String trio

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The Trio Broz during a concert for the Harare Festival of Arts 2008

A string trio is a group of three string instruments or a piece written for such a group. The term is generally used with reference to works of chamber music from the Classical period to the present.

History[edit]

The earliest string-trio form, found in the early Classical period, consisted of two violins and a cello, a grouping which had grown out of the Baroque trio sonata, while later string trios more commonly are scored for violin, viola, and cello (Tilmouth and Smallman 2001).

Beginning in the second half of the 18th century, although the trio configuration for two violins and cello was not wholly abandoned in classical chamber music (even during the 19th century), the scoring for violin, viola, and cello began to take precedence. Joseph Haydn appears to have been the first composer to use this combination (Tilmouth and Smallman 2001), though he was soon emulated by Luigi Boccherini (Kennedy 1994).

List of string trios[edit]

Violin, viola, cello[edit]

Composer Composition
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (1736–1809)
  • Divertimento in C major
  • Divertimento in F major
  • Sonata I in C major
  • Sonata II in E major[vague]
  • Terzetto in C major, op. 9a, no. 1
  • Terzetto in A major, op. 9a, no. 2
  • Terzetto in F major, op. 9a, no. 3
  • Terzetto in D major, op. 9a, no. 4
  • Terzetto in B major, op. 9a, no. 5
  • Terzetto in E major, op. 9a, no. 6
Georges Aperghis Faux mouvement (1995)
Ludwig van Beethoven
  • String Trio in G major, op. 9, no. 1
  • String Trio in D major, op. 9, no. 2
  • String Trio in C minor, op. 9, no. 3
  • String Trio in E major, op. 3
  • Serenade in D major, op. 8
Wilhelm Berger (1861–1911) String Trio in G minor, op. 69
Lennox Berkeley (1903–1989) Trio for strings, op. 19 (1944)
Howard Blake (b. 1938) String Trio, op. 199
Luigi Boccherini String Trios, G 95–100 and G 107–112
Carlos Chávez (1899–1978) Invención II (1965)
Matthew Davidson Music for String Trio (2006) (Davidson n.d.)
Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf (1739–1799)
  • Divertimento in D major
  • Sonatas a tre, op. 1, nos. 1–6, k. 200–205
  • Sonatas, op. 2, nos. 1–6, k. 212–217
Ernő Dohnányi Serenade in C major, op. 10
Gottfried von Einem
    • String Trio, op. 74
    • String Trio (fragment without opus)
Anders Eliasson Trio per archi "Ahnungen" (2013)
George Enescu (1881–1955) Aubade, for violin, viola, and cello (Allegretto grazioso)
Karlheinz Essl à trois/seul (1998)
J. L. Eybler (1765–1846)
Brian Ferneyhough String Trio (1995)
Jean Françaix
    • Trio in C major
    • String Trio in C major, op. 2
Robert Fuchs (1847–1927) String Trio in A major, op. 94
Joseph Gehot String Trios, op. 2, nos. 1–6
Yefim Golyshev String Trio, Zwölftondauer-Komplexe (twelve-tone-duration complex) (1925)
Jorge Grundman
    • String Trio No. 1 in A major
    • String Trio No. 2 in G major
    • String Trio No. 3 in C major
Sofia Gubaidulina String Trio
Joseph Haydn String Trio in B major, Hob. V:8
Heinrich von Herzogenberg (1843–1900) String Trios, Op. 27, Nos. 1 & 2
Paul Hindemith (1895–1963)
    • String Trio No. 1, op. 34
    • String Trio No. 2
    • Des kleinen Elektromusikers Lieblinge
Gilad Hochman Brief Memories for String Trio (2004) (Hochman n.d.).
Franz Anton Hoffmeister (1754–1812) Terzetto Scholastico Streichtrio
Julius Hopfe
    • String Trio no. 1 in C major, op. 41
    • String Trio no. 2 in G minor, op. 69
Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778–1837)
    • String Trio no. 1 in E major
    • String Trio no. 2 in G major
Andre Jolivet (1905–1974) Suite for String trio
Gideon Klein String Trio (1944)
Zoltán Kodály Intermezzo-Allegretto
Hans Krasa
    • TANEC, for string trio
    • Passacaglia and Fugue, for string trio
Ernst Krenek
    • String Trio, op. 118
    • String Trio Parvula Corona Musicalis: ad honorem Johannis Sebastiani Bach, op. 122
    • String Trio in 12 Stations, op. 235
Frank Martin (1890–1974) Trio (1936)
Donald Martino String Trio (1954)
Bohuslav Martinů String Trio No. 1, H. 136 (1923)
Siegfried Matthus Windspiele, for string trio
Darius Milhaud (1892–1974)
    • Sonatine à trois, op. 221b (1940)
    • String Trio, Op. 274 (1947)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Divertimento, in E major, K. 563 (1788)[nb 1]
Ernst Naumann (1832–1910) Trio in D major, op. 12
Krzysztof Penderecki String Trio (1990–91)
Václav Pichl
    • String Trios, op. 4, nos. 1–6
    • Trios concertans, op. 7, nos. 1–6
Wayne Peterson String Trio (2007)
Ignaz Pleyel (1757–1831) 3 String Trios, B 401–403
Max Reger
    • String Trio no. 1 in A minor, op. 77b
    • String Trio No. 2 in D minor, op. 141b
Carl Reinecke String Trio in C minor, Op. 249
Alessandro Rolla (1757–1841)
    • String Trio in E major, op. 11
    • String Trios, BI 341, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347, 348, 349, 351, 397, 405, 410
Guy Ropartz Trio in A minor for Strings (1934–35)
Albert Roussel (1896–1937) String Trio, op. 58
Ernest Sauter
    • Trio no. 1 (1999)
    • Ballade (2001)
    • Trio No. 3, Trois mouvements contrastés (2007)
Giacinto Scelsi Trio for strings (1958)
Alfred Schnittke String Trio (1985)
Arnold Schoenberg String Trio, Op. 45 (1946)
Franz Schubert (1797–1828)
Jean Sibelius
    • Suite (Trio) in A major (1889, revised 1912)
    • Trio in G minor (1893–94)
Nikos Skalkottas String Trio No. 2 (1935)
Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928–2007) Hoffnung (2007) (Günther 2008)
Sergei Taneyev String Trio in D major (1880)
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893) Allegretto moderato (1863–64)
Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887–1959) String Trio (1945)
Graham Waterhouse
Anton Webern
    • Satz for String Trio, op. posth.
    • String Trio (1927), his first instrumental work using the twelve tone technique
Egon Wellesz
    • String Trio, op. 86 (1962)
    • Four Works for string trio, op. 105 (1969, second version 1971)
John Woolrich String Trio (1996)
Charles Wuorinen String Trio (1968)
Iannis Xenakis Ikhoor {Ιχώρ} (1978)
LaMonte Young Trio (1958)
Bernd Alois Zimmermann (1918–1970) Trio (1944)

Two violins, cello[edit]

Composer Composition
Ludwig van Beethoven String Trio in E minor, Hess 29
Luigi Boccherini
    • String Trios, G 77–94, 101–106, 113–136, 577–578 (for some of the trios, authorship is uncertain)
    • Divertimenti G 137–142 (authorship doubtful)
de:Siegfried Borris Terzettino
Werner Egk Trio in G minor
Joseph Gehot String Trios, op. 5, nos. 1–6
Peter Hänsel
    • String Trio in D major
    • String Trio in F major
    • String Trio in C major
    • Streichtrio in F major, op. 40, no. 1
    • Streichtrio in G minor, op. 40, no. 2
    • Streichtrio in E major, op. 40, no. 3
Joseph Haydn
    • String Trios, Hob. V:1–21 (except Hob. V:8)
    • String Trios, Hob. V:F1, D1, B1, G1, D3, A2, C1, C4 (authorship doubtful)
Franz Anton Hoffmeister (1754–1812)
    • 6 String Trios, op. 22
    • 3 String Trios, op. 37
    • 6 Trios Progressives, op. 28
Wilhelm Killmayer Trio for two violins and cello
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart String Trio in B major, K. 266/271f
Ignaz Pleyel (1757–1831)
    • 6 String Trios, B 404–409
    • 3 String Trios, B 410–412
    • 3 String Trios, B 413–415
Joseph Schuster (1748–1812) String Trio in A minor
Johann Baptist Wanhal (1739–1813)
    • String Trios, op. 5, nos. 1–6
    • String Trios, op. 12, nos. 1–6
    • String Trios, op. 17, nos. 1–6

Two violins, viola[edit]

Composer Composition
Frank Bridge Rhapsody Trio (1928)
Antonín Dvořák
    • Terzetto in C major, Op. 74
    • Drobnosti (Miniatures), Op. 75a
Robert Fuchs (1847–1927)
    • 2 Terzetten, op. 61
    • Terzett in C-sharp minor, op. 107
Zoltán Kodály
    • Serenade, for two violins and viola
    • String Trio, op. 20
Bohuslav Martinů String Trio No. 2, H. 238 (1934)
Sergei Taneyev String Trio in D major, op. 21 (1907)

Alternative scoring[edit]

Composer Composition
F.L. Gaßmann (1729–1774)
    • String Trio in E major, for 2 violas and cello
    • String Trio in B major, for 2 violas and cello
Sergei Taneyev String Trio in E major, op. 31, for violin, viola and violotta
John Zorn Walpurgisnacht (2004) for violin, viola and double bass

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Arrangements of 6 Preludes and Fugues by J. S. and W. F. Bach, K. 404a (1782) is sometimes attributed to Mozart, which is doubtful.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Downs, Philip G. 1992. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. The Norton Introduction to Music History. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-95191-X.
  • Holloway, Robert James. 1962. "String Trio Literature of the Twentieth Century". MM Thesis. Washington, DC: American University.
  • Unverricht, Hubert. 1969. Geschichte des Streichtrios. Mainzer Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 2. Tutzing: Hans Schneider.

External links[edit]