In Romanian mythology, strigoi (English: poltergeist) are the troubled souls of the dead rising from the grave. Some strigoi can be living people with certain magical properties. Some of the properties of the strigoi include: the ability to transform into an animal, invisibility, and the propensity to drain the vitality of victims via blood loss. Strigoi are also known as immortal vampires.
According to Adrian Cremene, the origin of strigoi date back to the Dacians. The strigoi are creatures of Dacian mythology, as a representation of evil spirits, the spirits of the dead whose actions made them unworthy of entering the kingdom of Zalmoxis. As these stories were transmitted only by oral tradition, legend has lost its original substance, and Romanians have transformed strigoi into bloodthirsty creatures.
Middle Ages 
The Croatian Jure Grando died in 1656 was the first vampire classic whose existence is documented in writing. In his native Istria, he was called strigoi, a local dialect word to describe a vampire. As strigoi, he terrorized the villagers until beheaded in 1672.
A Serbian peasant named Peter Plogojowitz died in 1725 was believed to become an authentic strigoi after his death. Peter Plogojowitz came back to his house to haunt his own son and demand food, but the son refused so Plogojowitz brutally murdered him.
Belle Époque 
In 1909, Franz Hartmann mentions in his book An Authenticated Vampire Story that peasant children from a village in the Carpathian Mountains started to die mysteriously. The villagers began to suspect a recently deceased count was a vampire, dwelling in his old fortress. Frightened villagers burned the castle to stop the deaths.
Under communism 
Radu Florescu mentions in his book In Search of Dracula, The History of Dracula and Vampires, an event in 1969 in the city of Căpăţâneni, where after the death of an old man, several family members began to die in suspicious circumstances. Unearthed, the corpse does not show signs of decomposition, his eyes are wide open, the face is red and twisted in the coffin. The corpse was burned to save his soul.
In 1970, there are Ion Rîmaru case known as Vampire of Bucharest. In 1970, a series of hidous crimes shocked Bucharest. The attacks took place at midnight, under rain, the victims were usually waitresses who returned to work. In 1971, Ion Rîmaru was arrested and identified by teeth marks on the corpses. During the trial, he was always in a state of drowsiness, interrogated at the night, because only at this time the accused could stay awake. During the daylight, Rîmaru was not able to get out of lethargy. Sentenced to death, Rîmaru entered into a state of wild anger, the authorities were forced to restrain with several policemen. After the execution, Ion Rîmaru's father died in a suspicious accident, during which it was discovered that his fingerprints (and other elements) matched those of a serial killer in 1944 looked remarkably similar crimes those of Ion Rîmaru, including weather conditions and similar or identical names to some victims. It speculate that accident was actually the work of Securitate, who decided to eliminate the dangerous individual.
During the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the corpse of Nicolae Ceausescu did not receive a proper burial. This made the ghost of the former dictator a threat in the unconscious of the very superstitious Romanians. Noted revolutionary Gelu Voican carpeted the apartment of the Conducator with braids of garlic. This is a traditional remedy against the strigoi.
Before Christmas 2003, in the village of Marotinu de Sus, a 76-year-old Romanian man named Petre Toma died. In February 2004, a niece of the deceased revealed that she had been visited by her late uncle. Gheorghe Marinescu, a brother-in-law, became the leader of a vampire hunting group made up of several family members. After drinking some alcohol, they dug up the coffin of Petre Toma, made an incision in his chest, and tore the heart out. After removal of the heart, the body was burned and the ashes mixed in water and drunk by the family, as is customary. However, the Romanian government anxious to maintain a good image in preparation for the country's accession to the European Union had banned this practice, and six family members were arrested by the police of Craiova from Dolj County for "disturbing the peace of the dead", and were imprisoned and sentenced to pay damages to the family of the deceased. Since then, in the nearby village of Amărăştii de Sus, people drive a fire-hardened stake through the heart or belly of the dead as a "preventative".
The name strigoi is related to the Romanian verb a striga, which in Romanian means scream. The writer Romulus Vulcanescu have found a Latin origin of the name strigoi. He argues that the name is related to strigoi Latin term strigosus meaning "skinny", a term found in Strigeidida. Another theory relates Strigoi to the Italian word Strega which means "witch" and the Greek word Strigx. In French, stryge means a bird-woman who sucks the blood of children. Jules Verne has used in his novel The Castle of the Carpathians published in 1892, in Chapter II, the term strigoi, more local : "(...) vampires, known as stryges, because they shout for strygies, (...) ".
Different types of strigoi 
Tudor Pamfile in his book Mitologie românească compiles all appellations of strigoi in Romania strâgoi, Moroi in western Transylvania, Wallachia and Oltenia, vidmă in Bucovina, vârcolacul, Cel-rau, or vampire.
The strigoaică 
The strigoi viu 
The strigoi viu (living strigoi) is a kind of sorcerer. According to Adrian Cremene, in his book Mythology of the vampire in Romania, the living strigoi steals the wealth of farmers, that is to say, wheat and milk. But it can also stop the rain, dropping hail and give death to men and cattle.
The strigoi mort 
The strigoi mort (dead strigoi) is much more dangerous. Its nature is ambiguous, both human and demonic. He emerges from his grave, returns to his family and behaves as in his lifetime, while weakening his relatives until they die in their turn.
Becoming a strigoi 
The encyclopedist Dimitrie Cantemir and the folklorist Teodor Burada in his book Datinile Poporului român la înmormântări published in 1882 refer to cases of strigoism. The strigoi can be a living man, born under certain conditions:
- Be the seventh child of the same sex in a family;
- Be redhead
- Lead a life of sin
- Die without being married…
- …by execution for perjury
- …by suicide
- …having been cursed by a witch.
In 1887, French geographer Élisée Reclus details the burials in Romania: "if the deceased has red hair, he is very concerned that he was back in the form of dog, frog, flea or bedbug, and that it enters into houses at night to suck the blood of beautiful young girls. So it is prudent to nail the coffin heavily, or, better yet, a stake through the chest of the corpse. "
Simeon Florea Marian in Înmormântarea la români (1892) describes another preventive method, unearthing and beheading then re-interring the corpse and head face down.
According to Romanian legend, the book of Peter Haining, The Dracula scrapbook published by New English Library editions in 1976, reported that the meat of pig killed on the day of St. Ignatius is a good way to guard against vampire.
In popular culture 
A poem named Strigoii by Gheorghe Coşbuc :
Pe maica lui Hristos şi-aprind grăbit
Tămâie şi usturoi pe-un vas de aramă
Ea singură-n căscioară, biata mamăStă chip înmărmurit…
(Many Christians are awake, with fear calls / Mother of Christ and-light rushed / Incense and-garlic-a bronze vessel / She single-n lodge, poor mother / chip sits stunned...)
See also 
- DEX Online
- (English) Interview with Boris Peric
- An Authenticated Vampire Story by Franz Hartmann
- Raymond T. McNally and Radu R. Florescu In Search of Dracula, The History of Dracula and Vampires (Completely Revised). Houghton Mifflin. 1994. ISBN 0-395-65783-0. pp. 8-9.
- Râmaru, primul criminal în serie al României moderne
- (French) "le Feu vivant : la parenté et ses rituels dans les Carpates". Persee.fr.
- (Romanian) "Adevărul despre "Cazul strigoiului Petre Toma"". Indiscret.ro.
- (French) "Pour échapper aux vampires, rien ne vaut les vieilles recettes". courrierinternational.com.
- (French) "Dictionnaire Gaffiot". lexilogos.com.
- Noul dicţionar explicativ al limbii Române, Bucharest: Litera Internaţional, 2002. ISBN 973-8358-04-3
- *moroi in Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii Române, Academia Românǎ, 1998
- Definition of Vídmă
- DEX Online
- Nouvelle Géographie universelle, tome I, Hachette, Paris, 19 volumes, 1876-1894
- (French) "The Dracula scrapbook". Mordue de vampires.
Further reading 
- Perkowski, Jan Lois (1998). "footnote 10 in 'The Romanian Folkloric Vampire'". In Dundes, Alan. The Vampire: a Casebook. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-299-15924-5. citing Cantemir, Dimitrie (1714). "Striga". Descriptio Moldaviae (in Latin).
- Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2004). "Strigoi". The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters. New York: Facts on File. pp. 268–270. ISBN 978-0-8160-4684-3.
-  Across the Forest, a documentary that interviews Transylvanian villagers about their experiences with strigoi, pricolici, and mama padurii.
- (Romanian) Julia Maria Cristea, "Noaptea Strigoilor—Noaptea Sfântului Andrei" (Strigois' Night—St. Andrew's Night), Revista Agero
- The characteristics of the Strigoi, at How Stuff Works.