|Paul Allen, Burt Rutan, Mike Griffin|
Stratolaunch Systems is a space transportation venture specializing in air launch to orbit, with its corporate headquarters located in Huntsville, Alabama. It was founded in 2011 by Microsoft co-founder Paul G. Allen and Scaled Composites founder Burt Rutan, who had previously collaborated on the creation of SpaceShipOne.
The start up will build a mobile launch system with three primary components; a carrier aircraft to be built by Scaled Composites, a multi-stage launch vehicle built by Orbital Sciences, and a mating and integration system to be built by Dynetics, with the first test flight of the carrier aircraft expected in 2016. Dynetics will also be "responsible for the systems engineering, integration and testing, which includes aerodynamics, loads, and interfaces." Development costs have been estimated at US$300 million.
The project was started nearly a year prior to the public announcement. Dynetics began work in early 2011, and has approximately 40 employees working on the project as of December 2011[update]. Originally, the launch vehicle was to be provided by SpaceX; their efforts began only shortly prior to the public announcement.
In February 2013, Stratolaunch completed construction of their manufacturing and operations facility at the Mojave Air and Space Port with the completion of their second building, a very large hangar facility for the Stratolaunch Carrier Aircraft. They completed their first aircraft composites production building in October 2012, and several limited views of the Stratolaunch Carrier Aircraft—the StratoLauncher—under construction were released in a KGET video segment in 2015.
The carrier aircraft was originally expected to make its first test flight in 2015 with a follow on to orbital testing of the launch vehicle in 2016. By October 2013, the first flight of the carrier aircraft was not expected until 2016, with the first flight of the air-launched rocket expected in 2018.
Allen and Rutan stated that Stratolaunch's carrier aircraft would have a wingspan of 117 m (385 ft), or about 6.1 m (20 ft) longer than an Apollo-era Saturn V and about half as long as the Hindenburg class airships. This would make it the largest airplane, by wingspan, to ever fly. It will weigh in at over 540,000 kg (1,200,000 lb) including the fully fueled launch vehicle.
The aircraft will be powered by six 205–296 kN (46,000–66,500 lbf) thrust-range jet engines, that are planned to be sourced from two used 747-400s that will be cannibalized for engines, avionics, flight deck, landing gear and other proven systems that can be recycled to cut development costs." The two aircraft have been purchased and had arrived on site as of March 2012. The carrier aircraft is expected to have a range of 2,200 km (1,200 nmi) on air launch missions. It will use a 3,700 m (12,000 ft) long runway. Flight testing of the carrier aircraft is expected to begin in 2016.
In the latter part of 2012, Stratolaunch retained Orbital Sciences Corporation on a "study contract" to develop and evaluate "several alternative configurations" for the Stratolaunch launch vehicle through early 2013, with a goal to "keep the world’s largest air-launch-to-orbit system on track for a 2017 test flight." More public information is expected to be released in "the February 2013 timeframe."
Stratolaunch launch vehicle history
When initially announced in December 2011, the SpaceX Falcon 9 Air (F9A), a Falcon 9-derivative two-stage liquid-fueled air-launched winged launch vehicle, was to be developed by SpaceX. The F9A launch vehicle was to have a launch mass of approximately 220,000 kilograms (490,000 lb) with the ability to insert a 6,100 kg (13,500 lb) payload into low Earth orbit. A month after the initial announcement, Stratolaunch stated that the launch-vehicle would have only four engines, not the five that were shown in the mission video at the program announcement, and that they would be SpaceX Merlin 1D engines.
Orbital Sciences Corporation
On November 27, 2012 Stratolaunch announced that they would no longer be collaborating with SpaceX to develop the launch vehicle. Instead, they will engage Orbital Sciences Corporation to design and develop an alternative launch vehicle. In May 2013, the name of the new rocket was publically released: Pegasus II. It is expected to be able to deliver up to 13,500 pounds (6,100 kg) to low Earth orbit.
As of October 2013, the first flight of the air-launched rocket is not expected until 2018.
Sierra Nevada Corporation
Two weeks after losing the Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) competition to SpaceX and Boeing on September 16, 2014, Sierra Nevada Corporation announced it has designed a launch system that combines a scale version of the company’s Dream Chaser space plane with the Stratolaunch Systems air launch system.
In late November 2014, Vulcan Aerospace released the results of the SNC/Stratolaunch space transportation architecture, which indicated that a reduced-size Dream Chaser in conjunction with the Stratolaunch-based launch system would provide a number of unique mission capabilities. The system would have an outbound range of 1,900 kilometers; 1,200 miles (1,000 nmi) away from the airport where the aircraft departed, which would allow launches to any given orbital plane for rendezvous with another object in low-Earth orbit on a daily basis. The launch vehicle would be a modified air-launched Orbital Sciences rocket that is approximately 37 m (120 ft) in length. The Dream Chaser payload would be a 75-percent sized version of the Dream Chaser vehicle previously proposed to NASA—while maintaining the relative outer mold line-6.9 m (22.5 ft) in length with a wingspan of 5.5 m (18.2 ft), which could carry 2 to 3 crewmembers plus a variety of scientific and research payloads.
Stratolaunch systems has signed a 20-year lease agreement with the Kern County Airport Authority, Mojave, California, for the lease of 20 acres (8.1 ha) at the Mojave Air and Space Port to build a facility for the venture. Stratolaunch has now built a 8,200 m2 (88,000 sq ft) fabrication hangar and a 8,607 m2 (92,640 sq ft) assembly and test hangar near Scaled Composites. Groundbreaking was in early 2012. The first of two manufacturing buildings, the "88,000 square foot facility [to] be used to construct the composite sections of the wing and fuselage sections", was opened for production in October 2012, two months ahead of schedule and on budget. Stratolaunch completed their second Mojave building, the very large hangar facility for the Stratolaunch Carrier Aircraft, in February 2013.
- White Knight One carrier aircraft
- White Knight Two carrier aircraft
- Comparison of orbital launch systems
- Airborne aircraft carrier
- Lockheed C-5 Galaxy launch of LGM-30 Minuteman
- X-15 earliest air-launched, crewed, sub-orbital spacecraft
- LauncherOne, Virgin Galactic's smaller scale proposal similar to StratoLaunch's
- Orbital Sciences Pegasus, a similar but smaller scale system
- Mecham, Michael; Frank Morring, Jr. (December 20, 2011). "Allen Places Big Bet On Air Launches". Aviation Week. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
Dynetics has been under contract to Vulcan for almost a year and has some 40 employees on the project so far. SpaceX joined more recently, and the overall team is still working through details of how to progress toward its 2016 first launch.
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- Norris, Guy (October 4, 2013). "Stratolaunch quietly making progress". Aviation Week. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
- Kelley, Mike (December 15, 2011). "Dynetics to provide systems integration for new commercial space launch system". Huntsville Times. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- "Stratolaunch: SpaceShipThree or Space Goose?". thespacereview.com. December 19, 2011.
- Messier, Doug (February 20, 2013). "Stratolaunch Systems Opens Hangar in Mojave". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- Lindsay, Clark (October 23, 2012). "Stratolaunch opens production facility at Mojave spaceport". NewSpace Watch. Retrieved October 27, 2012. (subscription required (. ))
- "KGET Special Report: Mojave Air and SpacePort". Kern Golden Empire. 1 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
Mojave Air and Spaceport is the epicenter of privately-funded commercial space flight research and development.
- Whittington, Mark (December 13, 2011). "Space Pioneers Announce Stratolaunch Systems to Revolutionize Space Flight". Yahoo.com. Yahoo!News. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
- Paur, Jason (December 13, 2011). "Microsoft Billionaire Paul Allen Launches New Space Venture". Wired (New York). Archived from the original on December 14, 2011. Retrieved 201-11-14. Check date values in:
- "Paul Allen to unveil Stratolaunch Systems today". newspacejournal.com. NewSpace Journal. December 13, 2011. Archived from the original on December 17, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
- Bergin, Chris (December 13, 2011). "Stratolaunch introduce Rutan designed air-launched system for Falcon rockets". NASAspaceflightnow.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2011. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- "Orbital Sciences Replaces SpaceX on Stratolaunch Project". SpaceNews.com. November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
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The Falcon 4 will be powered by 4 SpaceX Merlin IB engines.
- "NASA Chooses American Companies to Transport U.S. Astronauts to International Space Station". NASA. September 16, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- "Sierra Nevada and Stratolaunch Team Up on Dream Chaser Space Plane". NBC News. October 1, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Gebhardt, Chris (2014-11-26). "SNC, Stratolaunch expand on proposed Dream Chaser flights". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
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- Messier, Doug (November 5, 2012). "A Birdzilla’s Eye View of the Stratolaunch Hangar Under Construction". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- Stratolaunch Systems, Official website.
- Original Video - Animation of Stratolaunch with SpaceX Falcon 9 Air launch vehicle, December 2011.
- Revised Video – Animation of Stratolaunch with Orbital Pegasus II launch vehicle, June 2013.
- Video - Stratolaunch Systems Press Conference 2011-12-13
- Thinking big in space, The Economist, Dec 27, 2011.