Stratford, Connecticut

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To be distinguished from Stamford, Connecticut or Stafford, Connecticut.
Stratford, Connecticut
Town
Official seal of Stratford, Connecticut
Seal
Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut
Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°12′16″N 73°07′47″W / 41.20444°N 73.12972°W / 41.20444; -73.12972Coordinates: 41°12′16″N 73°07′47″W / 41.20444°N 73.12972°W / 41.20444; -73.12972
Country United States
State Connecticut
County Fairfield
NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford
Region Greater Bridgeport
Settled 1639
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Mayor John A. Harkins
Area
 • Total 19.9 sq mi (51.5 km2)
 • Land 17.6 sq mi (45.6 km2)
 • Water 2.3 sq mi (5.9 km2)
Elevation 49 ft (15 m)
Population (2013)
 • Total 52,112
 • Density 2,600/sq mi (1,000/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 06614, 06615
Area code(s) 203/475
FIPS code 09-74190
GNIS feature ID 0213514
Website www.townofstratford.com

Stratford is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States, located on Long Island Sound at the mouth of the Housatonic River. Stratford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was founded by Puritans in 1639.

The population was 51,384 as of the 2010 census.[1] It has a historical legacy in aviation, the military, and theater. Stratford is bordered on the west by Bridgeport, to the north by Trumbull and Shelton, and on the east by Milford (across the Housatonic River).

History[edit]

Stratford Public Library, as seen in a 1909 postcard

Founding and Puritan era[edit]

Stratford (formerly known as Cupheag Plantation, and prior to that, Pequonnocke) was founded in 1639 by Puritan leader Reverend Adam Blakeman (pronounced Blackman), William Beardsley, and either 16 families—according to legend—or approximately 35 families—suggested by later research—who had recently arrived in Connecticut from England seeking religious freedom. Stratford is one of many towns in the northeastern American colonies founded as part of the Great Migration in the 1630s when Puritan families fled an increasingly polarized England in the decade before the civil war between Charles I and Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell). Some of the Stratford settlers were from families who had first moved from England to the Netherlands to seek religious freedom, like their predecessors on the Mayflower, and decided to come to the New World when their children began to adopt the Dutch culture and language.

Like other Puritan or Pilgrim towns founded during this time, early Stratford was a place where church leadership and town leadership were united under the pastor of the church, in this case Reverend Blakeman. The goal of these communities was to create perfect outposts of religious idealism where the wilderness would separate them from the interference of kings, parliaments, or any other secular authority.

Blakeman ruled Stratford until his death in 1665, but as the second generation of Stratford grew up, many of the children rejected what they perceived as the exceptional austerity of the town's founders. This and later generations sought to change the religious dictums of their elders, and the utopian nature of Stratford and similar communities was gradually replaced with more standard colonial administration. By the late 17th century, the Connecticut government had assumed political control over Stratford.

Many descendants of the original founding Puritan families remain in Stratford today after over 350 years; for centuries they often intermarried within the original small group of 17th century Pilgrim families. Stratford's original name was Cupheag, but was later changed to honor Stratford-upon-Avon in England. Despite its Puritan origins, Stratford was the site of the first Anglican church in Connecticut, founded in 1707 and ministered by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson.[2] Settlers from Stratford went on to found other American cities and towns, including Newark, New Jersey, established in 1666 by members of the Stratford founding families who believed the town's religious purity had been compromised by the changes after Blakeman's death. Other towns such as Cambria, New York (now Lockport, New York) were founded or expanded around new churches by Stratford descendants taking part in the westward migration. U.S. President Gerald Ford was a descendant of one of the Stratford founding families, that was led by William Judson.

Towns created from Stratford[edit]

Stratford was one of the two principal settlements in southwestern Connecticut, the other being Fairfield. Over time it gave rise to several new towns that broke off and incorporated separately. The following towns were created from parts of Stratford:

  • Shelton (originally Ripton) in 1789. In 1789 Ripton Parish separated from Stratford and became the Town of Huntington.
  • Monroe created from Huntington in 1823
  • Nichols (originally Unity in 1725, then North Stratford in 1744)
  • Long Hill, (merged with Unity to form North Stratford in 1744)
  • Trumbull, North Stratford separated from Stratford and became the town of Trumbull in 1797

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 19.9 square miles (52 km2), of which 17.6 square miles (46 km2) is land and 2.3 square miles (6.0 km2), or 11.52%, is water. Stratford has a minimum elevation of zero feet above sea level along its coastline, with a maximum altitude of 295 feet (90 m) near its northern border,[3] and an average elevation of 23 feet (7.0 m).[citation needed]

Coastline and islands[edit]

The town contains five islands, all in the Housatonic River. These are Carting Island, Long Island, Peacock Island, and Pope's Flat north of Interstate 95, as well as Goose Island. None of these islands are habitable because of their low elevations. A sixth island known as Brinsmade Island washed away prior to 1964.[4]

Beaches[edit]

Town beach stickers are free for residents and $100/season for non-residents with daily rates available.

Long Beach – Approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long, the eastern end of the beach is open to the public and has parking and lifeguards. The central part of the beach is a nature preserve whose land is set aside for wildlife, particularly nesting seabirds, such as kestrels and ospreys. The western end of the beach was once the site of about 40 cottages, which were abandoned because of the town's discontinuation of the lease to the land . The cottages were demolished in fall 2010.

Russian Beach – Located between Long and Short beaches, Russian Beach has parking and the Point-No-Point walkway. Fishing is allowed, as is swimming although this beach has no lifeguards.

Short Beach – Short Beach Park is 30 acres (120,000 m2) in size and sits at the mouth of the Housatonic River. It has three picnic pavilions, basketball courts, tennis courts, volleyball courts, a handicapped-accessible playground, a skateboard park, a lighted softball field, a soccer field, two baseball fields and a lacrosse field. The beach has 1,000 feet (300 m) of frontage with a concession stand, bathrooms, a deck and lifeguards. The park is also home to Short Beach Golf Course, a nine hole par-3 course.

Great Salt Marsh[edit]

The Great Meadows Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge is a key bird migration stopover. The open water area of the Great Salt Marsh is known as Lewis Gut.

Neighborhoods[edit]

  • Beaver Dam
  • Birdseye
  • Hawley Lane (shared with Trumbull)
  • Historic District
  • Hollister Heights
  • Lordship
  • Long Beach
  • Oronoque
  • Oronoque Hills
  • Oronoque Village
  • Paradise Green
  • Peck's Mill
  • Putney
  • South End
  • Stratford Center
  • Success Village
  • Wooster Park

Roosevelt Forest[edit]

Located in the north end of Stratford, this 250-acre (1.0 km2) site is primarily a mixed deciduous forest, with some wetlands and ponds. Named for President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it was set aside in the 1930s, when much of the infrastructure was created as a Works Progress Administration project. The forest includes campsites with cooking pits, picnic tables, a playground, restrooms, and walking trails.

Superfund sites[edit]

Cleanup of a Raymark Industries Superfund site, in Stratford

Stratford is the location of two Superfund sites designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. These include a variety of locations related to asbestos dumping and disposal by Raymark Industries, whose manufacturing was previously headquartered in Stratford, and the former Stratford Army Engine Plant. The Raymark site is on the EPA's National Priorities List. Stratford Army Engine Plant is not on the National Priorities list, but is being cleaned up by the US Army.

From 1919 to 1989, Raymark manufactured brake pads and other friction products for the automobile industry under the name Raybestos. The company disposed of wastes containing lead, asbestos, PCBs and other hazardous substances at its Stratford manufacturing plant. Raymark dried the waste material and made it available for use as fill material for lawns, playgrounds, and schoolyards. In 1993, the EPA and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection began working together to complete the cleanup of contamination Raymark left behind in Stratford. EPA completed its cleanup of the contaminated residential properties in 1995 and the former Raymark plant property in 1997. Plans for cleanup of the Ferry Creek area and surrounding properties where additional Raymark waste was historically disposed are currently being developed by the EPA.[5] The cost of cleaning up the Raymark Site is estimated to have exceeded $200 million.[6]

Demographics[edit]

As of the census[7] of 2010, there were 51,384 people, 20,095 households, and 13,614 families residing in the town. The population density was 2919.5 people per square mile (1,117/km²). There were 21,091 housing units at an average density of 1,198.4 per square mile (458.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 76.4% White, 14.3% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.2% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.8% of the population.

There were 20,095 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.3% were non-families. 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the town the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.2 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $53,494, and the median income for a family was $64,364. Males had a median income of $45,552 versus $34,575 for females. The per capita income for the town was $26,501. About 3.5% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.6% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over.

Industry[edit]

In 1939, one of the world's first successful commercial helicopters was developed in Stratford by Igor Sikorsky and flown at his plant.[8] His company, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, is still the town's largest employer. Also in 1939, Lycoming produced Wright radial engines here. After World War II, the plant was converted to produce turbines.

The Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division in Stratford built a total of 7,829 F4U fighters from 1940 to 1952, including the prototype. These planes saw extensive combat in the Pacific Theatre of operations during World War II, and played a supporting role in the Korean War. A Corsair sits on a pedestal at the airport as a memorial to the war effort.[9]

The Stratford Eagles Composite Squadron, Civil Air Patrol, is based in Stratford, at the Sikorsky Memorial Airport.

Sikorsky Aircraft[edit]

Sikorsky Aircraft Black Hawk helicopters in Iraq in 2005.

Stratford is home to the headquarters of Sikorsky Aircraft, a United Technologies Corporation subsidiary founded by Igor Sikorsky, developer of the first successful American helicopter. Every Marine One (the helicopter of the President of the United States) has been manufactured in Stratford since 1957.

Stratford Army Engine Plant[edit]

The Stratford Army Engine Plant (SAEP) was a U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command installation and manufacturing facility, located along the Housatonic River and Main Street opposite Sikorsky Airport. Because of the Base Realignment and Closure actions of the United States Department of Defense, closure of the plant was recommended in July 1995. The SAEP closed on September 30, 1998. For the next 11 years the Army was involved with "Team Stratford" to develop the property. The United States Army, which owns the 78-acre (320,000 m2) site, auctioned it off on March 19, 2008,[10] with a winning bid of $9,612,000 which also includes the 1,720,000-square-foot (160,000 m2) facility of over fifty buildings. This bid failed to be paid off and is now being placed for rebid. Currently Robert Hartmann of Hartmann Development has a $1 billion plan to develop the former Army engine plant into a destination resort.[11]

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

Although owned by the City of Bridgeport, Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford. The 800-acre (3.2 km2) facility includes two paved runways (both under 4800 feet), a helipad, and two hangars. It provides helicopter service to New York and the Downtown Manhattan Heliport and is used as a landing site for blimps and small aircraft. In 2007, 241 aircraft were based at the airport, with an average of 212 operations per day.[citation needed]

Rail[edit]

Stratford (Metro-North station) is a stop on the New Haven Line, 59 miles (95 km) east of Grand Central Terminal. Average travel time into Manhattan is about 90 minutes. The station platforms are only long enough to handle four cars and the station has limited parking for fewer than 300 vehicles. It has three ticket machines, a bus connection to neighboring Bridgeport, and handicapped access.

Roads[edit]

Stratford is served by several major highways, including Interstate 95 (Connecticut Turnpike), U.S. Route 1 (Boston Post Road) (Boston Avenue and Barnum Avenue), the Merritt Parkway (Route 15), Route 108 (Nichols Avenue), Route 110 (East Main Street and River Road), Route 113 (Lordship Boulevard and Main Street), and Route 130 (Stratford Avenue and Ferry Boulevard).

Interstate 95 toll booths[edit]

In January 1983 a truck slammed into a line of cars waiting to pay a toll on Interstate 95 in Stratford, killing seven people. This accident was one of the reasons toll booths were removed throughout the state.[12]

Government[edit]

The Town of Stratford operated under a Council-manager government from 1921 until 2005 when it changed to a mayor-council type of government. The first mayor, James Miron, was elected in November 2005 to a four-year term. The second and current mayor is John Harkins.[13] The town has a ten-member Town Council, elected by district to two-year terms. It appoints one of its members to serve as Chairman. The Mayor and the Town Council are responsible for setting policy through the enactment of ordinances and resolutions.

Emergency services[edit]

Emergency medical services[edit]

Stratford Emergency Medical Service (EMS) is an advanced life support (paramedic) level, municipal EMS provider. Founded in 1977,[citation needed] it provides emergency medical response and care using both paid staff and volunteers. It also has an operational Medical Bike Unit and Special Operations Division.[citation needed]

Since it began charging for services,[when?] the department is entirely self-sufficient. EMT-B, MRT & EVO classes and re-certification classes are regularly offered.[14][dead link]

Fire department[edit]

Established in 1909, the Stratford Fire Department operates out of four fire stations, located throughout the town. The SFD responds to approximately 6,000 emergency calls annually.[15][16]

Police department[edit]

Created in 1917, the Stratford Police Department has a force of 107 officers. The department's units include arson investigation, crime prevention, identification & forensic unit and narcotics & vice. Stratford also has a bicycle patrol, a K-9 unit,[17] and an animal control unit.[18]

Education[edit]

Public education[edit]

Public education in Stratford is managed by the Stratford Board of Education, which operates 13 schools: two high schools, two middle schools, and nine elementary schools. The district has about 7,600 students and 870 staff.[19]

High schools[edit]

Middle schools[edit]

  • Harry B. Flood Middle School
  • David Wooster Middle School

Elementary schools[edit]

  • Chapel Street Elementary School
  • Franklin Elementary School
  • Lordship Elementary School
  • Nichols Elementary School
  • Second Hill Lane Elementary School
  • Stratford Academy: Honeyspot House (elementary) (K-2)
  • Stratford Academy: Johnson House (elementary) (3–6)
  • Eli Whitney Elementary School
  • Victoria Soto Elementary School (under construction)[21]
  • Wilcoxson Elementary School

Private education[edit]

Stratford has two private (Catholic) elementary and middle schools:

  • St. James School (K-8)
  • St. Mark School (K-8)

Higher education[edit]

Local attractions[edit]

National Helicopter Museum[edit]

Located in the former Stratford railroad station, the National Helicopter Museum contains a photographic history of the helicopter and model helicopters.

Boothe Memorial Park[edit]

Main article: Boothe Memorial Park

The 30-acre (120,000 m2) Boothe homestead in the Putney area of Stratford is a rolling parkland containing the original Boothe homestead and an eclectic assortment of buildings collected by the Boothe brothers during their lives and added to by the Friends of Boothe.

A tollbooth that was in service from 1940 to 1988 on Connecticut's Merritt Parkway is on display in Boothe Memorial Park.

Shakespeare Festival Theatre[edit]

In 1955 Stratford became home to the American Shakespeare Theatre, an 1,100-seat theatre with grounds on the Housatonic River. The theatre featured such actors as Katharine Hepburn, James Earl Jones, Paul Newman, Jessica Tandy, Jane Alexander, Hal Holbrook, Roddy McDowall, Nina Foch and Will Geer. John Houseman served as its artistic director during the late 1950s.

The company operating the theater ceased operations in the mid-1980s, and the building has been vacant since then. In February 2005, the Town of Stratford received the deed for the Stratford Festival Shakespeare Theater from the state of Connecticut. In 2006 it selected a New York City development company to reopen the theater as a tourist destination, but the company's contract was terminated in July 2007 because of lack of progress. Three months later the town issued a request for proposals for an architectural assessment of the needs of the theater building.

Sites on the National Register of Historic Places[edit]

Sterling House[edit]

Since 1932, Sterling House has served as a community center for Stratford. Housed in a donated 1886 Romanesque mansion that was previously the home of John William Sterling, it hosts recreational and leisure activities for adults and children, charity events, and volunteer activities. The grounds include a gazebo, a rose garden, and a 2-acre (8,100 m2) field.

Sports[edit]

Stratford is home to the Connecticut Brakettes women's fastpitch softball team. Formed in 1947 as the Raybestos Girl All-Stars, and later called the Raybestos Brakettes, they became known as the Stratford Brakettes in 1985 after Raybestos ceased its sponsorship. The team has posted 3,242 victories in 3,607 games played, as well as three world championships and 28 national A.S.A. championships, including a record eight consecutive titles from 1971 to 1978.[25][26] They also captured three consecutive titles in 2002, 2003, and 2004. Their most recent title came in 2006.[27][28] Nineteen former members have made the National Softball Hall of Fame, and 11 have been Olympians.[29] I The Brakettes play at Frank DeLuca Hall of Fame Field.

Media[edit]

Movies filmed in Stratford[edit]

Movies filmed at least partially in Stratford:[30]

  • Butterfield Eight (1960)[31]
  • The Battle (2001)
  • Carnauba: A Son's Memoir (2001)
  • Das Kraftei – Raketenjäger ME 163 Komet (2004)
  • Boxes (2005)
  • Store (2006)
  • Listen to Your Heart (2009)
  • All Good Things (2010)
  • Daddy for Lunch (2010)
  • Sketchy Future (2010)
  • Sicarii (2011)

Newspapers[edit]

Stratford is served by Bridgeport's daily Connecticut Post and by the weekly Stratford Star.[32]

Sister cities[edit]

Stratford has five sister cities:[33]

Notable past and present residents[edit]

Places of worship[edit]

The town of Stratford has over 25 houses of worship representing numerous faiths.

Further reading[edit]

  • Calhoun, John D. & Lewis G. Knapp. Stratford: A Pictorial History, 1850–1970, (Images of America Series) Arcadia Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-7385-3579-6
  • Knapp, Lewis G. In Pursuit of Paradise: History of the Town of Stratford, Connecticut. West Kennebunk, ME: Phoenix Publishing, 1989. ISBN 0-914659-42-1
  • Orcutt, Samuel. A History of the Old Town of Stratford and the City of Bridgeport, Connecticut. New Haven, CT: Press of Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1886.
  • Smith, Claude. The Stratford Devil. New York: Walker, 1984. ISBN 0-8027-6544-0
  • Wilcoxson, William Howard. History of Stratford, 1639–1939, Stratford, CT: Stratford Tercentenary Commission, 1939.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Stratford town, Connecticut". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ U.S. Geological Survey 7.5 minute topographic map series, Ansonia quadrangle
  4. ^ Stratford and the Sea - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  5. ^ epa.gov: U.S. Sues Raymark Industries for Estimated $192 Million Cleanup of Connecticut Superfund Site[dead link]
  6. ^ epa.gov: Settlement Protects Settling Stratford Homeowners from Superfund Costs[dead link]
  7. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  8. ^ [2][dead link]
  9. ^ "Corsair". Uswarplanes.net. 1940-05-29. Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  10. ^ "Event Viewer". Townofstratford.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  11. ^ "Former Army plant proposed as destination resort - Connecticut Post". Ctpost.com. 2010-10-23. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  12. ^ Special to the New York Times (1983-01-22). "nytimes.com: Dead Identified In Turnpike Crash". Connecticut: New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  13. ^ "Stratford, Connecticut - Mayor Harkins Biography". Townofstratford.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  14. ^ "Stratford, Connecticut - FAQ". Townofstratford.com. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  15. ^ [3][dead link]
  16. ^ "IAFF Local 998". IAFF Local 998. Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  17. ^ "Stratford, Connecticut - Police Department". Townofstratford.com. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  18. ^ Michael Romsky. "Stratford Animal Control | Home". Stratfordac.org. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  19. ^ "Stratford School District School District - Stratford, Connecticut - Education Bug". Connecticut.educationbug.org. 2007-06-01. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  20. ^ "Program Overview for Stratford CT Public School’s ALPHA Program". Stratfordk12.org. 2007-03-26. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  21. ^ "Connecticut school named for slain Newtown teacher Victoria Soto - U.S. News". Usnews.nbcnews.com. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2013-02-15. 
  22. ^ "Connecticut School of Broadcasting - Career in Radio & TV". Gocsb.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  23. ^ "Technical Schools in CT and MA | Porter and Chester Institute". Porterchester.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  24. ^ "School For Aviation Maintenance Technicians". Cttech.org. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  25. ^ "Brakettes Archives". Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  26. ^ Hays, Graham (July 21, 2008). "The saga of the Stratford Brakettes". ESPN. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  27. ^ brakettes.com: National Championship results[dead link]
  28. ^ "Brakettes (history)". Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  29. ^ "Brakettes All-Time Roster". Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  30. ^ Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "Stratford, Connecticut, USA"
  31. ^ "The History of Lordship!". Lordshiphistory.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  32. ^ "StratfordStar.com • News". Acorn-online.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  33. ^ "Online Directory: Connecticut, USA" at Sister Cities International. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
  34. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963. 
  35. ^ "Raymond Earl Baldwin". Cslib.org. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  36. ^ [4][dead link]
  37. ^ "William Beardsley (1603 - 1661) - Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  38. ^ Genealogical notes, or contributions ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  39. ^ [5][dead link]
  40. ^ "COOKE, Joseph Platt - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  41. ^ Bagley, Jason (2012-11-28). "'Dancing with the Stars' Winner Hails from Stratford - Entertainment - Stratford, CT Patch". Stratford.patch.com. Retrieved 2013-05-19. 
  42. ^ "US People-Gherardi, Bancroft, Rear Admiral, USN (1832-1903)". History.navy.mil. 2004-04-18. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  43. ^ "JOHNSON, William Samuel - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  44. ^ "About the Author". StephenKing.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  45. ^ IMDb Bio
  46. ^ "biography". moby.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  47. ^ "Invent Now | Hall of Fame | Search | Inventor Profile". Invent.org. 1926-02-20. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  48. ^ "Stratford, Connecticut - Proc-090610-Tom Penders (Sterling House)". Townofstratford.com. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  49. ^ "PLANT, David - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  50. ^ IMDb Bio
  51. ^ Prominent and progressive Americans ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2008-11-07. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  52. ^ "TOMLINSON, Gideon - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 
  53. ^ Posted on September 10, 2009 3:06 PM (2009-09-10). "Historic Sites from the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution". Connecticutsar.org. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 

External links[edit]