Stratford Shakespeare Festival
The Festival Theatre
|Genre||Repertory Theatre Festival|
|Dates||April to October|
|Location(s)||Stratford, Ontario, Canada|
(61 years and 14 days)
The Stratford Festival, formerly known as the Stratford Shakespearean and then Shakespeare Festival, is an internationally recognized annual celebration of theatre running from April to October in the Canadian city of Stratford, Ontario. Theatre-goers, actors, and playwrights flock to Stratford to take part — many of the greatest Canadian, British, and American actors play roles at the Stratford festival. It was one of the first and is still one of the most prominent arts festivals in Canada and is recognized worldwide for its productions of Shakespearean plays.
The Festival's primary mandate is to present productions of William Shakespeare's plays, but it also produces a wide variety of theatre from Greek tragedy to contemporary works. Shakespeare's work typically represents about a third of the Festival's offerings.
The success of the festival dramatically changed the image of Stratford into one of a city where the arts and tourism play important roles in its economy. The festival attracts many tourists from outside Canada, mainly those British and American, and is seen as a very important part of Stratford's tourism sector.
Such well known actors who have participated in the festival included Alan Bates, Brian Bedford, Douglas Campbell, Len Cariou, Brent Carver, Hume Cronyn, Brian Dennehy, Colm Feore, Megan Follows, Lorne Greene, Paul Gross, Uta Hagen, Julie Harris, Martha Henry, William Hutt, James Mason, Eric McCormack, Loreena McKennitt, Richard Monette, John Neville, Nicholas Pennell, Amanda Plummer, Christopher Plummer, Sarah Polley, Douglas Rain, Kate Reid, Jason Robards, Paul Scofield, William Shatner, Maggie Smith, Jessica Tandy, Peter Ustinov and Al Waxman.
Alec Guinness and Irene Worth were within the cast of Stratford's inaugural performance of Richard III on July 13, 1953, Tony Award-nominee Scott Wentworth has performed within the festival's stage productions on numerous occasions since 1985, beginning with The Glass Menagerie, the festival has helped Sara Topham found herself with a career in acting, performing from 2000 to 2011, and a young, unknown Christopher Walken appeared in Stratford's 1968 stage productions of Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer's Night Dream, portraying Romeo and Lysander respectively.
The Festival was founded as the Stratford Shakespearean Festival of Canada, due mainly to Tom Patterson, a Stratford-native journalist who wanted to revitalize his town's economy by creating a theatre festival dedicated to the works of William Shakespeare, as the town shares the name of Shakespeare's birthplace. Stratford was a railway junction and major locomotive shop, and was facing a disastrous loss of employment with the imminent elimination of steam power. Patterson achieved his goal, and the Stratford Shakespearean Festival became a legal entity on October 31, 1952. British actor and director Tyrone Guthrie agreed to become the festival's first Artistic Director. On July 13, 1953, actor Alec Guinness spoke the first lines of the first play produced by the festival: "Now is the winter of our discontent / Made glorious summer by this son of York."
This first performance took place in a giant canvas tent on the banks of the River Avon. The season lasted six weeks and comprised just two plays: Richard III and All's Well That Ends Well. In the second year the playbill expanded, and included the first non-Shakespeare play, Oedipus Rex. The Festival Theatre was opened in 1957, and was deliberately designed to resemble a tent, in memory of those first performances. The Festival Theatre's thrust stage was designed by British designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch to resemble both a classic Greek amphitheatre and Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, and has become a model for other stages in North America and Great Britain.
The Festival runs from April to October, and has four permanent venues: the Festival Theatre, the Avon Theatre, the Tom Patterson Theatre, and the Studio Theatre. Although the Festival's primary mandate is to produce the works of Shakespeare, its season playbills usually include a variety of classical and contemporary works and at least one musical.
The Stratford Festival Forum runs during the season, and features music concerts, readings from major authors, lectures, and discussions with actors or management.
Long-serving Artistic Director Richard Monette retired in 2007 after holding the position for fourteen seasons. He was replaced with an artistic team consisting of General Director Antoni Cimolino and Artistic Directors Marti Maraden, Des McAnuff, and Don Shipley. On March 12, 2008 it was announced that Shipley and Maraden would be stepping down, leaving Des McAnuff as sole Artistic Director. In 2013 Des McAnuff was replaced by Antoni Cimolino as Artistic Director
- Tyrone Guthrie (1953–1955)
- Michael Langham (1956–1967)
- Jean Gascon (1968–1974)
- Robin Phillips (1975–1980)
- John Hirsch (1981–1985)
- John Neville (1985–1989)
- David William (1990–1993)
- Richard Monette (1994–2007)
- Marti Maraden, Des McAnuff, Don Shipley (2007–2008)
- Des McAnuff (2008–2012)
- Antoni Cimolino (2013-)
- King Lear – by William Shakespeare
- Crazy for You – book by Ken Ludwig, lyrics by Ira Gershwin, music by George Gershwin
- A Midsummer Night's Dream – by William Shakespeare
- The Beaux' Stratagem – by George Farquhar
- Hay Fever – by Noël Coward
- Man of La Mancha – book by Dale Wasserman, lyrics by Joe Darion, music by Mitch Leigh
- Alice Through the Looking Glass – by Lewis Carroll, adapted by James Reaney
- Mother Courage – by Bertolt Brecht
- King John – by William Shakespeare
- Antony and Cleopatra – by William Shakespeare
- Christina, The Girl King – by Michel Marc Bouchard, translated by Linda Gaboriau
- Theatre in Canada
- The Stratford Adventure, a 1954 NFB documentary on the founding of the festival, with Tyrone Guthrie and Alec Guinness.
- Slings and Arrows, a 2003–2006 Canadian television comedy set in a fictional Shakespearean company modeled after Stratford.
- Canadian Encyclopedia - Stratford Festival
- J. Alan B. Somerset. 1991. The Stratford Festival Story, 1st edition. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-27804-4
- Tom Patterson. 1987. First Stage. McClelland and Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-6949-9
- Tyrone Guthrie. 1959. A Life in the Theatre. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-86287-381-3
- Martin Hunter. Romancing the Bard: Stratford at Fifty. Dundurn Press. 2001. ISBN 978-1-55002-363-3
- Posner, Michael (March 14, 2008). "All does not end well at Stratford". The Globe and Mail.
- Stratford Festival vet Antoni Cimolino to take over for Des McAnuff
- "Industry Partnerships". University of Waterloo. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Guthrie, Tyrone; Robertson Davies; Grant MacDonald (1953). Renown at Stratford: A Record of the Shakespeare Festival in Canada. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin & Company, Ltd.
- Ouzounian, Richard (2002). Stratford Gold: 50 Years, 50 Stars, 50 Conversations. Toronto: McArthur & Company, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-55278-271-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stratford Shakespeare Festival.|
- The Stratford Festival official website
- The City of Stratford official website
- An independent site featuring links to online reviews
- CBC Digital Archives - The Stratford Festival: The First Fifty Years
- House programme from inaugural 1953 season
- Press release announcing full 2010 season
- Press release announcing full 2009 season
- Stratford Adventure, an NFB documentary on the founding of the festival
- Offstage, Onstage: Inside the Stratford Festival, an NFB documentary on the festival's 50th anniversary
- History of the Stratford Shakespeare Theatre
- An article on Canada’s Stratford Shakespeare Festival from The Canadian Encyclopedia