Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II

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The Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II were major military events on the Eastern Front during the Second World War, commonly conducted by at least one Front or major part of its forces. The operations could be either defensive, offensive, a withdrawal, an encirclement, or a siege, always conducted by at least two Services of the armed forces, the ground forces and the air forces, and often included the naval forces. In most cases the strategic operations were divided into operational phases which were large operations in their own right. In very few cases the phases were tactical, such as those requiring amphibious landings.

Introduction[edit]

In Soviet historiography, the Great Patriotic War (termed the Eastern Front by Germany and western historians) is divided into periods:

  1. First (22 June 1941 – 18 November 1942)
  2. Second (19 November 1942 – 31 December 1943)
  3. Third (1 January 1944 – 9 May 1945)

The war with Japan, the Campaign in the Far East including the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, (9 August 1945–2 September 1945) is seen as a separate theater of operations from the Great Patriotic War.

During the course of the Second World War the Red Army carried out a number of different military operations. The scope of these operations, usually known by the major cities around which they took place, was usually termed "operational-strategic" or "strategic", depending on the scale. An "operational-strategic" operation was usually undertaken by at least a group of Armies or a single Front. A "strategic" operation usually demanded cooperation of several Fronts to achieve its objectives. In both cases the operations could last from a week to several months. Strategic operations were combined into seasonal campaigns, because weather and ground conditions affected planning.

First period (22 June 1941 – 18 November 1942)[edit]

Summer–Autumn campaign of 1941 (22 June – 4 December)[edit]

Baltic Border Defensive Battles 22–24 June 1941
Battle of Raseiniai
Shyaulyai Counter-Offensive (1941) 24–27 June 1941
Battle of Hanko (1941) 22 June – 2 December 1941
Belorussian Border Defensive Battles 22–25 June 1941
Defense of Brest Fortress 22–30 June 1941
Borisov-Lepel' Offensive 6–9 July 1941
Ukrainian Border Defensive Battles 22–27 June 1941
Battle of Brody (1941) (26–30 June 1941)
L'vov-Lutsk Defensive 27 June – 2 July 1941
Stanislav-Proskurov Defensive 3–6 July 1941
Murmansk-Kandalaksha Defensive 29 June – 19 September 1941
Vyborg-Keksholm Defensive 29 June – 23 September 1941
Defensives on the Kestengsky direction 1 July – 10 October 1941
Defensives on the Petrozavodsk, Ukhinskom-Rugozerskom, and Olonetskom directions 1 July – 10 October 1941
Korosten Defensive 11 July – 20 August 1941
Novgorod-Volynskii Defensive 10 July – 20 August 1941
Uman Defensive 15 July – 4 August 1941
Tiraspol-Melitopol Defensive 27 July – 28 September 1941
Kiev-Priluki Defensive 20 August – 26 September 1941
Malin Offensive 5–8 August 1941
Tallinn Defensive 10 July – 10 August 1941
Evacuation of Tallinn (1941)
Kingisepp-Luga Defensive 10 July – 23 September 1941
Soltsy-Dno Offensive 15–20 July 1941
Staraia-Russa Offensive 8–23 August 1941
Demyansk Defensive 6–26 September 1941
Smolensk Defensive 10 July – 10 August 1941
Smolensk Offensive 21 July – 7 August 1941
Rogechev-Zhlobin Offensive 13–24 July 1941
Gomel-Trubchevsk Defensive 24 July – 30 August 1941
Dukhovskina Offensive 17 August – 8 September 1941
Yelnia Offensive 30 August – 8 September 1941
Roslavl-Novozybkov Offensive 30 August – 12 September 1941
Sumy-Kharkov Defensive 30 September – 30 November 1941
Defence of Kharkov (1941) (20–24 October 1941)
German First Battle of Kharkov
Donbass Defensive (1941) 29 September – 4 November 1941
Rostov Defensive 5–16 November 1941
Orel-Bryansk Defensive 30 September – 23 October 1941
Vyazma Defensive 2–13 October 1941
Kalinin Defensive 10 October – 4 December 1941
Mozhaisk-Maloyaroslavets Defensive 10–30 October 1941
Tula Defensive 24 October – 5 December 1941
Klin-Solnechnogorsk Defensive 15 November – 5 December 1941
Naro-Fominsk Defensive 1–5 December 1941
Tikhvin-Kirishsk Offensive 12 November – 30 December 1941
Malo-Vishersk Offensive 10 November – 30 December 1941
Bolshekrepinsk Offensive 17–27 November 1941
Rostov Offensive 27 November – 2 December 1941

Winter campaign of 1941/42 (5 December 1941 – 30 April 1942)[edit]

Kalinin Offensive 5 December 1941 – 7 January 1942
Klin–Solnechnogorsk Offensive 6–25 December 1941
Yelets Offensive 6–16 December 1941
Tula Offensive 6–16 December 1941
Kaluga Offensive 17 December 1941 – 5 January 1942
Naro–Fominsk Offensive 24 December 1941 – 8 January 1942
Kerch Landing 25 December 1941 – 2 January 1942
Feodosia Landing 25 December 1941 – 2 January 1942
Sychevka–Vyazma Offensive 8 January – 28 February 1942
Mozhaisk–Vyazma Offensive 10 January – 28 February 1942
Toropets–Kholm Offensive 9 January – 6 February 1942
Vyazma Airborne 18 January – 28 February 1942
Rzhev–Vyazma Offensive 3 March – 20 April 1942
Demyansk Offensive – second phase (1942) 7 January – 20 May 1942

Summer–Autumn campaign of 1942 (1 May – 18 November)[edit]

German Fall Kremel ("Case Kremlin" in English) was a German deception for a summer offensive aimed at Moscow
Axis Case Blue – Woronesh Army Group B
Axis Case Blue – Stalingrad 6th Army
Axis Case Blue – Baku Army Group A
1st Kastornoye Defensive 28 June – 10 July 1942
2nd Kastornoye Defensive 9–24 July 1942
Valuiki–Rossosh Defensive 28 June – 24 July 1942
Battle of Voronezh (1942)
Voroshilovgrad–Shakhty Defensive 7–24 July 1942
Defensive Battles at Distant Approaches 17 July – 17 August 1942
Defensive Battles on Near Approaches and in Stalingrad 19 August – 18 November 1942
1940–44 insurgency in Chechnya
Tikhoretsk–Stavropol' Defensive 25 July – 5 August 1942
Armavir–Maikop Defensive 6–17 August 1942
Novorossiysk Defensive 19 August – 26 September 1942
Mozdok–Malgobek Defensive 1–28 September 1942
Tuapse Defensive 25 September – 20 December 1942
Nalckik–Ordzhonikidze Defensive 25 October – 12 November 1942

Second period (19 November 1942 – 31 December 1943)[edit]

Winter campaign of 1942-1943 (19 November 1942 – 3 March 1943)[edit]

Operation Uranus 19–30 November 1942
Kotelnikovo Offensive 12–31 December 1942
Middle Don Offensive (Operation Little Saturn) 16–30 December 1942
Tatsinskaya Raid
Operation Koltso (Operation Ring) 10 January – 2 February 1943
Sychevka Offensive 24 November – 14 December 1942
Belyi Offensive 25 November – 16 December 1942
Luchesa Offensive 25 November – 11 December 1942
Molodoi Tud Offensive 25 November – 23 December 1942
Velikie-Luki Offensive 24 November 1942 – 20 January 1943
Salsk-Rostov Offensive 1 January – 4 February 1943
Mozdok-Stavropol Offensive 1–24 January 1943
Novorossiysk-Maikop Offensive 11 January – 4 February 1943
Tikhoretsk-Eisk Offensive 24 January – 4 February 1943
Krasnoborsko-Smerdynskaya offensive
Battle of Krasny Bor
Ostrogozhsk-Rossosh Offensive 13–27 January 1943
Voronezh-Kastornoye Offensive 24 January – 2 February 1943
Voroshilovgrad Offensive (Operation Skachok)[1] 29 January – 18 February 1943
Kharkov Offensive (Operation Zvezda) 2 February – 3 March 1943
Orel (Maloarkhangelsk) Offensive 5–28 February 1943
Lvov Offensive 15 February – 1 March 1943
2nd Taman Offensive 26 May 1943 – 22 August 1944

Summer–Autumn campaign of 1943 (1 July – 31 December)[edit]

Orel–Kursk Defensive 5–11 July 1943
Belgorod–Kursk Defensive 5–23 July 1943
Volkhov–Orel Offensive 12 July – 18 August 1943
Kromyv–Orel Offensive 15 July – 18 August 1943
Izyum–Barvenkovo Offensive 17–27 July 1943
Mius Offensive 17 July – 2 August 1943
Belgorod–Bogodukhov Offensive 3–23 August 1943
Belgorod–Kharkov Offensive 3–23 August 1943
Zmiez Offensive 12–23 August 1943
Spas–Demensk Offensive 7–20 August 1943
Dukhovshchina–Demidov Offensive 1 Stage 13–18 August 1943
Yelnia–Dorogobuzh Offensive 28 August – 6 September 1943
Dukhovshchina–Demidov Offensive 2 Stage 14 September – 2 October 1943
Smolensk–Roslavl Offensive 15 September – 2 October 1943
Bryansk Offensive 17 August – 3 October 1943
Barvenkovo–Pavlograd Offensive 13 August – 22 September 1943
Mius–Mariupol Offensive 18 August – 22 September 1943
Chernigov–Pripyet Offensive 26 August – 30 September 1943
Sumy–Priluki Offensive 26 August – 30 September 1943
Poltava–Kremenchug Offensive 26 August – 30 September 1943
Novorossiysk Amphibious 10–16 September 1943
Taman Offensive (1943) 10 September – 9 October 1943
Axis Defence of the Panther–Wotan Line
Kremenchug Offensive 26 September – 10 October 1943
Melitopol Offensive 26 September – 5 November 1943
Zaporizhia Offensive 10–14 October 1943
Kremenchug–Pyatikhatki Offensive 15 October – 3 November 1943
Dnepropetrovsk Offensive 23 October – 23 December 1943
Krivoi Rog Offensive 14–21 November 1943
Apostolovo Offensive 14 November – 23 December 1943
Nikopol Offensive 14 November – 31 December 1943
Aleksandriia–Znamenka Offensive 22 November – 9 December 1943
Krivoi Rog Offensive 10–19 December 1943
Chernobyl–Radomysl Offensive 1–4 October 1943
Chernobyl–Gornostaipol Defensive 3–8 October 1943
Lyutezh Offensive 11–24 October 1943
1st Bukrin Offensive 12–15 October 1943
2nd Bukrin Offensive 21–24 October 1943
Gomel–Rechitsa Offensive 30 September – 30 October 1943
Nevel Offensive 3–12 October 1943
1st Orsha Offensive 3–26 October 1943
Vitebsk (Riga) Offensive 18–30 October 1943
Idritsa Offensive 18–30 October 1943
Pskov Offensive 18–30 October 1943
Pololsk–Vitebsk Offensive 2–21 November 1943
Pustoshka-Idritsa Offensive 2–21 November 1943
Gomel-Rechitsa Offensive 10–30 November 1943
2nd Orsha Offensive 14 November – 5 December 1943
Novyi Bykhov–Propoisk Offensive 22–30 November 1943
Kalinkovichi Offensive 8–11 December 1943
Gorodok Offensive 13–31 December 1943
Idritsa-Opochka Offensive 16 December 1943 – 15 January 1944
Kalinkovichi Defensive 20–27 December 1943

Third period (1 January 1944 – 9 May 1945)[edit]

Winter Spring campaign of 1944 (1 January – 31 May)[edit]

Zhitomir–Berdichev Offensive 24 December 1943 – 14 January 1944
Kirograd Offensive 5–16 January 1944
Korsun–Shevchenkovsky Offensive 24 January – 17 February 1944
German Korsun–Cherkassy Pocket
Rovno–Lutsk Offensive 1 Stage 27 January – 11 February 1944
Nikopol–Krivoi Rog Offensive 2 Stage 30 January – 29 February 1944
Proskurov–Chernovtsy Offensive 4 March – 17 April 1944
Uman–Botoşani Offensive 5 March 1944 – 17 April 1944
Bereznegovatoye–Snigirevka Offensive 6–18 March 1944
Polesskoe Offensive 15 March – 5 April 1944
Odessa Offensive 26 March – 14 April 1944
Krasnoye Selo–Ropsha Offensive 14–30 January 1944
Novgorod–Luga Offensive 14 January – 15 February 1944
Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive 1 February – 1 March 1944
Staraia Russa–Novorzhev Offensive 18 February – 1 March 1944
Battle for Narva Bridgehead 2 February – 26 July 1944
Perekop–Sevastopol Offensive 8 April – 12 May 1944
Kerch–Sevastopol Offensive 11 April – 12 May 1944

Summer–Autumn campaign of 1944 (1 June – 31 December)[edit]

Vyborg Offensive 10 June – 15 July 1944
Svir–Petrozavodsk Offensive 21 June – 9 August 1944
Tuloksinskaia Landing Offensive 23–27 June 1944
Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive 23–28 June 1944
Mogilev Offensive 23–28 June 1944
Bobruysk Offensive 24–29 June 1944
Polotsk Offensive 29 June – 4 July 1944
Minsk Offensive 29 June – 4 July 1944
Vilnius Offensive 5–20 July 1944
Šiauliai Offensive 5–31 July 1944
Belostock Offensive 5–27 July 1944
Lublin–Brest Offensive 18 July – 2 August 1944
Battle of Radzymin (1944)
Kaunas Offensive 28 July – 28 August 1944
Osovets Offensive 6–14 August 1944
Lvov Offensive 13–27 July 1944
Stanislav Offensive 13–27 July 1944
Sandomierz Offensive 28 July – 29 August 1944
Yassi–Focsani Offensive 20–29 August 1944
Kishinev–Izmail Offensive 20–29 August 1944
Carpathian–Dukla Offensive 8–28 September 1944
Carpathian–Uzhgorod Offensive 9–28 September 1944
Riga Offensive 14 September – 24 October 1944
Tallinn Offensive 17–26 September 1944
Moonsund Landing 5–22 October 1944
Memel Offensive 27 September – 24 November 1944
Kechkemet–Budapest Offensive 29 October – 10 December 1944
Szolnok–Budapest Offensive 29 October – 10 December 1944
Nyiregyhaza–Miskolc Offensive 1 November – 31 December 1944
Esztergom–Komarno Offensive 20 December 1944 – 15 January 1945
Szekesfehervar–Esztergom Offensive 20 December 1944 – 13 February 1945
Assault on Budapest 27 December 1944 – 13 February 1945

Campaign in Europe 1945 (1 January – 9 May)[edit]

Warsaw–Poznan Offensive 14 January – 3 February 1945
Sandomierz–Silesian Offensive 12 January – 3 February 1945
Kosice–Poprad Offensive 12–28 January 1945
Bel'sk Offensive 29 January – 18 February 1945
Pleshevets–Breznovsk Offensive 12 January – 18 February 1945
Insterburg–Königsberg Offensive 14–26 January 1945
Mlawo–Elbing Offensive 14–26 January 1945
Rastenburg–Heilsberg Offensive 27 January – 12 February 1945
Braunsberg Offensive 13–22 March 1945
German Heiligenbeil Pocket
Königsberg Offensive 6–9 April 1945
Zemland Offensive 13–25 April 1945
German Siege of Breslau 13 February – 6 May 1945
Chojnice–Koeslin Offensive 10 February – 6 March 1945
Danzig Offensive 7–31 March 1945
Arnswalde–Kolberg Offensive 1 March 1945 – 18 March 1945
Altdamm Offensive 18 March – 4 April 1945
Bulgarian Battle of the Transdanubian Hills
Győr Offensive 13 March – 4 April 1945
Veszprem Offensive 16–25 March 1945
Sopron–Baden Offensive 26 March – 4 April 1945
Nagykanizsa–Körmend Offensive 26 March – 15 April 1945
Assault on Vienna 4–13 April 1945
German Defence of the Oder–Neisse Line
Settin-Rostock Offensive 16 April – 8 May 1945
German Defense of Schwedt Bridgehead 1 February – 3 March 1945
Seelow-Berlin Offensive 16 April – 2 May 1945
Battle of Halbe (Russian: Хальбский "котел", Halbe cauldron) 24 April – 1 May 1945
Cottbus–Potsdam Offensive
Spremberg–Torgau Offensive 16 April – 5 May 1945
Battle of Bautzen
Brandenberg–Ratenow Offensive 3–8 May 1945
Dresden–Prague Offensive 6–11 May 1945
Sudeten Offensive 6–11 May 1945
Olomout Offensive 6–9 May 1945
Jihlavo–Benesov Offensive 6–11 May 1945

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although often given in Western sources as gallop (e.g. Glantz in When Titans Clashed), the correct translation is hurdle jump as the word for gallop in Russian is gallop

References[edit]

  • Feskov V.I.; Kalashnikov K.A.; Golikov V.I. (2001). The Red Army in the victories and defeats: years 1941–1945. Tomsk:Tomsk University Publishing. pp. 24–29.

External links[edit]