|This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length. (February 2015)|
South station entrance
Location of Stratford in Greater London
|Local authority||London Borough of Newham|
|Managed by||London Underground
Abellio Greater Anglia
|Number of platforms||19 (17 in use)|
|London Underground annual entry and exit|
|DLR annual boardings and alightings|
|National Rail annual entry and exit|
|— interchange||1.143 million|
|— interchange||1.383 million|
|— interchange||1.659 million|
|— interchange||3.671 million|
|— interchange||5.000 million|
|1839||Opened by ECR|
|1946||Central line extended here|
|1999||Jubilee line started|
|2007||Platform 7 closed|
|2009||Platforms 1 & 2 resited|
|2010||Platform 3a opened|
|2011||DLR platforms 16 & 17 opened|
|2018||Crossrail due to start|
|Lists of stations|
|London Transport portal
UK Railways portalCoordinates:
Stratford station is a large multilevel railway station in Stratford, east London. The station is served by National Rail services operated by Abellio Greater Anglia, London Overground and c2c, by London Underground's Central and Jubilee lines, and by the Docklands Light Railway (DLR). Stratford is in London Travelcard Zone 3, and Network Rail owns the station. To distinguish it from Stratford-upon-Avon, this station is called Stratford (London) by National Rail, and is sometimes referred to as Stratford Regional to distinguish it from Stratford International station some 1,210 feet (370 m) away. The station served as a key arrival point for the London 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.
The mainline station, in terms of arrivals and departures, handles over 25 million passengers a year, making Stratford the ninth busiest station in London and the twelfth busiest within the UK.
- 1 History
- 2 Goods facilities
- 3 Station layout
- 4 Service patterns
- 5 Services
- 6 Electrification
- 7 Stratford International
- 8 Stratford City
- 9 Future
- 10 Bus stations
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early days 1839-1862
Stratford station was opened on 20 June 1839 by the Eastern Counties Railway (ECR). The Northern and Eastern Railway opened a section of its authorised line from Broxbourne to join the ECR at Stratford on 15 September 1840. As well as a station, a railway works was built adjacent to the line to Broxbourne. This and the engine shed later expanded into the area to the west of the station which is now occupied by a shopping centre and Stratford International station.
The ECR tracks were originally set to a gauge of 5 ft (1,524 mm) on the recommendation of engineer John Braithwaite. At this time there was no legislation dictating the choice of gauge and indeed the directors favoured the Great Western Railway's broad gauge 7 ft (2,134 mm). Braithwaite persuaded the directors otherwise on the grounds of additional cost but recommended the 5 ft gauge in an effort to reduce wear on locomotive parts. This choice meant that the Northern & Eastern Railway who were planning to share the ECR line between Stratford and Bishopsgate were forced to adopt the same gauge.
With the extension of the ECR in the early 1840s it became apparent that standard gauge 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) was a more realistic choice and subsequently between September and October 1844 the gauge conversion was carried out. At the same time the associated Northern & Eastern Railway was also converted.
The line through the low level platforms first opened in 1846 as a goods only branch as far as Thames Wharf. The bridge under the main line was too low for many locomotives, so a number of engines were equipped with hinged chimneys in order they could operate the line. On opening there was also a line that linked what is now known as the Great Eastern Main Line directly to the docks enabling through running from Colchester to Thames Wharf. The docks and associated railway networks expanded with passenger services to North Woolwich starting in 1847.
There was an accident at Stratford station on 18 July 1846 when an up goods train ran into the back of a passenger train from Ipswich. There were 10 passengers seriously injured one of whom later died.
By 1855 there were links from both the low and high-level stations to the North London Line as well as a spur that enabled trains from Liverpool Street to North Woolwich to avoid Stratford altogether (although this served Stratford Market station) which was a short distance away. Services from the North London line normally started from Victoria Park and ran through to Stratford Market. This service operated from 1866 until 1874 and was operated by the GER and North London Railway in alternate years up until 31 October 1874.
By the 1860s the railways in East Anglia were in financial trouble, and most were leased to the ECR; they wished to amalgamate formally, but could not obtain government agreement for this until 1862, when the Great Eastern Railway was formed by amalgamation. Thus Stratford became a GER station in 1862.
Great Eastern Railway 1862-1923
On 26 December 1886 a train was derailed at Stratford station as facing points had not been properly locked into position. Fortunately there was no loss of life.
In 1896 the low-level line was lowered under the main line so locomotives no longer required hinged chimneys.
On 1 January 1923 the GER became part of the London & North Eastern Railway.
London and North Eastern Railway (1923-1947)
By the 1930s electric tramways were taking a lot of traffic from the railway and proposals were drawn up to electrify the lines from Liverpool Street to Shenfield using the 1500v DC system. By 1938 the major contracts were let and work started. Despite the commencement of World War 2 in 1939 work continued on the scheme but the scheme was postponed in late 1940. In February 1946 the LNER announced work would recommence. On 5 October 1946 the new interchange platforms with the Central Line (see below) were opened.
Central Line services started on 4 December 1946, extended from Liverpool Street station in new tunnels after being delayed due to the Second World War. The line was further extended to Leyton on 5 May 1947 and then to the former Great Eastern Railway branch lines to Epping, Ongar and Hainault progressively until 1957. Prior to this date trains to and from Epping and Ongar had used the currently numbered platforms 11 and 12 and diverged from the Broxbourne line about half a mile north of the station. Trains for the Hainault loop used either these platforms or the currently numbered platform 5 (up) or 8 (down) diverging from the Great Eastern Main Line at a junction between Ilford and Seven Kings which has since been redeveloped as part of the Ilford Carriage sheds.
British Railways 1948-1996
The nationalisation of Britain's railways saw the operation of Stratford station pass to British Railways Eastern Region. The electric service to Shenfield was inaugurated on 26 September 1949 but services were run to steam timings with a number of steam trains still operating. The full electric service officially commenced on 7 November 1949 (although a full dummy run had taken place the previous day). Two days earlier services to Fenchurch Street via Bow Road were withdrawn.
The Docklands Light Railway opened on 31 August 1987 reusing redundant rail routes through the Bow and Poplar areas to reach the new Docklands developments on the Isle of Dogs. Initially the line used one of the south facing bays which had been built for the Fenchurch street via Bow Road service (but never used).
The privatisation era 1996-present
The low-level station was substantially rebuilt in the late 1990s as part of the Jubilee Line Extension works, with a large new steel and glass building designed by Wilkinson Eyre that encloses much of the low-level station, and a new ticket hall. The old ticket hall, at the eastern end of the station and connected via a subway, has since been demolished. The Jubilee Line opened to passengers on 14 May 1999 as far as North Greenwich station, and to Green Park and Stanmore in November 1999.
In April 2009 the North London Line platforms at Stratford moved to newly built high-level platforms 1 & 2 from the original low-level platforms 1 & 2, freeing the old platforms for the DLR's Stratford International service which opened in August 2011. After rebuilding the old platforms reopened as platforms 16 and 17.
With the great increase in services and passengers since the Second World War, Stratford has changed from a fairly busy junction into one of Britain's major rail interchanges. Growth is set to continue in the future with the opening of the Crossrail line across London and the stopping of international services at nearby Stratford International station (in 2014 this is only served by domestic services).
There were three primary goods facilities in the Stratford area in the steam age, although the nearby Stratford Works and engine shed generated their own traffic. A short distance to the north of Stratford station (on the line to Cambridge) there were marshalling yards at Temple Mills. There was a small goods yard situated north of the station on the eastern side of the line which occupied a constrained site. The mainstay of traffic was domestic coal although shortly before closure in the 1960s the site was used as a reception point for concrete components for the building of tower blocks in Newham
There was a small depot at Carpenters Road about a quarter of a mile south of Stratford station. Opened in 1900, the depot consisted of four long sidings and primarily dealt with coal and building materials. It was closed on 7 December 1964.
There was a large depot at Stratford Market railway station. All of these three facilities were operated by the Great Eastern Railway up until 1923 before being taken over by the London & North Eastern Railway until nationalisation in 1948 when they became part of British Railways Eastern Region.
There was also a goods terminal at Bow operated by the Midland Railway which is still open today mostly for building materials. This yard operated as the terminal for building materials for the adjacent Olympics site.
During the 1960s part of the Stratford Works site was converted to the London International Freight Terminal (LIFT) and there was a freight liner terminal that operated on the far side of the Stratford railway complex (on the Channelsea Loop line). The former site is now occupied by the international station and shopping centre.
The high-level platforms run at right angles to the low-level, roughly east-west. The DLR lines serving platforms 16 and 17 pass beneath the high-level station. Except for platforms 4a and b, Access from the main station entrance is via subways; a second subway links the Jubilee line platforms directly to platforms 3–10 (but not 4a/b). A third subway, which had served the old entrance to the station, was re-opened in September 2010
- Platforms 1 & 2 are used by the London Overground North London line. They comprise an island platform with a step-free link to platform 12 and the subways linking to platforms 3 to 11. The platforms can accommodate trains with up to 6 cars, though at present, due to short platforms elsewhere, 4-car trains are used.
- Platforms 3, 3A & 6 are used by Central line trains, which rise from their tunnels into the open air here and immediately descend back underground afterwards. Platforms 3 & 6 are 'island' platforms providing easy cross-platform interchange with National Rail services operating from platforms 5 and 8 respectively (see below), while platform 3A has a direct step-free connection at mezzanine level, facilitating easier interchange with Jubilee line trains on platforms 13-15 and Docklands Light Railway trains on platforms 4A & 4B. Westbound Central line trains travelling towards London Liverpool Street Station and Central London open their doors on both sides, so that passengers can alight and board trains from either side, reducing dwell times and peak-hour congestion in the passageways. This station is one of only two where London Underground services open their doors on both sides (the other being on the eastbound District Line at Barking).
- Platforms 4 & 7 are abandoned. When the London to Shenfield line was electrified in the 1940s, there was an intention to run a shuttle service from Fenchurch Street to Stratford, calling at Stepney and Bow Road, which would have terminated at these bay platforms. However, this service was never introduced (despite all the works required being carried out). In the 1980s platform 4 was used as the terminus of the Docklands Light Railway while platform 7 remained abandoned. In 2007 platform 4 was abandoned again as the DLR moved to two new platforms to the south of platform 4, though these are signposted as platform 4 within the station.
- Platforms 4A & 4B (signposted as platform 4) are used by the Docklands Light Railway for services to Canary Wharf, Greenwich and Lewisham. They consist of a single island platform with two faces, numbered 4A and 4B. These platforms are not accessed by the subway(s) but through a separate entrance on the upper level of the main concourse. [A different branch of the DLR is served from low level platforms 16 and 17.]
- Platforms 5 & 8 are used by Abellio Greater Anglia services on the slow lines out of London Liverpool Street. These are mostly the 'Shenfield metro' services to Shenfield, but they are also used by rush hour and off-peak trains to Southend Victoria. Two late-evening c2c trains pass through the station each weekday on the way from Liverpool Street to Barking and five services to Liverpool Street two from Barking and one from Stanford-le-Hope, Grays and Southend Central. c2c also pass through when there are engineering works between Barking & London Fenchurch Street. Cross-platform interchange is available with Central line services running from platforms 3 and 6 respectively (see above).
- Platforms 9, 10 & 10A are used by Abellio Greater Anglia services on the fast lines out of London Liverpool Street towards Norwich and destinations served by branches off the Great Eastern Main Line, e.g. Clacton-on-Sea, Braintree, and Southend. Originally there were only two platforms here, but in the 1990s the station buildings on Platform 9 were demolished to make an island platform with faces on both sides. The new face became 9, the old 9 became 10 and the old 10 became 10A.
- Platforms 11 & 12 have been used since December 2005 for Abellio Greater Anglia services to Bishop's Stortford. There is a half-hourly service Monday to Saturdays, with additional services to/from Hertford East, Stansted Airport, Harlow Town, Tottenham Hale, Broxbourne or Cambridge in the peaks with an hourly service to Cambridge on Sundays, as of the December 2011 timetable. The majority of these services start or end at Stratford but a certain number of the Cambridge, Hertford East and Bishops Stortford services continue through to or from Liverpool Street.
These platforms are at ground level and run north-south. Platforms 13-16 are served by a footbridge (with lifts and escalators) from the main station entrance, while platform 17 adjoins directly on to the main station concourse.
- Platforms 13–15 were built in the late 1990s to serve the Jubilee line when it was extended here in 1999. All three are bay platforms. A footbridge joins the platforms at the south end, away from the main station building.
- Platforms 16 & 17 (platforms 1 and 2 until 2009) originally served trains from Palace Gates (near Alexandra Palace) to North Woolwich, a service which no longer operates. In the 1980s, trains from Richmond to Broad Street were diverted to run via these platforms to North Woolwich. Following the closure of the line to North Woolwich on 9 December 2006, these platforms effectively became a terminus, with trains heading west only, towards Richmond, although both platforms remained in use. These platforms are now used by DLR services, platform 16 is for Northbound trains to Stratford International and platform 17 is for Southbound trains to Beckton during off-peak times and Woolwich Arsenal during peak times. The new platforms have also been built with a reversing siding immediately south of the platforms, accessible from both running lines. This enables trains from Stratford International to terminate at the station, and trains from Canning Town to also terminate here. There is also a crossover immediately north of the platforms, allowing trains from the southbound platform to reverse onto the northbound line back to Stratford International. [A different branch of the DLR is served from the high level platforms 4 a and b].
- Platforms 18 & 19 (planned platforms 18 and 19 until 2009 delayed plans)[vague]
The typical off-peak service per hour (tph) from Stratford is as follows:
|15 tph to Ealing Broadway
15 tph to West Ruislip
9 tph to Hainault via Newbury Park
3 tph to Woodford via Hainault
15 tph to Epping
|30 tph to Stanmore/Wembley Park/Willesden Green|
|Abellio Greater Anglia||13 tph (+ 1 tph to set down only) to London Liverpool Street
6 tph to Shenfield
3 tph to Southend Victoria
2 tph to Bishop's Stortford
1 tph to Norwich
1 tph to Braintree
1 tph to Clacton-on-Sea
1 tph to Colchester Town
1 tph to Ipswich
|London Overground||4 tph to Richmond
2 tph to Clapham Junction
|c2c||Limited services to Barking
Limited service to Grays and Shoeburyness
Limited services to London Liverpool Street
Limited service to London Fenchurch Street
|Docklands Light Railway||6 tph to Canary Wharf via Poplar|
|6 tph to Stratford International
6 tph to Beckton via Custom House (off-peak only; service operates to Woolwich Arsenal via London City Airport during peak hours)
All lines at Stratford are electrified, although a few passenger and freight services which pass through this station are hauled by diesel locomotives. At one time there were four different systems of electrification in use, a record for any station in London. However, since the diversion of the North London Line from the low-level to the new high-level platforms these trains have changed the electrical system they use while at this station. The remaining systems used are:
- 25 kV 50 Hz overhead on Network Rail lines (high level)
- 630 V dc fourth rail on London Underground Central and Jubilee lines
- 750 V dc bottom-contact conductor rail on Docklands Light Railway
- Since April 2009, 750 V dc third rail is no longer used at this station. This was used for the London Overground (low level) North London Line services.
In 1949 the Great Eastern Main Line through Stratford was electrified at 1500 V dc overhead before being converted to 6.25 kV AC 50 Hz overhead in 1960 and converted again to 25 kV in about 1976.
The nearby Stratford International station opened on 30 November 2009 (for preview services only). Since 13 December 2009 Southeastern began its full domestic high-speed service between London St Pancras, directly to Ebbsfleet International and Ashford in Kent. The Docklands Light Railway 'Stratford International' extension has provided a link between the two stations since 31 August 2011. There is also a walking route between the two stations passing through the newly built Westfield Stratford City Shopping Centre.
Despite Stratford International's name, no international trains call there, and Eurostar (currently the only international operator) has no plans to do so. Passengers instead interconnect on high-speed trains travelling to either London St Pancras or Ebbsfleet in Kent, there are a number of other potential operators that may use the station for international services. These include Deutsche Bahn's proposed London-Frankfurt/Amsterdam service and the proposed "Transmanche Metro" service to Calais via local stations.
In preparation for the Olympics and the Stratford City development, a new north-facing exit and ticket hall has been built. Both existing passenger subways have been extended north to connect with the ticket hall, and the abandoned subway at the eastern end of the station, which formed part of the old station complex, has been reopened and refurbished to allow interchange between platforms 3-12 and the new high-level platforms 1 & 2. A new pedestrian bridge has also been built to connect Stratford shopping centre with the Stratford City development. This also connects the mezzanine-level ticket hall with the northern one. The northern ticket hall and the footbridge opened along with Westfield Stratford City on 13 September 2011.
The station will also become a major interchange for Crossrail services, due to commence in 2018. Crossrail will take over current high frequency Shenfield Metro services and will link Stratford via new tunnels to Paddington, Heathrow Airport, Maidenhead and Reading
To the south of the station is Stratford bus station; and Stratford City bus station is to the north of the station. Both are served by bus services right across London and to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stratford station.|
- Train times and station information for Stratford station from National Rail
- Docklands Light Railway website - Stratford station page
- Diagram showing planned platform layout of Stratford Station
- Diagram showing planned subway layout of Stratford Station
- More photographs of Stratford station
- DLR Project Updates at Stratford Station
- Stratford LNER new works entrance, now disused