On-street running or street running is the routing of a railroad track or tramway track running directly along public streets, without any separation. The rails are embedded in the roadway pavement, and the train shares the street directly with pedestrians and automobile traffic. Trains generally travel at reduced speed for safety reasons.
If there are stations on the section, they can appear similar in style to a tram stop, but often lack platforms, pedestrian islands, or other amenities. Passengers may be required to wait on a distant sidewalk, and then to board or disembark directly among mixed traffic in mid-pavement, rather than at curbside.
Although bridges and tunnels are not streets, rails can still be embedded in the surface of bridges and tunnels like the Inuyama Bridge (Japan) or the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel (US). This is also considered to be "street running".
- The North Coast main line runs down Denison Street in Rockhampton, Queensland carrying freight and passenger services.
- Mossman, Queensland. A sugar-cane railway runs down Mill Street.
- Wycheproof, Victoria has a seasonal freight-only mainline railway running along the centre of the main street.
Notable examples in Canada include:
- The C-Train runs through 7 Avenue South, which only emergency and Calgary Transit vehicles may run on
- Clarence Street (From Nelson Street to Icomm Drive, Canadian National Railway, still in use)
- Louisa Street (From just east of Thomas Street to Catherine Street, Canadian National Railway, removed, continues to Welland Avenue below)
- Welland Avenue (From Francis Street to Balfour Street, removed)
- Caroline Street (from Erb Street West to Allen Street West, tracks removed in 1994)
The legal separation of a street running trackbed and an exclusive trackbed in urban traffic is given in § 16 BOStrab tramway regulations.
The MTR Light Rail running in and between the new towns of Tuen Mun, Yuen Long and Tin Shui Wai has many sections of on-street running, although many parts of it run on their own tracks alongside major roads or elevated, e.g., at the several junctions near Tuen Mun Town Centre.
One of the most famous locations is when the steam-powered Darjeeling Himalayan Railway "Toy train" squeezes between narrow shop fronts down past a bazaar in India.
Indonesia used to have an extensive "steam tramways" (more accurately defined as local railways) network, which had many street running sections in various towns and cities in Java and Sumatra.
Two sections remain in use in 2010: part of the Wonogiri branch runs along the Slamet Riyadi street in Surakarta, and a short branch to an oil depot in Madiun. The earlier line sees both passenger and freight service (including a steam-hauled tourist train), while the other line is exclusively for freight.
Freight trains to and from the docks at Dublin share the Alexandra road with cars
- Inuyama Bridge (The bridge on the Meitetsu Inuyama Line runs across the Kiso River. It is now exclusively used by trains in an effort to eliminate the previous bottleneck caused by roadway traffic.)
- Enoshima Electric Railway
- Kumamoto Electric Railway (A short section on the Fujisaki Line)
- Fukui Railway (Its street running section is registered as a tram line under law but full-sized trains from the rest of the network run directly onto the tram line)
- Keihan Keishin Line
- Keihan Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line (Both of these lines, which include short street-running track around the Hamaōtsu Station, are legally tram lines but use rather high-profile vehicles. Additionally, the Keishin Line has through services onto the Kyoto Subway Tozai Line.)
- Keifuku Electric Railroad (A short section on the Arashiyama Line. Like the above Keihan lines, the Arashiyama Line uses high-profile railway-style vehicles but is classified as a tram line.)
- Toyama Light Rail (This line, categorised as a railway under law, is converted from the Toyamakō railway Line and includes newly built street running sections)
- Niigata Kōtsu (This abandoned line consists of a short street running section near its Niigata terminus.)
In Aguas Calientes, the town at the foot of Macchu Picchu, the railway shares the streets with pedestrians, as well as in other towns further up the line. This railway serves as the only viable way of reaching Macchu Picchu from Cusco without walking.
Swiss law does not distinguish between trams and railways, making the distinction between street running by trams and that by railways subjective.
Taiwan (Republic of China)
The most notable track where street running was common was the Weymouth Harbour Tramway; however this has been out of service to regular traffic since 1987, and to all traffic since 1999.
There is a freight-only street-running railway network in Trafford Park; only one section along Barton Dock Road is still in regular use.
Notable examples in the United States include:
- Locust Street, between 1st St N and 6th St N, Alabama & Tennessee River Railway (still in use)
- Santa Ana St.
- Floradora Avenue (North Clark Street to North Maple Avenue)
- From 1912 until April 2000, trains operated approximately 1.25 miles (2 km) down Ninth Street, one of the major arteries of the city. The tracks were built by the Tidewater Southern Railway and later operated by the Union Pacific. They were very controversial and the city tried to have them removed for decades. A short section along B Street from Ninth Street to Twelfth Street remains in active use, however
- Jack London Square: 1st. St. W./Embarcadero W. (From end of road, west of Market St. to Webster St., BNSF/Amtrak mainline, in use)
- Redwood City:
- Chestnut Street (Heller Street to Veterans Boulevard)
- San Jose:
- Java Drive (North Mathilda Avenue to West Tasman Drive)
- West Tasman Drive (Java Drive to Cisco Way)
- West San Carlos Street (Woz Way to 2nd Street)
- 1st Street (West San Carlos Street to West Tasman Drive)
- 2nd Street (West San Carlos Street to Devine Street)
- Santa Cruz:
- Murray St. (From Lake Ave. overpass to E. Cliff Dr., leads to Beach St. below)
- Beach St. (From Leibrandt Ave. to Municipal Wharf)
- Chestnut St. (From Green St. to south of Laurel St.)
- Main Street (Analy Avenue to Burnett Street)
- Tarragona St. (From E. Blount St. to E. Main St.)
- E. Wright St. (From N. Alcaniz St. to N. 17th St.)
- St. Petersburg:
- 1st Ave. S. (From 13th Ave. S. to Bay Shore Dr. SE, portions now Pinellas Trail)
- E. Polk St. (From N. Ashley Dr. to N. Jefferson St.)
- 6th St. (From Reynolds St. to Taylor St., still in use)
- Fenwick St. (From 8th St. to 6th St.)
- Poplar St. (From 15th St. to Woodson Ln.)
- R.A. Dent Blvd. (From Dantignac St. to Wrightsboro Rd.)
- 9th St.
- River St.
- Rockford: - N Madison Street (From Southwest of Prairie Street to Y Boulevard)
- J St. (From 14th St. to 18th St., CSX Transportation, out of service but in place)
- Champion Rd. (From Dutch Ln. to E. 12th St., IRR, still in use, continues along E 9th St. below)
- Michigan City:
- 10th St. (From Sheridan Ave. to Huron St., continues to 11th St. below)
- 11th St. (From Kentucky St. to E. Michigan Blvd., continues to Holiday St. below)
- 11th Street Station in Michigan City, Indiana of South Shore Line, a commuter rail line operated by the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD), lies on such section. The "station" has no platform, and its station building has since been closed. All passengers now wait on the sidewalk as though at a tram stop.
- Holiday St. (From Vail St. to N. Fairfield Ave.)
- New Albany:
- East 15th St. (From Division St. to Shelby Pl., CSX Transportation)
- 8th St. (From Logan St. to Division St., Indiana Transportation Museum)
- Terre Haute:
- 10th St. (From Locust St. to Chestnut St.)
- 1st St. (From Sycamore St. to Demorest St., former PCRR)
- Streets in the Fells Point section of Baltimore (no longer in use)
- Wicomico St. (From Bayard St. to S. Monroe St.)
- Kentucky Avenue (From Front Street to La Plaisance Road)
- Hull Road (From La Plaisance Road to East Albain Road)
- Eastchester Street (From East Front Street to East Sixth Street)
- East First Street (From Eastchester Street to Link Street)
- Link Street (From East First Street to East Front Street)
- East Front Street (From Link Street to Port Avenue)
- New Albany:
- N. Railroad Avenue (from Summer St./Cleveland St. to W. Bankhead St./E. Bankhead St. [Highway 178/Old US 178])
- St. Louis:
- N 2nd St. (From Bremen Ave. to Angelrodt St., leads to Hall St. below)
- Hall St. (From Dock St. to Branch St., leads to 1st St. below)
- 1st St. (From Clinton St. to Biddle St.)
- 3rd St (From Shenandoah Ave. to north of Barton St. (leads back to S. 2nd St. below)
- S. 2nd St. (From Chouteau Ave. to Lynch St.)
- Dorcas St. (From Busch Pl. to S. Broadway St./rail yard)
- Jefferson City:
- W McCarty St. (From the U.S. 54 overpass to Bolivar St.)
- New Jersey
- Monroe St. (From Pierre Ave./Atlantic St. to River Drive. Operated by the New York & Greenwood Lake, and still in use)
- New York
- New York City (Brooklyn):
- 1st. Ave. (From 39th St. to 63rd St., continues along 41st St. below)
- 41st. St. (From 1st Ave. to east of 2nd Ave., goes through building at 2nd Ave. intersection, continues along 2nd Ave. below)
- 2nd Ave. (From end of road (north of 28th St. to south of 41st St.)
- 32nd St. (From 2nd Ave. to west of 3rd Ave.)
- Washington St (Now Erie Blvd.) (NYC, removed)
- North Carolina
- E. Russel St.
- New Bern:
- Windley St. (From end of road to Dunn St., leads to Dunn St. below)
- Dunn St. (From Windley St. to N. Craven St., leads to Hancock St. below)
- Hancock St. (From Queen St. to S. Front St., still in use, leads to Scott St. in James City, NC below)
- E. Shine St. (Entire street, now removed and abandoned though the outline can still be seen in the street)
- S. Front St. from Marsetllar St. to Mears St.
- N. Chesnut St. Between 4th and 5th St.
- Harmar St. (From Lord St. to Lancaster St.)
- South St. NE (From Commercial St. NE/Highway 99E to 4th St. NE), continues Front St. NE, below
- Front St. NE (From Norway St. NE to Ferry St. SE)
- East A St.
- Rocky Lane
- 19th St. (From Buffalo Rd. to Cranberry St., NS mainline, removed in 2000)
- E. Water Street (From US 22 to S. Dorcas St.
- Chestnut Street (from Old Shaw Ave. and S. Pine Rd.)
- S. Delmorr Ave (between Green Street and E. Philadelphia Ave)
- West Brownsville:
- Main St. (From William St. to Bridge Blvd., NS, still in use)
- Rhode Island
- Providence and Worcester Railroad Service to the northernmost piers of the Port of Providence and numerous sidings via Allens Ave. from the Harbor Branch. Tracks in situ, currently classed as "Out of Service" by FRA rules.
- Wall Avenue (Oregon Short Line, later Union Pacific, removed)
- Salt Lake City:
- 900 South ("Passenger Line", San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad, later Union Pacific, removed 2008)
- Vine Street (Tooele Valley Railway, removed 1982)
- Center St./Railroad Ave. (From W. Patrick St./Smith St. to Gwathmey Church Rd., AMTK, still in use)
- West Virginia
- Second Street (CSX, still in use)
- Reserved track, where vehicles have a separate right of way (typically used in a tram transport context)
- List of road-rail bridges
- List of road-rail tunnels
- "Wycheproof - Victoria - Australia - Travel - smh.com.au". www.smh.com.au. 2004-02-08. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- Trains Magazine, Vol. 68, Issue 4 (April 2008) (pages 22-31)
-    On-street running along Tai Fong Street
- File:Castle Peak Road Yuen Long.jpg File:HK Yuen Long Castle Peak Road Fung Nin Road.JPG - Pictures showing on-street tracks along Castle Peak Road-Yuen Long
- Google Street View - On-street running along Castle Peak Road-Yuen Long
- File:Transport HK LR ChungFu.jpg Tracks located alongside a road
- File:Transport HK LR MingKam.jpg Elevated tracks and station
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- Davies, Merfyn (30 October 2010). "Taith gyntaf teithwyr trên bach o Gaernarfon i Borthmadog". BBC Online (in Welsh). Retrieved 26 May 2011.