Air Forces
Country  United States
Type Major Command
Garrison/HQ
Command Headquarters
1948 November 9: Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska
1946 October 21: Andrews Field (later, AFB), Maryland
1946 March 21: Bolling Field, District of Columbia
Motto "Peace is our Profession"
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Curtis LeMay

Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command for Cold War command and control of land-based strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles. SAC also operated aerial refueling, strategic reconnaissance, and command post aircraft. SAC primarily consisted of the Second Air Force, Eighth Air Force and the Fifteenth Air Force, and SAC headquarters included Directorates for Operations & Plans, Command & Control, Maintenance, Training, Communications, and Personnel (HQ divisions included Aircraft Engineering, Missile Concept,[1] and Strategic Communications.) In 1992 SAC personnel and equipment transferred to Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, Pacific Air Forces & United States Air Forces in Europe (the headquarters transferred to United States Strategic Command.)

Background[edit]

The 1946-1951 SAC patch (above) was replaced by the patch with insignia that won a SAC contest.

The Strategic Air Forces of the United States during World War II included Carl Spaatz's European command (United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF) with 8AF & 15AF) and the United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific (with the Twentieth Air Force).[2] US Army Air Forces' first mission in the Strategic Bombing Campaign in the European Theatre included the VIII Bomber Command (1st European "heavy bomber" attack by the US on 17 August 1942), the Ninth Air Force (1st Operation Crossbow "No-Ball" missions on 5 December 1943),[3] the Twelfth Air Force, and the Fifteenth Air Force (2 November 1943 during Operation Pointblank). The Overlord air plan for bombing before the 1944 invasion of France used several Air Forces—command of air operations transferred to the Supreme Commander on April 14 (Pointblank operations ended the 5th day of the invasion.)

Planning to reorganize for a separate USAF had begun by fall 1945 Simpson Board to plan "the reorganization of the Army and the Air Force".[4] In January 1946 "Generals Eisenhower and Spaatz agreed on an Air Force organization [composed of] the Strategic Air Command, the Air Defense Command, the Tactical Air Command, the Air Transport Command and the supporting Air Technical Service Command, Air Training Command, the Air University, and the Air Force Center."[4]

Establishment[edit]

Boeing B-47B Stratojet rocket-assisted take off on April 15, 1954
For a list of the 32 "airfields and installations" for which SAC assumed jurisdiction[5] on 21 March, see Strategic Air Command bases.

Strategic Air Command was established on March 21, 1946, from part of the personnel and facilities of the World War II command for CONUS air defense, Continental Air Forces, (e.g., CAF headquarters at Bolling Field).[6] Initially totalling 37,000 personnel,[7] SAC also had 7 CAF bases transferred on 21 March 1946 which remained in the command through the 1947 activation of the USAF: Castle Field, Clovis AAF, Fort Worth AAF, Davis-Monthan Field, Rapid City AAF, MacDill Field, and Mountain Home AAF. Under the 1st SAC Commander in Chief General George C. Kenney, initial units reporting to the Strategic Air Command headquarters on 21 March 1946 included the Second Air Force, IX Troop Carrier Command and the 73rd Air Division. Fifteenth Air Force was assigned to SAC on 31 March (15th AF's 263rd Army Air Force Base Unit—with SAC's radar detachments—transferred[when?] directly under SAC HQ[8]), and 8 of the 10 assigned bomb groups were inactivated before the Eighth Air Force was assigned[9] in June 1946. SAC continued the evaluation of bomber crews with the last of 888 simulated bomb runs scored against San Diego[10] in 1946 (2,499 SAC runs were scored in 1947.)[8] JCS publication 1259/27 on 12 December 1946 identified "the 'air atomic' strategic air force should only come under the orders of the JCS".[2] SAC's 1946 reconnaissance aircraft were F-2 photo variants of Beech light transports. By 1947 SAC had acquired an F-9C squadron (12 photo-reconnaissance B-17G Flying Fortresss) and a F-13 squadron (later re-designated RB-29).[11][verification needed] SAC conducted routine reconnaissance near the Soviet borders or near the 12-mile international waters limit (in a few cases into the Soviet Union)—above 30,000 feet and up to 350 miles per hour—which was difficult to intercept until the 1948 MiG-15 jet.[11] Project NANOOK, the Cold War’s first Top Secret reconnaissance effort, used the 1st RB-29 missions for mapping and visual reconnaissance in the Arctic and along the Northern Soviet Coast (later missions were Project LEOPARD along the Chukchi Peninsula, then RICKRACK, STONEWORK, and COVERALLS).[citation needed]

From 1946 to 1948, the US had only 12 atomic bombs and between five and 27 B-29s capable of delivering them.[12] An attack by the 509th Composite Bomb Group in 1947–8 required 5–6 days to pick up the bombs from AEC sites and deploy to the forward base[13] ("by the end of 1947 only two of SAC's 11 groups were combat ready.")[14] After the 1948 Bikini Atoll nuclear tests, the "Halfmoon" Joint Emergency War Plan proposed[when?] dropping 50 atomic bombs on 20 Soviet cities,[12]:68 and President Harry S. Truman approved "Halfmoon" during the June 1948 Berlin Blockade,[12]:68–9 (Truman sent B-29s to Europe in July).[15] SAC ordered special ELINT RB-29s to detect improved Soviet radars, and SAC also monitored[how?] radioactive fallout from Soviet atomic testing on Novaya Zemlya.[11] In 1947 before the USAF was established Fort Dix AAF (30 April) and Spokane AAF (1 September) transferred to SAC. USAF bases subsequently added to SAC included:[16]

RB-29 "Kee Bird" made a Greenland emergency landing after a secret 1947 mission.
11th Bombardment Wing Convair B-36J-5-CF Peacemaker 52-2225 1955 showing "Six turnin', four burnin".
93 BW B-52Bs at Castle AFB after the 1957 fastest round-the-world flight

Transfer to USAF[edit]

SAC transferred to the United States Air Force on 26 September 1947[citation needed] and units directly under SAC HQ included the 8AF & 15AF; as well as the 311th Air Division, 4th Fighter Wing, 82nd Fighter Wing, 307th Bomb Wing, and 2 reconnaissance units (311th Wing, 46th Squadron).[17] (the 56th Fighter Wing was assigned to SAC HQ on 1 October 1947). Most SAC bases were renamed "Air Force Base" in January 1948[citation needed] (cf. Oscoda AAF→AFB on 24 June 1948) and in May 1948 versus ADC's Blue force, SAC's "Red" strike force simulated attacks on Eastern Seaboard targets as far south as Virginia.[18]:77 After a "scathing" Spring 1948 Lindbergh review of SAC operations in the air and at 6 bases,[2] General Kenney was removed as Commanding General on 15 October[19] and replaced on 19 October 1948 by 8th AF's Lt Gen Curtis LeMay when SAC had only 60 nuclear capable aircraft (none with long range.)[20] "The B-29D [which had become] the B-50 in December 1945"[21] was first delivered to SAC in June 1948,[22] and SAC's 1st Convair B-36 Peacemaker arrived at Kirtland AFB in September 1948.[23] Circa November 9 Lemay's SAC command post moved into Offutt AFB's 3-story "A Building" used by the Glenn L. Martin Company in WWII, and SAC Radar Bomb Scoring (RBS) runs in 1948 increased to 12,084.[8] SAC F-51Ds and later F-82Es were replaced with Republic F-84G Thunderjets by 1949.[citation needed]

January 1949 simulated raids on Wright-Patterson AFB by "LeMay's entire command…were appalling"[19] despite the SAC deputy commander in May 1948 having "instructed all bomber units to improve their effectiveness and so established a competition", the "first Bomb Comp" in 1948—winners were the 43rd Bombardment Group (unit) and, for aircrew award, a 509th B-29 team.[24] SAC also opened a 1949 SAC survival school in Colorado (moved to Nevada in 1952 and to ATC in 1954),[25] and SAC created Emergency War Plan 1–49 for delivering 133 atomic bombs, "the entire stockpile…in a single massive attack" on 70 Soviet cities over[specify] 30 days.[26] The 1st Soviet atomic bomb test was on 29 August 1949, and the JCS subsequently identified SAC's primary objective was to damage or destroy Soviet ability to deliver nuclear weapons, its secondary objective was stopping Soviet advances into Western Europe, and its tertiary objective was the previous EWP 1-49 industrial mission (in 1954 Eisenhower concurred[need quotation to verify] with targeting military sites over civilian facilities.)[27]:35 A USAF reorganization transferred Barksdale AFB to SAC from ATC on 1 November 1949.[25]:59

Korean War[edit]

In July 1950, SAC dispatched 10 nuclear-capable bombers to Guam and deployed four B-29 bomber wings in Korea for tactical operations--“too many splinters were being whittled off the [deterrence] stick” *Lemay.[20] Initial SAC B-29 successes against North Korea in the summer of 1950 were countered by subsequent Soviet MiG-15 interceptors, and SAC's 27th FEW began escorting with F–84 Thunderjets.[28] Ground-directed bombing was used for CAS after 3 SAC RBS detachments (C, K, & N) arrived at Pusan in September 1950.[28] In 1951, SAC "began to eliminate its combat groups", transferring medium bombardment groups "to Far East Air Forces (FEAF) Bomber Command for combat."[28] In 1951 Lemay convinced the Air Staff to allow SAC to approve nuclear targets,[27]:18 and he continued refusing to submit war plans for JCS review, which[need quotation to verify] the JCS eventually came to accept[27]:37 (of 20,000 candidates in 1960, SAC designated 3,560 as bombing targets—mostly Soviet air defense: airfields and suspected missile sites.)[27]:60

SAC's in-flight refueling began in July 1952 when its 31st Fighter-Escort Wing refueled 60 F-84G Thunderjets from Georgia to California non-stop with fuel from 24 KB-29P Superfortresses in Texas modified into aerial tankers. Exercise Fox Peter One followed with 31st FEW fighters refueled en route to Hawaii.[29] On 15 March 1953, a SAC B-50 returned fire on a Soviet MiG-15, an RB-50 was shot down over the Sea of Japan 2 days after the armistice and on 7 November 1954, an RB-29 was shot down near Hokkaido Island in northern Japan. At the 27 July 1953 cease-fire, B-29s had flown over 21,000 sorties and dropped nearly 167,000 tons of bombs, and 34 B-29s had been lost in combat[30][verification needed] (48 B-29s were lost in Korea to damage or crashes.)

Massive retaliation[edit]

Titan II missile launching from silo.[where?]

SAC's 1st jet strategic bomber was the swept-wing B-47[31] medium bomber in 1951, which was a component of the October 1953 The New Look strategy: "to minimize the threat[32]…the major purpose of air defense was not to shoot down enemy bombers--it was to allow SAC[18]…to get into the air[--and] not be destroyed on the ground[--to allow] massive retaliation".[33] Concern of a bomber gap grew after the 1955 Soviet Aviation Day, and the Soviets rejected the "Open Skies" Treaty proposed at the 21 July 1955 Geneva summit. US strength peaked with "over 2,500 bombers" after production "of over 2,000 B-47s and almost 750 B-52s" (50% of SAC aircraft & 80% of SAC bombers at one time[when?] were B-47s.)[6]:104 SAC received RB-57Ds in April 1956 at Turner AFB,[34] and were deployed in 1957 to West Germany (the RAF often intercepted secret RB-57 missions returning over the Baltic.)[34] Overseas "Reflex" forward bases in Spain and Turkey (Sixteenth Air Force, 1957–66) used SAC B-47 wings rotated from the US to reach Soviet Union targets.[22]

Beginning in 1955, SAC kept ⅓ of its bombers on alert, with crews ready to take off within fifteen minutes.[citation needed] The 1955 SAC Bombing and Navigation Competition had RBS runs on Amarillo, Denver, Salt Lake City, Kansas City, San Antonio[35] and Phoenix;[36] and the 1957 competition ("Operation Longshot")[37] had three targets: Atlanta, Kansas City, and St. Louis.[38] The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress heavy bomber was first delivered to SAC in June 1955 and replaced the B-36 by 1958 with a peak of 650 SAC B-52s operating in 1963 (42 squadrons & 38 SAC bases).[22] In 1957, the initial production KC-135A Stratotanker was delivered to SAC in June 1957.[39]

Nuclear bunkers[edit]

For the underground NORAD and aboveground Pentagon command posts, see Cheyenne Mountain and National Military Command Center.

A "four-story, reinforced concrete and masonry office building" above ground (the "Western Pentagon", colloq.) and a "segregated, adjacent three-story below ground command post" was built for SAC at Offutt Air Force Base from 1955.[15] SAC headquarters moved from the A Building to Offutt Building 500 in 1957. The underground nuclear bunker "had 24-inch thick walls and base floor,…10-inch thick intermediate floors, and 24-to-42-inch thick roof"—containing a war room with "six 16-foot data display screens" and "the capacity to sustain up to 800 people underground for two weeks."[15] The bunker had an IBM 704 computer for SAC to use monthly weather forecasts at targets for computing fuel consumption and fallout cloud patterns for planning strike/egress routes (e.g., timing which targets to bomb first).[40] SAC also constructed a 3-story 1957 nuclear bunker in Massachusetts with "three-foot thick walls, 1.5 foot thick steel blast doors, and [20] feet underground [to protect] 350 people for 35 days" (closed 1970).[41] The 1957 Gaither Commission identified "little likelihood of SAC's bombers surviving since there was no way to detect an incoming attack until the first [Soviet ICBM] warhead landed",[42] and SAC's bomber and tankers began "ground alert on 1 Oct 57".[43] SAC's fighter escort wings were transferred to TAC during 1957–58[44] and during the January 1958 Exercise Fir Fly, "SAC faker aircraft" (12 B-47s) simulated bombing against the "28th CONAD Division".[45]

Minuteman ICBM crew on alert in a launch complex at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota
SAC received its 1st U-2 in June 1957.

Nuclear missiles[edit]

After SAC's 1st Missile Division was activated on 18 March 1957 and on 1 January 1958, SAC HQ "established the Office of Assistant CINCSAC (SAC MIKE) at...the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division" in California for missile development liaison[46] (intermediate range Jupiter and Thor missiles transferred to SAC for alert in 1958.)[47] A SAC Liaison Team was located at the NORAD command post beginning 1 February 1958, and the 2 commands agreed direct land lines should connect SAC bases and Air Defense Direction Centers.[45] From 1958–c. 1967, a SAC Detachment (TUSLOG Det-50) at Incirlik AB monitored Soviet missile telemetry from the Kapustin Yar and Tyuratam launch complexes, and SAC's Operation Big Star in 1959 studied deployment of ICBMs on railroad trains. The President approved the 1st Atlas (missile) launch by a SAC crew for 9 September 1959 at Vandenberg AFB,[48] and after a F-102/B-47 mid-air collision during the 17 December 1959 Quick Kick exercise, simulated NORAD fighter attacks were prohibited against SAC bombers.[49]:63

SAC intercontinental missiles began alert at Maine's Snark Missile Launch Complex on March 18, 1960. SAC turned over the last British-based PGM-17 Thor to the RAF on 22 April 1960, and Titan I ICBMs at Colorado's Missile Complex 1A were on alert in June 1960.

To counter Soviet surface-to-air missiles SAC began low-altitude bombing training on Oil Burner routes in November 1959,[50] and the 1st of 3 SAC RBS trains was deployed in 1960. "On 30 June 1960, SAC had 696 aircraft on alert in the ZI and overseas (113 B-52s, 346 B-47s, 85 KC-135s, and 152 KC-97s)", and SAC's EWO required all be airborne 15 minutes after notification (the 1st in 8 minutes).[51] In the 1960s, KC-97s began to be assigned to SAC's Air National Guard wings.

On 11 August 1960, Eisenhower approved the creation of the Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff (co-located with SAC HQ[52]) that included non-SAC agencies for preparing the SIOP and the National Strategic Target List for nuclear war.[27]:62 In the early 1960s a SAC RB-47 was shot down in international airspace. 4 were killed, 2 held in Moscow for 7 months and on 1 July 1960, another SAC RB-47 was shot down over the Barents Sea.[citation needed] On 3 February 1961, SAC's Boeing EC-135 Looking Glass, began operations[53] Airborne Command Post for the Triad in the Post-Attack Command and Control System.[54] SAC's airborne alerts included the 1960-8 Chrome Dome (5 B-52 crashes), and the Convair B-58 Hustler supersonic medium bomber was 1st received by SAC on 11 May 1961 (1st General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark in 1965). After early 1961 development by SAC of "a Radar Bomb Scoring field kit for use in NIKE Systems",[55] SAC aircraft flew mock penetrations into Air Defense Command sectors in the 1961 "SAGE/Missile Master test program",[56] as well as the joint SAC-NORAD Sky Shield II exercise followed by Sky Shield III on 2 September 1962.[57]

KC-135 refuiling a B-52D in 1965, the year the last KC-135 was delivered to SAC.[39]

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy increased SAC alert aircraft to 50 percent[2] and during periods of increased tensions in the early 1960s,[specify] SAC kept some B-52 airborne in the event of a surprise attack.[citation needed] In 1962, SAC gained full control of "Q Areas" developed by Sandia Laboratories for nuclear weapon storage adjacent to SAC bases: Site E (Maine), Site F (South Dakota), Site G (Washington), Site H (California), & Site I (Massachusetts).[15] The solid fuel LGM-30A Minuteman I was first deployed in 1962,[citation needed] the LGM-25C Titan II reached operational service in 1963,[30] and Project Added Effort phased out "all first-generation ICBMs" beginning on 1 May 1964 when Atlas-D were taken off alert at Vandenberg's 576th SMS[58] (LGM-30F Minuteman II replaced Minuteman I in 1965) After a 1962 SAC BRASS KNOB U-2 piloted by Major Richard S. Heyser detected missiles in Cuba, on 27 October a SAC B-47 crashed and a SAC U-2 was shot down during the crisis.[53] Kennedy/McNamara cancelled SAC plans including the Mach 3 North American B-70 Valkyrie in 1961, the GAM-87 Skybolt in 1962, and Rocky Mountain's Deep Underground Support Center in 1963. Circa 1966 the 2nd-generation aerial tanker, KC-97 Stratotanker, came into active service and was used for several non-stop flights around the world (SAC no longer depended on Reflex stations in Spain and Britain.)[20]:108

SAC SR-71 Blackbirds & U-2s deployed to the Vietnam War and conducted "Lucky Dragon" surveillance along North Vietnam and China borders (later named ‘Trojan Horse’, 'Olympic Torch', 'Senior Book', and 'Giant Dragon').

Vietnam War[edit]

After the Secretary of Defense rejected LeMay's November 1964 proposal for a "strategic air campaign against 94 targets in North Vietnam", on 17 February 1965 thirty SAC B-52s deployed to Guam for the Vietnam War.[2] In March, the Strategic Air Command Advanced Echelon (SACADVON)[59] "liaison unit for CINCSAC [was] located at MACV Headquarters to assist with the B-52 effort".[60] On 23 May the B-52s began unarmed missions for radar mapping "and later to test bombing with the assistance of ground[specify] beacons".[61] SAC began "saturation bombing"[62] on 18 June 1965[63] (8000 tons per month in 1966)[64] and conducted Operation Arc Light (1965–73).[65] All 1965 B-52 missions were against targets in South Vietnam (RVN) except for the December "Duck Flight mission [that] hit a suspected VC supply storage area [for which] part of the target box was in Laos."[66]:121 In April 1966 Vietnam operations began with the B-52D model, a 1956 design to use cruise missiles and decoys for low altitude operations[citation needed] and modified[when?] by Project Big Belly to increase conventional bomb capacity.[22]

SAC's RBS Squadrons were discontinued when most detachment personnel transferred to Vietnam for 1966-73 Combat Skyspot ground-directed bombing. The 1st "Quick Reaction" bombing was the "Pink Lady Mission" on 6 July 1966 using SAC B-52s to support the "First Air Cavalry Division".[66]:186 The 1972 Operation Linebacker II also used Skyspot for Hanoi/Haiphong bombings which killed 25 SAC aircrew members.[39] By May 1967,[67] SACADVON had moved to Seventh Air Force headquarters[68] on Tan Son Nhut Air Base to schedule and coordinate "strikes for the 7th AF and MACV".[69] From a level of 161,921 military and 20,215 civilian assigned to SAC in June 1968, SAC lost 13,698 first term airmen from November 1968 to May 1969 in a three phase drawdown[63] to comply with Public Law 90-364.[70]

In 1969, "SAC's B-52s and B-58s could carry B28, B41, B43, B53, and BA53 nuclear weapons" (SAC had 311 nuclear Hound Dog missiles at the end of the year.)[63]:6 On 18 March 1969 along the RVN border, SAC first bombed Cambodia (Operation Menu through 26 May 1970 was controlled by Skyspot).[60] On 17 February 1970, SAC conducted the first "GOOD LOOK" bombing of Laos at the Plaine des Jarres after B-52 photorecon (GOOD LOOK ALPHA in August 1969, ... BRAVO c. 15 January 1970) and a Skyspot installation in Thailand.[60]:19 SAC transferred "HQ 8th AF…to Andersen AFB, Guam on 1 April 1970 to oversee B-52 operations and to compliment SACADVON"[69] (8th AF took over from Third Air Division the generation of "frag" orders based on daily strike requests and amendments from COMUSMACV.)[60]

The LGM-30G Minuteman III was deployed in 1970 with MIRVs for striking 3 targets, and SAC retired the B-58 in 1970. With the c. 1973 Vietnam War draw-down, SAC inactivated wings and retired older B-52B, B-52C, B-52E and B-52F aircraft. In 1973, the NEACP aircraft (4 Boeing E-4s) were deployed. 1975 SAC strength included several hundred B-52D, B-52G, B-52H and FB-111A aircraft,[30] and "SAC's first major exercise in 23 years" was the Global Shield '79.[71] At its peak,[when?] SAC had 1000 Minuteman II and III ICBMs on active status,[72] and on "December 1, 1979, SAC assumed control of [ADC] ballistic missile warning and space surveillance facilities"[73] (transferred to Space Command a few years later.) In 1981 a modified KC-10A Extender was deployed equipped with improved military avionics, aerial refueling, and satellite communications equipment.[39] The LGM-118A Peacekeeper reached SAC in 1986, and the 114 Peacekeepers had a total warhead yield of about 342 megatons.[39] An additional Offutt AFB underground "16,000 square-foot, two-story reinforced concrete" command post was constructed 1986-9 from a design by Leo A. Daly, who had designed the adjoining 1957 bunker.[15] The 1st Rockwell B-1B Lancer was delivered to SAC in 1987 (the stealth bomber developed for SAC was delivered to Air Combat Command in 1993.)[22]

End of the Cold War[edit]

SAC reorganization at the end of the Cold War began as early as 1988 when the Carlucci Commission planned the closure of Mather Air Force Base (an ATC base with a tenant SAC bomb wing and tenant SAC-gained AFRES air refueling wing) and Pease Air Force Base. On 1 July 1989 the 1st Combat Evaluation Group reporting directly to SAC headquarters was split with most HQ 1CEVG organizations transferring to SAC HQ (e.g., the Command Instrument Flight Division) and RBS personnel, equipment, and radar stations becoming the 1st Electronic Combat Range Group. Airborne NEACP alerts ended in 1990[54] and during the 1991 Operation Desert Storm, SAC bomber, tanker and reconnaissance aircraft flew operations (e.g., B-52s with AGM-86 ALCMs) near Iraq from bases in Great Britain, Turkey, Akrotiri, Cyprus, Diego Garcia, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. SAC bomber and refuelling aircraft were taken off continuous nuclear alert on 27 September 1991[74] and placed on quick reaction ground alert.[citation needed]

The 31 May 1992 USAF reorganization moved SAC bomber, reconnaissance and aerial command post aircraft, along with all Tactical Air Command units and aircraft, to Air Combat Command. Air Mobility Command inherited most of SAC's KC-135 Stratotanker and KC-10 Extender aerial refueling tanker force, although some KC-135s also went to USAFE and PACAF). USAF nuclear forces combined with the United States Navy's nuclear forces to form United States Strategic Command, which took over the SAC Offutt AFB complex. Land-based ICBMs later transferred to Air Force Space Command until the early 2000s when they combined with B-52 and B-2 ((but not B-1) aircraft to form Air Force Global Strike Command.

Commemoration and post-Cold War historiography[edit]

The SAC Museum located adjacent to Offutt AFB was moved in 1998[75] near Interstate 80 in Nebraska and renamed, and organizations commemorating SAC include the SAC Elite Guard Association[76] and the Strategic Air Command Memorial Amateur Radio Club.[77] After the Cold War, SAC histories included a 1996 almanac and a 2006 organizational history.[78]

In 2009, the Air Force Global Strike Command was activated with the lineage of Strategic Air Command.[79]

SAC sayings[edit]

  • "To err is human. To forgive is not SAC policy" -- from a poster using SAC's gauntlet emblem.
  • "Peace Through Strength, Victory Through Devastation"
  • "Peace Is Our Profession" -- (sometimes followed with "War is our hobby.")

Lineage[edit]

  • Established as Continental Air Forces on 13 December 1944[citation needed]
Re-designated: Strategic Air Command on 21 March 1946[citation needed]
Components
For SAC aircraft/systems and wings, see Strategic Air Command equipment and Strategic Air Command wings.
Overseas components
Strategic Air Command in the United Kingdom was among the command's largest overseas concentrations of forces, with additional forces at bases in North Africa during the 1950s and 1960s in addition to SAC bomber, tanker, and/or reconnaissance aircraft assets at the former Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and at Andersen AFB, Guam, RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom and the former NAS Keflavik, Iceland through the 1990s. SAC "Provisional" wings were also located in Okinawa and Thailand during the Vietnam War and at Diego Garcia and in the United Kingdom during the first Gulf War.
External media
Images
Image sequence for Titan II launch
Video
1st Titan II silo launch
High Strategy
Power of Decision
Semiannual Film Report
SAC Command Post
The Strength of SAC
The Global Shield
Modern Marvels film

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alliant Techsystems Names Blalock to Head New Colorado Springs Field Marketing Office" (news release). ATK.com. December 9, 1997. Retrieved 2013-09-08. "Chief, Missile Concept Division, Headquarters, Strategic Air Command" 
  2. ^ a b c d e Worden, Col Mike (July 2000--2nd printing, March 1998--1st printing). Rise of the Fighter Generals: The Problem of Air Force Leadership 1945–1982 (Report). Air University Press. ISBN 1-58566-048-5. http://ebooks.gutenberg.us/AU_Press_Collection/Books/Worden/Worden.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-30. "43. Richard H. Kohn and Joseph Harahan, eds., Strategic Air Warfare An Interview with Curtis E. LeMay, Leon W. Johnson, David A. Burchinal, and Jack J. Catton (Washington, D.C.: OAFH, 1988), 93. This account indicates that SAC needed five to six days to go pick up atomic weapons and fly to forward bases before launching atomic air strikes. Also in March 1946 only 27 B-29s were atomic capable. Nine bombs were available in 1946, 13 in 1947, and 50 in 1948. AEC (arms export control) teams could prepare only two bombs each day by mid-1948 (p. 95). Rosenberg, 14. … Vandenberg, sent the highly regarded Charles A. Lindbergh to inspect six SAC bases. Lindbergh spent more than one thousand hours in the air with SAC crews. His September 1948 report cited low standards of professionalism, poor morale, low proficiency, personnel disruptions, and command training policies that “seriously interfered with training in the primary mission of the atomic squadrons.5 … LeMay left his successor a thriving command that had expanded from 837 to 2,711 aircraft and from 21 stateside bases to 38, with an additional 30 bases overseas. … 15. Edward G. Longacre, Strategic Air Command: The Formative Years (1944–1949) (Offutt AFB, Nebr.: Office of the Historian, 1990), 23 … McNamara…Nonnuclear forces were our sword, our nuclear forces were our shield.”10 … Despite the November 1964 JCS endorsement of LeMay’s [proposed] strategic air campaign against 94 targets in North Vietnam, McNamara rejected it, saying there was insufficient provocation for it and the focus should be on South Vietnam. … [9] February 1965 the Vietcong struck…American billets at Qui Nhon, which provoked Flaming Dart II."
  3. ^ Zaloga, Steven J. (2008) [2007]. German V-Weapon Sites 1943-45. Fortress Study Group (72). Johnson, Hugh & Taylor, Chris (Illustrations). Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 29. ISBN 978 184603 247 9. 
  4. ^ a b Leonard, Barry (2009). History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense. Vol II, 1955-1972. Fort McNair: Center for Military History. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4379-2131-1. "In November 1945, General Dwight D. Eisenhower became Army Chief of Staff. One of General Eisenhower’s first actions was to appoint a board of officers, headed by Lieutenant General W. H. Simpson, to prepare a definitive plan for the reorganization of the Army and the Air Force that could be effected without enabling legislation and would provide for the separation of the Air Force from the Army." 
  5. ^ (partial transcript at AlternateWars.com) History of Strategic Air Command: Chapter III Operations and Training (Report). Historical Study No. 61. Historical Division, SAC Office of Information. 21 March tbd--declassified 11 October 1991. http://www.alternatewars.com/WW3/WW3_Documents/USAF/SAC_Historic_Study_61_Partial.htm. Retrieved 2013-09-27. "Following are the bases assigned on 21 March:
  6. ^ a b Boyne, Walter J (1997), Beyond The Wild Blue: A History of the United States Air Force 1947–1997, New York: St. Martin's Press 
  7. ^ Adams, Chris (2005--3rd pringint). Inside The Cold War; A Cold Warrior's Reflections (Report). Air University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=0WW6e0Xe9w4C&q=strategic+air+command#v=snippet&q=strategic%20air%20command&f=false. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  8. ^ a b c author tbd (9 November 1983) (MobileRadar.org transcription). Historical Summary: Radar Bomb Scoring, 1945–1983 (Report). Office of History, 1st Combat Evaluation Group. http://www.mobileradar.org/Documents/hist_sum_rad_bom_scrg.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-31. "With the activation of the 8th Air Force the demand for radar bomb scoring training increased greatly. The 263rd was relieved from assignment to 15th Air Force and assigned directly to Headquarters Strategic Air Command."
  9. ^ Broyhill, Marvin T. "SAC History: This section is still under development". Strategic-Air-Command.com. Retrieved 2013-08-31. "Startup - 1944 - 1946. SAC is formed. Assigned 15th Air Force. First 10 Bomb Groups. 8 inactivated." 
  10. ^ Herring, G. B. (Jr.) (19 May 1966). "TBD". Laurel Leader Call (Laurel, Mississippi). Retrieved 2012-07-11. "Radar bomb scoring began in 1946 with 888 bomb releases for the year against a site in the[verification needed] San Diego" 
  11. ^ a b c Wack, Fred J (1992). The Secret Explorers: Saga of the 46th/72nd Reconnaissance Squadrons. Seeger's Print. ASIN B0006EZ8GQ. 
  12. ^ a b c Rosenberg, David A (June 1979). "American Atomic Strategy and the Hydrogen Bomb Decision". The Journal of American History (66.1): 62–87. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  13. ^ Kohn, R. H.; Harahan, J. P. (1988). "U.S. Strategic Air Power, 1948-1962: Excerpts from an Interview with Generals Curtis E. LeMay, Leon W. Johnson, David A. Burchinal, and Jack J. Catton". International Security 12 (4): 78–95. doi:10.2307/2538995. JSTOR 2538995.  edit
  14. ^ [full citation needed] Worden citation 4
  15. ^ a b c d e Weitze, Karen J. (November 1999). Cold War Infrastructure for Strategic Air Command: The Bomber Mission (Report). United States Army Corps of Engineers. http://cryptocomb.org/Cold%20War%20Infrastructure%20for%20Strategic%20Air%20Command-The%20Bomber%20Mission.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-15. "The first six B-36s arrived at Sidi Slimane, another SAC base built in French Morocco, in early December 1951, completing their 5,000-mile training flight from Carswell Air Force Base ... SAC built approximately 50 to 60 of its second generation bomber maintenance hangars at approximately 46 Air Force installations in the U.S. and internationally between 1952 and 1955"
  16. ^ Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases (Report). Volume I: Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Office of Air Force History. p. 600. ISBN 0-912799-53-6. http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100921-026.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  17. ^ Strategic Air Command (organizational chart), retrieved 2013-08-14  (published in Mixer, Ronald E. The Genealogy of the Strategic Air Command. Battermix. )
  18. ^ a b Schaffel, Kenneth (1991). The Emerging Shield: The Air Force and the Evolution of Continental Air Defense, 1945–1960. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. "after meeting an attack, Clausewitz advocated that a military force be prepared to launch a counterattack, as unleashing a "Sword of Vengeance" was the "greatest moment of defense." For the Air Force, the Strategic Air Command constituted its "Sword of Vengeance."" 
  19. ^ a b Alexander, Sigmund (July 2005). "Radar Bomb Scoring: RBS Operations". The Stratojet Newsletter. Volume 22 (B-47 Stratojet Association). Retrieved 2012-07-09. 
  20. ^ a b c Tillman, Barrett (2007). LeMay. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 94. 
  21. ^ Knaack, Marcelle Size (1988). "Appendix II: Experimental and Prototype Bombers, North American XB-70A". Encyclopedia of U.S. Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems (Report). Volume II: Post-World War II Bombers 1945–1973. Washington DC: Office of Air Force History, United States Air Force. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
  22. ^ a b c d e Baugher, Joseph F.. "Welcome to Joe Baugher's Home Page!". JoeBaugher.com.  Individual aircraft/model pages: B-2A, B-47, B-36, B-52 (B-52D)
  23. ^ "Kirtland AFB, New Mexico". Military Facilities: Air Force Bases. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  24. ^ Stives, Brian (11/5/1010). "Global Strike Challenge - A legacy of excellence". Eighth Air Force Public Affairs. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  25. ^ a b A Brief History of Keesler AFB and the 81st Training Wing (Report). A-090203-089. http://www.keesler.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090203-089.pdf. Retrieved 2013-07-08. "Flight Engineer Training [was a] Mather-based program transferred to Strategic Air Command in early 1947 ... [a] flight engineer rating [required] successfully complet[ing] flying training in SAC [after] February 1947, and within several months ATC transferred the B-29s to SAC. ... Geiger Field transferred to Strategic Air Command as of 15 September. [ATC also] transferred a Geiger subpost, Fort George E. Wright, to Strategic Air Command on 16 July." (the fort had SAC's RBS Detachment D by 1950.)
  26. ^ Englehardt, Tom (2007). The End of Victory Culture: Cold War America…. Retrieved 2012-08-14. 
  27. ^ a b c d e Rosenberg, David A. "The Origins of Overkill: Nuclear Weapons and American Strategy, 1945–1960". International Security (Los Angeles: University of Southern California) (7.4): 3–71. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  28. ^ a b c title tbd (Report). AFHSO.af.mil. http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100526-045.pdf. "To help meet the threat of the Soviet-built MiG–15 fighter in Korea, the USAF diverted Strategic Air Command’s 27th FEW with its F–84 Thunderjets to the Far East instead of sending it as planned to England. In early December 1950 the wing established a rear echelon at Itazuke, Japan, and took its F–84s to Taegu AB, South Korea. Less than two months later, fearful that Chinese ground forces would overrun UN jet bases in South Korea, Fifth Air Force withdrew the 27th to Japan. The wing continued combat from Japan until the 136th FBW replaced it in late June 1951."
  29. ^ History of aerial refueling, History office, Air Mobility command
  30. ^ a b c Lloyd (2000--1st edition). A Cold War Legacy: A Tribute to Strategic Air Command. Pictorial Histories Publishing Co. ISBN 1-575100-52-5. 
  31. ^ Lloyd, Alwyn T (1988). B-47 Stratojet in detail & scale. TAB Books. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  32. ^ Joint Chiefs of Staff summary[specify] (cited by Schaffel p. 194)
  33. ^ Canadian House of Commons transcript (quoted by Schaffel, p. 251—speaker not identified). Note: Massive retaliation was "espoused publicly in January 1954 by Eisenhower's Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles" (Schaffel p. 194)
  34. ^ a b Mikesh, Robert C (1995). Martin B-57 Canberra: The Complete Record. Schiffer Pub Ltd. ISBN 0-88740-661-0. 
  35. ^ "7th Bombardment Wing Operations, Carswell AFB, 1955-1958". 7bwb-36assn.org. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  36. ^ "Fairchild Wing To Get Trophy In Bomb Tests" (Google news archive). Spokane Daily Chronicle. May 2, 1955. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  37. ^ 1957 | 1525 | Flight Archive. Flightglobal.com (1957-10-18). Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  38. ^ Haugland, Vern (October 31, 1957). "90 SAC Planes to H-Bomb 3 Target Cities Off Map". The Milwaukee Sentinel. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  39. ^ a b c d e "Air Force Fact Sheets" (search page). USAF website. : [://archive.is/20130626170256/http://www.af.mil/information/factsheets/factsheet.asp?fsID=109 KC-10,] KC-135, LGM-118A Peacekeeper, SA-2 SAM
  40. ^ "Race for the Superbomb" (5 webpages transcribing SAC Lt. Gen. James Edmundson's interview). Public Broadcasting System (SAC mission, Response Time, War Plans, End of the Cold War). 
  41. ^ "Mt. Holyoke Timeline: 1950-1974". timeline index. Chronos-Historical.org. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  42. ^ Freeman, Maj Steve. "Visionaries, Cold War, hard work built the foundations of Air Force Space Command". "Guardian Magazine…funded Air Force newspaper" (Peterson Air Force Base). p. 6. 
  43. ^ Narducci, Henry M (1 April 1988). Strategic Air Command and the Alert Program: A Brief History (Report). Offutt Air Force Base: Office of the Historian, Headquarters Strategic Air Command. http://www.siloworld.net/DOWNLOADS/SAC%20Brief%20History%20Reduced.pdf. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  44. ^ Boyd, Robert J (1988). SAC's fighter planes and their operations. Office of the Historian, Headquarters Strategic Air Command (Supt. of Docs, U.S. G.P.O.). 
  45. ^ a b Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director.  (Report).
  46. ^ Clark, Major Rita F. (1 May 1990). SAC Missile Chronology 1939–1988 (Report). Office of the Historian, HQ. SAC, Offutt AFB. http://www.siloworld.net/SAC/SAC%20Missile%20Chronology-6-4.pdf. Retrieved 2013-09-26. "Creation of the new command was achieved by redesignating Headquarters Continental Air Forces ... 1958...1 January Headquarters SAC established the Office of Assistant CINCSAC (SAC MIKE) at Inglewood, California. This position was designated to serve as an extenstion of Headquarters SAC and was responsible for working closely with the Air Force Ballistic Missile Division ... 1958...17 June The Air Force accepted delivery of the first Titan I ICBM from the Martin Company, formerly the Glenn L Martin Aircraft Company. ... 1959...8 June First SAC launch of a Quail missile. The launch took place over the Eglin Gulf Test Range. ... 1961...4 August Work was completed on all three Titan I ICBM complexes at the 724th Strategic Missile Squadron, Lowry AFB, Colorado, and they were turned over to the Strategic Air Command by the Army Corps of Engineers. ... 1961 ... 7 December Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara canceled the Mobile Minuteman development program. ... 1966 ... 1 July Headquarters SAC organized a special agency, Ballistic Missile Evaluation (BME), to evaluate and make formal reports to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the reliability and capability of the various SAC ICBM weapon systems. ... 1966...3–7 April The Strategic Air Command conducted its first missile combat competition. ... 17 April The first attempted launch of a Minuteman II ICBM by means of the Airborne Launch Control System (ALCS) ... 1969 ... 29 July The first flight-test of the SRAM was successful. The missile, launched from a B-52H, flew down the White Sands Missile Range and impacted in the target area. ... 1973 ... 9 January Operational testing and Evaluation (OT&E, nicknamed Bullet Blitz) of the SRAM from B-52 aircraft began at Holloman AFB, New Mexico."
  47. ^ Condit, Kenneth W. (1992 [1971 classified vol]). "Chapter 4: The Weapons Revolution and Service Functions". The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy: 1955-1956 (Report). Washington, DC: Historical Office, Joint Staff. (Condit's footnote 41 on p. 294 cites:
    JCS Hist Div, Chronology of Significant Events and Decisions Relating to the U.S. Missile and Earth Satellite Development Programs (1957), p. 76 and passim. Semiannual Report of the Secretary of Defense, 1 Jan-30 Jun 58, pp. 283–284.)
  48. ^ Secretary of Defense (9 September 1959), handwritten memorandum to the President (typewritten record at Eisenhower Archives with 6/19/79 date at top) 
  49. ^ Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director.  (Report). "On 19 December 1959, NORAD and SAC informed their unlts that, for the interim, no [mock] fighter attacks against bomber aircraft would be allowed. The order was issued as a result of a mid-air collision on 17 December between an F-102 and a B-47 engaged in exercise Quick Kick."
  50. ^ "Jet Bombers To Descend Near Alto For Series of Mock Air Attacks" (UniSv of Tennessee archives). The Cherokeean (Rusk, Texas). December 28, 1961. Retrieved 2013-09-18. "Strategic Air Command will begin flying missions on Jan. 1 against simulated targets near Greenville, Miss. They will use a low-level entry point near Alto. ... Low level bombing and navigation training has been conducted against fixed sites under the code name "Oil Burner" since November 1959... The RBS train will carry about 65 Air Force personnel. ... The RBS Express...has 10 cars...consisting of existing U.S. Army stock from the Odgen General Depor" 
  51. ^ History of the Strategic Air Command, 1 January 1960 – 30 June 1960 (Report). Headquarters, Strategic Air Command. p. 135. (quotation and citation from Evolution of U.S. Strategic Command and Control and Warning: Part 2)
  52. ^ Adams, Chris (2001). Ideologies in Conflict; A Cold War Docu-Story (Report). Writers' Showcase. http://books.google.com/books?id=FBOt6m-XCyYC&q=strategic+air+command#v=snippet&q=strategic%20air%20command&f=false. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
  53. ^ a b Deaile, Melvin G. (2007) (dissertation). The SAC Mentality: The Origins of Organizational Culture in Strategic Air Command, 1946-1962 (Report). https://cdr.lib.unc.edu/indexablecontent?id=uuid:2ad28821-8054-4890-804d-43af2737b85f&ds=DATA_FILE. Retrieved 2013-09-16. "Although LeMay had designated Deputy Commanders in other theaters (SACX-Ray, Zebra, Victor, Yoke, and Oboe) ... [Looking Glass] has authority when the National Command Authority is no longer there to push the button."63 ... SAC released balloons equipped with cameras in Norway, England, and Turkey, and retrieved them off the coast of Japan and Alaska... By presidential decree on 8 September 1955, Eisenhower announced that the ICBM would become America's chief focus in terms of the military arsenal.94"
  54. ^ a b Pike, John (24 July 2011). "Strategic Air Command". Global Security. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  55. ^ [full citation needed]"title tbd". Ed-Thelen.org. 
  56. ^ A Survey and Summary of Mathematical and Simulation Models as Applied to Weapon System Evaluation (Report). Aeronautical Systems Division, USAF. December 1961. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/4298/4/bab9742.0001.001.txt. Retrieved 2011-09-13. "the Phase II and Phase III NORAD SAGE/ Missile Master [program] employing SAC and ADC aircraft [under] the NORAD Joint Test Force stationed at Stewart Air Force Base." (cites Miller 1961)
  57. ^ [full citation needed]"title tbd" (AtlasMissileSilo.com pdf file).  pdf p. 17
  58. ^ Fisher, Lt Col David R.; Roig-Compton, Captain Aida E. (1 May 1990--rewritten from 1976 report). From Snark to Peacekeeper: A Pictorial History of Strategic Air Command Missiles (Report). Office of the Historian, HQ. SAC, Offutt AFB. NE. 1990.. http://www.siloworld.net/DOWNLOADS/Snark%20to%20Peacekeeper%20Reduced.pdf. Retrieved 2013-09-26. "Project "Added Effort", the Air Force nickname for the programmed phaseout of all first-generation ICBMs, began on 1 May 1964 when the first Atlas D's were taken off alert at the 576th Strategic Missile Squadron, Vandenberg AFB, California. ... SAC bubmitted a requirement to the Air Staff on 12 February 1959 calling for the first mobile Minuteman unit to be operational no later than January 1973....tests to be conducted, nicknamed "Operation Big Star." ... The Mobile Minuteman concept, Operation Big Star, test train rolls through the mountains of Utah in 1960."
  59. ^ IRISNUM 00904050 (Oral History Interview tape--21 minutes), Project CORONA HARVEST Collection, Part of, SACADVON, Tan Son Nhut Air Base, 11-15-1968--published, 07-20-82--released, retrieved 2013-08-30 (abstract at Air Force History Index.org), "Operational Concept of BUGLE NOTE" 
  60. ^ a b c d (presented during "Bombing in Cambodia" hearings before the Senate Armed Services Committee) …Selected Air and Ground Operations in Cambodia and Laos (Report). US Department of Defense. September 10, 1973. http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/International_security_affairs/vietnam_and_southeast_asiaDocuments/27.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-30. "COMBAT SKYSPOT radar…controlled all MENU missions."
  61. ^ Drenkowski, Drew (September 1977). "Operation Linebacker II". Soldier of Fortune 2, no. 3: 15–20.  (cited by Worden p. 174)
  62. ^ "Part Three: Countering the Communist Threat During the Cold War". Air Force History. AirForce.com. 
  63. ^ a b c History of the Strategic Air Command: 1969 (Report). Historical Summary 116. Office of Command History. http://minotb52ufo.com/archives/strategic_air_command/sac_hist_fy69_vol1_ch1.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-26. "[from SAC] transfer, on 1 July 1968, of Homestead AFB [and] Altus AFB ... The definition of CONUS was that used for the USAF program document, PD-70-3: the contiguous states… cuts were directed by USAF…to keep assignments within the strength and man-year ceilings established by the ... Secretary of Defense ... The overall reduction, directed by USAF, was known as Project 693 ...77 ... the 18th Strategic Aerospace Division (SAD) was discontinued on 2 July. ... SAC had 64 detachments at the end of FY-69, an increase of nine, offset by a reduction of three. One discontinued was Detachment 4, 1st Combat Evaluation Group (CEG), Oronogo, Missourie. It was the second detachment of the 1CEG to be inactivated in 1968.100 ... Scoring activity stopped on 15 December, the equipment was moved,105 and the detachment inactivated on 25 January.106 The other two reductions were Detachments 3 and 19, 3902nd Support Squadron, at Altus and Homestead AFBs, where Manpower Evaluation Teams were no longer required. ... 100. Det 13, Ellisville, Miss, discontinued 2 Jun 68; Hist SAC, Jan–Jun 68, pp. 14–17."
  64. ^ Yenne, Bill (1992). SAC, A Primer of Modern Strategic Airpower (Google books). Presido Press. "By June [1966], after a year in the war zone, B-52s were dropping 8000 tons of bombs monthly in saturation raids on South Vietnam" 
  65. ^ Correll, John T. (January 2009). "Arc Light" (transcript of article). Air Force Magazine. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  66. ^ a b 1966 SAC history http://www.scribd.com/doc/47549447/SAC-History-1966-Study-102 [SAC1966 http://dougkeeney.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/pages-from-sac_history_1966_study_102-laos-targets1.pdf (pp. 121-122 on 1965-6 bombings)]
  67. ^ "title tbd" (memorial webpage). "The attack of February 24, 1968, killed 1 of the 1CEG personnel, while wounding 4 (myself among them.) Sgts Rose and Norman Thomas of SAC ADVON were also killed." 
  68. ^ Thompson, Wayne. To Hanoi and Back: The United States Air Force and North Vietnam 1966-1973 (Google books). Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  69. ^ a b Lessons from Vietnam: Should SAC Perform Both Nuclear and Conventional Missions? (Report). http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA539675. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
  70. ^ Drea, Edward J. (1984). McNamara, Clifford,and theBurdens of Vietnam1965-1969 (Report). Volume VI, Secretaries of Defense Historical Series. Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense. ISBN 978-0-16-088135-0. http://history.defense.gov/resources/OSDSeries_Vol6.pdf. Retrieved 2013-08-30. "Strategic Air Command, denominated a specified command because…it came under the operational control of the JCS.24 ... Clifford had previously appointed a group, known as Project 693, to determine which programs to sacrifice when it became necessary.65 ... In late July, a special committee devising scenarios for T-Day, the day hostilities in Vietnam ended, posited that, depending on timing assumptions, anywhere between 30,000 troops and a two-division corps (about 60,000 personnel) might have to remain in South Vietnam indefinitely. ... Advanced Manned Strategic Aircraft (AMSA) ... McNamara test, 25 Jan 66, House Subcte No 2, HCAS, Hearing: Department of Defense Decision to Reduce the Number and Types of Manned Bombers in the Strategic Air Command, 6084."
  71. ^ Sunday Union - Google News Archive Search
  72. ^ Hefner, [first name tbd] (2012). The Missile Next Door: The Minuteman in the American Heartland. ISBN 0-674059-11-5. 
  73. ^ Winkler, David F; Webster, Julie L (June 1997). Searching the Skies: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Defense Radar Program (Report). Champaign, IL: U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories. p. 48. LCCN 9720912. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA331231. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  74. ^ "B52 Stratofortress Association". Stratofortress.org. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
    "Strategic Air Command alert ends". Af.mil. Archived from the original on 2013-02-19. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  75. ^ "About Us". Strategic Air & Space Museum. http://www.sasmuseum.com/. 
  76. ^ SAC Elite Guard. SAC Elite Guard. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  77. ^ Sacmarc
  78. ^ Polmar, Norman, Strategic Air Command: People, Aircraft, and Missiles, 2nd Edition, Nautical & Aviation Publishing, 1996.
    Mixer, Ronald E., Strategic Air Command, An Organizational History, Battermix Publishing Company, 2006.
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  80. ^ http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42077.pdf

Further reading[edit]