Stringed instrument tunings

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For the Wikipedia Manual of Style concerning stringed instrument tunings, see MOS:TUNINGS

This is a chart of stringed instrument tunings. Instruments are listed alphabetically by their most commonly known name.[1]

Terminology[edit]

A course may consist of one or more strings.[2]

Courses are listed reading from left to right facing the front of the instrument, with the instrument standing vertically. On a majority of instruments, this places the notes from low to high pitch. Exceptions exist: instruments using reentrant tuning (e.g., the charango) may have a high string before a low string. Instruments strung in the reverse direction (e.g. mountain dulcimer) will be noted with the highest sounding courses on the left and the lowest to the right.

Strings within a course are also given from left to right, facing the front of the instrument, with it standing vertically. Single-string courses are separated by spaces; multiple-string courses (i.e. paired or tripled strings) are shown with courses separated by bullet characters (•).

Scientific pitch notation

Pitch: Unless otherwise noted, contemporary western standard pitch (A4 = 440 Hz) and 12-tone equal temperament are assumed.[3]

Octaves are given in scientific pitch notation, with Middle C written as "C4". (The 'A' above Middle C would then be written as "A4"; the next higher octave begins on "C5"; the next lower octave on "C3"; etc.)[4]


Because stringed instruments are easily re-tuned, the concept of a "standard tuning" is somewhat flexible. Some instruments:

  • have a designated standard tuning (e.g., violin; guitar)
  • have more than one tuning considered "standard" (e.g. mejorana, ukulele)
  • do not have a standard tuning but rather a "common" tuning that is used more frequently than others (e.g., banjo)
  • are typically re-tuned to suit the music being played or the voice being accompanied and have no set "standard" at all (e.g., đàn nguyệt)

Where more than one common tuning exists, the most common is given first and labeled "Standard" or "Standard/common". Other tunings will then be given under the heading "Alternates".

A[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Ahenk 12 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

A3 A3•B3 B3•E4 E4•A4 A4•D5 D5•G5 G5

Alternates: May also use various oud tunings

Turkey
Ajayu 12 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

A A•E E•A A•C# C# C#•F# F# F#

Alternate:

  • C C•G G•C C•E E E•A A A
Chile A very recent instrument, invented in 2007
Akkordolia 4 strings

4 courses

F2 A2 C3 F3

Taishogoto, Bulbul-tarang, Benju Germany & Austria / Japan / India / Pakistan There are also a number of drone strings, the number and tuning of which vary widely. Taishogoto.jpg
Akonting 3 courses

3 strings

Common:

D3 G3 F4 C3 F3 E4

Ekonting, Bunchundo, Econtin, Konting Senegal Often strung with fishing line.

A rare 4-string version also exists.

Amzad 1 string

1 course

No standard tuning; tuned to any convenient note. Imzad Niger, Mali, Algeria Horse hair string. COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Langhalsluit met 1 snaar TMnr 2760-74.jpg
Archlute 27 strings

14 courses

F1 F2•G1 G2•A1 A2•B1 B2•C2 C3•D2 D3•E2 E3•F2 F3•G2 G2•C2 C2•F3 F3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4

Arciliuto, Erzlaute. Europe Number of courses could vary from 11-14, and the number of strings from 21-27. 12-course, 23-string archlute:Sallas.jpg
Armonico 7 strings

6 courses

E3•A3•D4•G4 G4•B3•E4 Cuba Armonico.jpg
Arpeggione 6 strings

6 courses

E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4 Vienna, Austria Rare.

Tuning is same as guitar.

Autoharp 36 strings

36 courses

F2 G2 C3 D3 E3 F3 F#3 G3 A3 A#3 B3 C4 C#4 D4 D#4 E4 F4 F#4 G4 G#4 A4 A#4 B4 C5 C#5 D5 D#5 E5 F5 F#5 G5 G#5 A5 A#5 B5 C6

Chord zither USA Instruments with additional bass strings exist (from 37 - 48 totalstrings), but are very rare. Tuning of the added basses is not standardized. Autoharp today.jpg

B[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Baglamas 6 strings

3 courses

D4 D5•A4 A4•D5 D5 Baglama, Baglama Saz, Baglamadaki Greece Standard AKA "Modal D" Baglamas 1.jpg
Bajo quinto 10 strings

5 courses

A2 A1•D3 D2•G2 G2•C3 C3•F3 F3 Mexico Although true 10-string bajo quintos are made, many so-called "bajo quintos" are really bajo sextos with the lowest course of strings removed. Bajo qunito.png
Bajo Sexto 12 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common (All fourths):

E2 E1•A2 A1•D3 D2•G2 G2•C3 C3•F3 F3

Alternate:

E2 E1•A2 A1•D3 D2•G2 G2•B3 B3•E3 E3

Mexico Bajo sexto.jpg
Balalaika, Alto 3 strings

3 courses

E3 E3 A3 Alto Russia
Balalaika, Bass 3 strings

3 courses

E2 A2 D3 Bass Russia Balalaika bass.JPG
Balalaika, Contrabass 3 strings

3 courses

E1 A1 D2 Contrabass Russia Contrabassbalalaika.jpg
Balalaika, Piccolo 3 strings

3 courses

B4 E5 A5 Piccolo Russia
Balalaika, Prima 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

E4 E4 A4

Alternates:

Prima Russia This is the standard instrument of the balalaika family Balalaika.jpg
Balalaika, Prima, 6-string 6 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

E4 E4 • E4 E4 • A4 A4

Alternates:

  • Same as for 3-string prima
Prima Russia
Balalaika, Secunda 3 strings

3 courses

A3 A3 D4 Secunda Russia Balalaika.jpg
Balalaika, Tenor 3 strings

3 courses

A2 A2 E3 Tenor Russia TenorBalalaika1.jpg
Bandola Andina Colombiana 16 strings

6 courses

F#3 F#3•B3 B3•E4 E4 E4•A4 A4 A4•D5 D5 D5•G5 G5 G5 Colombia Bandola andina columbiana.jpg
Bandola Llanera 4 strings

4 courses

A2 D3 A3 E4 Venezuela Bandolallanera.jpg
Bandola Oriental 8 strings

4 courses

G3 G3•D4 D4•A4 A4•E5 E5 Venezuela
Bandolin 15 strings

6 courses

E5 E4 E5•A5 A4 A5•D5 D5 D5•F#5 F#5 F#5•B5 B5 B5 Ecuador Bandolin.png
Bandurria, Philippine 14 strings

6 courses

F#2•B2 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3 A3•D4 D4 D4•G4 G4 G4 Philippines One octave higher than the Philippine laud.
Bandurria, Spanish 12 strings

6 courses

G#2 G#2•C#3 C#3•F#3 F#3•B3 B3•E4 E4•A4 A4 Spain Standard tuning AKA "Spanish tuning",

one octave higher than the laud.

Original bandurria.jpg
Banjo, Bass 4 strings

4 courses

E1 A1 D2 G2 US The Cello banjo is sometimes called "bass banjo", but it is tuned differently, and there are true bass banjos as well. Item-bb-400-(bass-banjo)-1398 lg.jpg
Banjo, Cello 4 strings

4 courses

C2 G2 D3 A3 "bass" banjo US Same as used for the cello. Item-ceb-4-1296 lg.jpg
Banjo, Cello 5 strings

5 courses

G3 D2 G2 B2 D3 banjo cello US One octave lower than 5-string Bluegrass Banjo.
Banjo, Contrabass 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

E1 A1 D2

Alternates:

  • D1 G1 C2
  • D1 A1 D2
  • C1 G1 C2
US Essentially in the same range as the bass banjo, but with a much larger resonator. These instruments are very rare, and tuning is not standardized. [5] [6]
Banjo (5-string) 5 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

G4 D3 G3 B3 D4

Alternates:

  • C tuning: G4 C3 G3 B3 D4
  • Double C: G4 C3 G3 C3 D4
  • Sawmill: G4 D3 G3 C3 D4
  • Open D: F#4 D3 F#3 A3 D4
  • Guitar: G4 D3 G3 B3 E4
  • Willie Moore: G4 D3 G3 A3 D4
  • Doc Bog's D: F#4 D3 G3 A3 D4
  • Cumberland Gap:G4 E3 A3 D3 E4
  • G Minor: G4 D3 G3 Bb3 D4
  • Open C: G4 C3 G3 C3 E4
Bluegrass Banjo US via Africa
  • Standard AKA "Open G"
  • Sawmill AKA "Mountain Modal"
  • Open D AKA "Graveyard," "Reuben"
  • Guitar AKA "Old G," "Sandy River Belle"

There are dozens of other, less common tunings.

BluegrassBanjo.jpg
Banjolin 4 strings

4 courses

G3 D4 A4 E5 US Hybrid of mandolin and banjo Banjolin.jpg
Banjo (Long Neck) 5 strings

5 courses

E4 B2 E3 G#3 B3 "Pete Seeger" Banjo US (commissioned by Pete Seeger) Open string tuning; often played with capo on 3rd fret
Banjo, Tenor 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common (all fifths):

C3 G3 D4 A4

Alternate:

US US via Africa Irish tuning same as octave mandolin tuning Item-it-250f-(irish-tenor)-1419 lg.jpg
Banjo, Plectrum 4 strings

4 courses

C3 G3 B3 D4 US via Africa Item-ps-250-(plectrum-special)-1458 lg.jpg
Bisernica 5 strings

4 courses

E3•A3•D4•G4 G4 Croatia, Serbia, Hungary, Slovenia Other courses are sometimes doubled. Prim tambura.png
Bordonua 10 strings

5 courses

A2 A3•D4 D3•F#3 F#4•B3 B3•E4 E4 Puerto Rico Bordonua.jpg
Bouzouki 8 strings

4 courses

C3 C4•F3 F4•A3 A3•D4 D4 Tetrachordo bouzouki Greece Standard AKA "F6 tuning" Bouzouki tetrachordo.jpg
Bouzouki 6 strings

3 courses

D3 D4•A3 A3•D4 D4 Trichordo bouzouki Greece Standard AKA "F6 tuning" Baglamas 001.jpg
Bouzouki, Irish ( See Irish bouzouki ) ( See Irish bouzouki )
Brac 5 strings

4 courses

E2•A2•D3•G3 G3 Basprim, Brach Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia Brac, instrument.gif
Braguinha 4 strings

4 courses

D4 B4 G4 D5 Braguinã, Cavaquinho, Machete de braga Madeira, Portugal Standard AKA "Banjo tuning" (octave higher than the plectrum banjo) Braguinha.png
Bugarija 5 strings

4 courses

G2•B2•D3•G3 G3 or F# F# A D D Kontra Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia First course is sometimes not doubled. Bugarija, instrument.gif

C[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Cak 4 strings

3 courses

D5 D5 • G4 • B4

Steel kroncong guitar Indonesia Keroncong1.jpg
Cavaquinho 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

D3 G3 B3 D4

Alternates:

  • 'Guitar': D3 G3 B3 E4
  • Alternative: G3 C4 B3 D4
  • Alternative: A3 A3 C#4 E4
Cavaco, Manchete, Machimbo Portugal Cavaquinho minhoto.jpg
Cello 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

C2 G2 D3 A3

Alternates:

Violoncello Europe Many scordatura tunings have been employed by various composers for individual pieces, for example:

B1 F#2 D3 A3

Cello front side.jpg
Celovic 4 strings

4 courses

E2 A2 D3 G3 Celo, Csello, Cselo Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia
Cetera 16 strings

8 courses

Standard/Common:

C3 C3•D3 D3•Eb3 Eb3•F3 F3•G3 G3•G3 G3•D4 D4•G4 G4

Alternate:

  • Renaissance:

G2 G2•A2 A2•C3 C3•D3 D3•A3 A3•G3 G3•D4 D4•E4 E4

Corsica, France. Cetera.jpg
Chanzy 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

F2 C3 F3

Alternates:

  • D2 A2 D3
  • C2 G2 C3
Chanzi, Tyanzi Tuva, Russia
Chapey 3 strings

2 courses

F3 F3 • B3

Chapei, Chapei Dong Veng Cambodia Kong Nay.jpg
Chapman Stick 10 strings

10 courses

E3 A2 D2 G1 C1 F#2 B2 E3 A3 D4

Stick, The Stick, Classic Stick United States There are many alternate tunings, which vary from individual to individual 10 string Chapman Stick.jpg
Chapman Stick,

Grand Stick

12 strings

12 courses

B3 E3 A2 D2 G1 C1 C#2 F#2 B2 E3 A3 D4

Stick, The Stick, Grand Stick United States There are many alternates, which vary from individual to individual GregHoward.jpg
Charango 10 strings

5 courses

G4 G4•C5 C5•E5 E4•A4 A4•E5 E5

Quirquincho, Mulita, Tatu, Kirki Bolivia, Peru, Argentina

Chile, Ecuador

Common C6/Am7 tuning, but there are many variants. 3rd course is an octave pair. Bolivian charango 001.jpg
Charango, Hatun 7 or 8 strings

6 or 7 courses

(A3) • D4 • G4 • C5 • E5 E4 • A4 • E5

Grand Charango, Hatun Charango, Peruvian Charango Peru A recent addition to the charango family.
Charangón 10 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

G3 G3•C4 C4•E4 E3•A3 A3•E4 E4

Alternates:

  • Bass C

G3 G3•C4 C3•E4 E3•A3 A3•E4 E4

  • Bass G

G3 G2•C4 C3•E4 E3•A3 A3•E4 E4

  • Bolivian tuning:

C4 C4•F4 F4•A4 A3•D4 D4•A4 A4

  • G6 tuning:

D4 D4•G4 G4•B4 B3•E4 E4•B4 B4

Bass Charango Andean Region Standard AKA "C6 tuning", one octave lower than the charango.

Very similar in appearance to the ronroco, but slightly larger.

Charango, Ranka 11 strings

5 courses

G4 G4•C5 C5•E5 E4•A4 A4•E5 E5 E6•D4 D4•A4 A4•G5 G4•C5 C5•G5 G5 G6 Patasi Charango, Ranqha Charango Cochabamba, Bolivia
Chillador 10 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

G3 G3•C4 C4•E4 E3•A3 A3•E4 E4

Alternates: Same as charango

Andean mountains Essentilally a flat-backed charango
Chitarra battente 10 strings

5 courses

A3 A3•D4 D4•G3 G3•B3 B3•E4 E4

Italy Chitarra battente (2).jpg
Chonguri 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

D2 F2 D3 A2

Alternate:[*]

  • F3 A3 F4 C4
Georgia [*]There are many tuning variations. Note that both examples here are re-entrant. Chonguri.jpg
Çiftelia 2 strings

2 courses

B3 E3 Albania Common tuning, there are variants. Ciftelia.jpg
Cimbalom [*] about 125 strings

about 53 courses

A2 A#2 B2 C3 C#3 D3 D#3 E3 F3 F#3 G3 G#3 [...] * A#5 B5 C6 C#6 D6 D#6 E6 F6 F#6 G6 G#6 A6

Cimbál, cymbalom, cymbalum, ţambal, tsymbaly and tsimbl, santur, santouri, sandouri Hungary * String number varies with size of instrument; bass courses are usually triple strung and higher courses typically quadruple strung. Range given is for a Concert Grand; other sizes with smaller, and with more extended ranges exist. Only lowest and highest octaves are given; intervening notes are tuned chromatically. Cimbalom - Vencel József Schunda.JPG
Cinco Cuatro 5 strings

4 courses

G3•D4 D3•F#4•B4 North-western Venezuela
Cinco Y Medio 5 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

E4•G3•D4•F#4•B4

Alternates:

  • "El Tocuyo tuning":

A4•D3•F#4•B4•E4

North-western Venezuela
Cinco y Medio 6 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

E3•A3•D3•F#4•B4•E4

Alternate:

  • "El Tocuyo tuning":

A4•A3•D3•F#4•B4•E4

North-western Venezuela Standard aka "Sanara tuning"
Cinco Seis ( See Seis Cinco ) ( See Seis Cinco )
Cittern 10 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

C2 C2•G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•D4 D4

Alternates:

C2 C2•G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•E4 E4

  • Irish:

D2 D2•G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•D4 D4

  • Mandolin high 'B':

G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•E4 E4•B4 B4

  • Modal D:

D2 D2•A2 A2•D3 D3•A3 A3•D4 D4

Celtic or Flatback Cittern Europe Many other modal tunings have been described for citterns. Nyberg cittern.jpg
Crwth 5 strings

5 courses

G2•C3•C2•D2•D3 Wales Traditional Welsh tuning Crwth rem.jpg
Cuatro Alto 10 strings

5 courses

F#4 F#3•B3 B4•E4 E4•A4 A4•D5 D5

Alto Cuatro Puerto Rico Rare.[7]
Cuatro Antiguo 8 strings

4 courses

A3 A3•E4 E4•A4 A4•D5 D5

Puerto Rico An 4 string/4 course version exists, tuned the same Dusepo cuatro antiguo.jpg
Cuatro Bajo 10 strings

5 courses

E3 E2•A3 A2•D3 D3•G3 G3•C4 C4

Bass Cuatro Puerto Rico Rare.[8]
Cuatro Cubano 8 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

G4 G3•C4 C4•E4 E4•A4 A4

Alternates:

  • G4 G3•C4 C4•E4 E4•G4 G4
  • A4 A3•D4 D4•F#4 F#4•B4 B4
Cuban Cuatro, Tres-Cuatro Cuba
Cuatro, Puerto Rican 10 strings

5 courses

B3 B2•E4 E3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4 G4

Cuatro Tradicional, Cuatro Tenor, Cuatro Puertorriqueno, Cuatro Aviolinado, Cuatro Moderno, Tenor Cuatro Puerto Rico The Tenor Cuatro is the standard instrument of the Puerto Rican Cuatro Family.[9]

Cuatro Aviolinado means 'violin-shaped cuatro'; Cuatro Moderno is to distinguish from the Cuatro Antiguo

Cuatro de puerto rico.jpg
Cuatro, Venezuelan 4 strings

4 courses

A3•D4•F#4•B3

Cuatro Venezolano Venezuela Standard AKA "D6 tuning" Venezuelan cuatro.jpg
Cuatro Soprano 10 strings

5 courses

C#5 C#4•F#4 F#5•B4 B4•E5 E5•A5 A5

Soprano Cuatro Puerto Rico Rare.[10]
Cuk 3 strings

3 courses

G4 • B3 • E3

Kroncong Cuk, Nylon kroncong guitar Indonesia Keroncong2.jpg
Cümbüş 12 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

A2 A2•B2 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4 G4

Alternates:

  • Alternative Standard: D2 D2•E2 E2•A2 A2•D3 D3•G3 G3•C4 C4
  • Egypt/Arab: D2 D2•G2 G2•A2 A2•D3 D3•G3 G3•C4 C4
  • Turkish/Armenian:

E2 E2•A2 A2•B2 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3•D4 D4

  • Turkish Armenian alt.: C#2 C#2•F#2 F#2•B2 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3•D4 D4
  • New Turkish classical: F#2 F#2•B2 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4 G4
  • Old Turkish classical:

A2 A2•D3 D3•E3 E3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4 G4

Turkey TurkishMandolinBanjo.jpg
Cümbüş, Tambur 6 strings

3 courses

D2 D2•A2 A2•D3 D3

Turkey
Cura 6 strings

3 courses

D4 D4•A4 A4•E5 E5

Cura saz Turkey Cura.png
Cura 7 strings

3 courses

G3 G3•D4 D4•A4 A4 A4

Cura saz Turkey
Cura 8 strings

4 courses

G3 G3•D4 D4•A4 A4•E5 E5

Cura saz Turkey Same as Mandolin

D[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Đàn đáy 3 strings

3 courses

G3•C4•F4 Vo de cam,

Đàn đáy

Vietnam Man playing a đàn đáy.jpg
Đàn nguyệt 2 strings

2 courses"

[ * ] Nguyệt cầm,

Đàn kìm

Vietnam * There is no fixed tuning: one string is tuned to a convenient vocal pitch, the other is tuned a 4th, a 5th or (rarely) an octave above that. Dan nguyet.jpg
Dihu 2 strings

2 courses

* G2 D3
  • D3 A3
Dadihu, Dahu, Ziaodihu, Zhongdihu China A larger version of the Erhu.

Either tuning may be considered standard.

Dadihu.jpg
Domra 3 strings

3 courses

E4•A4•D5 Russia Domra-topview.jpg
Domra 4 strings

4 courses

G3•D4•A4•E5 Ukraine Same as mandolin tuning
Dotar 2 strings

2 courses

Standard/Common:

D3•G3

Alternate:

  • D3•A3
Dutar Uzbekistan This instrument is found in many forms throughout central Asia. Dutar2.jpg
Dotara 4 strings

4 courses

F#3•C#3•F#4•B4 India Lukobadya dotara.jpg
Dotara 6 strings

5 courses

G2 G3•C4•G4•G4•C5 Bangladesh
Double bass 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

E1•A1•D2•G2

Alternates:

  • Drop D: D1•A1•D2•G2
  • Solo Tuning: F#1•B1•E2•A2
  • With low 'C' machine:

C1•A1•D2•G2

  • 'C' Machine "Legion":

B0•A1•D2•G2

Bass, bass fiddle, contrabass, string bass, standup bass, doghouse Europe Standard AKA "orchestral tuning" Busettosolano.jpg
Double bass, 5-string 5 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

C1•E1•A1•D2•G2

Alternates:

  • Modern 4th tuning:

B0•E1•A1•D2•G2

Bass, bass fiddle, contrabass, string bass, standup bass, doghouse Europe Standard AKA "orchestral tuning" Kay L-30 Double Bass (1947), Museum of Making Music.jpg
Dranyen 7 strings

3 courses

A3 A3•D4 D3 D3•G3 G3 Dramyin, Dramnyen Bhutan and Tibet Standard AKA "Bhutanese tuning" Nepalese instrument-2.jpg
Dranyen 6 strings

3 courses

A3 A3•D3 D3•G3 G3 Dramyin, Dramnyen Bhutan and Tibet Standard AKA "Tibetan tuning" Nepalese instrument-2.jpg
Dulcimer 3-6 strings

3 courses

Standard 3-string:

A3•A3•D3

Standard 6-string: A3 A3•A3 A3•D3 D3

Alternates:

  • Mixolydian tuning: D4•A3•D3
  • Dorian Tuning: G3•A3•D3
  • Aeolian Tuning: C4•A3•D3
  • Galax: D4•D4•D4
  • 'Bagpipe' Tuning: D4•D3•D3
Mountain Dulcimer, Appalachian Dulcimer, Lap Dulcimer, Dulcimore, Delcimore, Delcimer US Standard AKA "Ionian Tuning"; Galax AKA "unison tuning"; there are many, many variations.

Dulcimers with 3, 4, 5, and 6 strings exist, usually 3 courses, but sometimes with 4 courses. (The traditional dulcimer is fretted diatonically whole, whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole. )

Appalachian dulcimer.JPG

E[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Ektara 1 string

1 course

No standard; string is tuned to any convenient pitch. Ektar, Iktar, Gopichand, Gobijeu India Ektara.JPG
Epinette Des Vosges 6 strings [*]

6 courses

Common:

G C G

France Typically three fretted strings; three drones, but the number of drones may vary widely.

Similar in concept to the Apalacian Dulcimer

Epinette.PNG
Erhu 2 strings

2 courses

D4 A4 Nanhu China Erhu.png

F[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Fiddle 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/common:

G3 D4 A4 E5

Alternates:

  • Cajun: F3 C4 G4 D5
  • Open G: G3 D4 G4 B4
  • Sawmill: G3 D4 G4 D5
  • Gee-dad: G3 D4 A4 D5
  • Open D: D3 D4 A4 D5
  • High bass: A3 D4 A4 E5
  • Cross tuning: A3 E4 A4 E5
  • Calico: A3 E4 A4 C#5
Violin, Kit, Pochette "Fiddle" describes a playing style more than a unique instrument; a fiddle is just a violin with a slightly different "set-up".

Standard AKA "Italian" or "orchestral" tuning High Bass AKA "Old-time D tuning" Cross tuning AKA "High counter" Calico AKA "Black Mountain Rag" or the Swedish tunings: Trollstämning, or Näckastämning

Old violin.jpg

G[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Gabusi 6 strings

4 courses

D g bb dd Gaboussi Comoros Islands Gabusi.png
Gadulka 3 strings

3 courses

A3 E3 A4 The Balkans 3 playing strings, with up to 10 sympathetic strings. Gdulka-bow copy.jpg
Gehu 4 strings

4 courses

C2 G2 D3 A3 Erhu-cello, China Same tunings as cello
Gekkin 4 strings

4 courses

A3 D4 D4 D5 Japanese Yueqin Japan
Geyerleier 8 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

E3 E2•B3 B2•E3 E3•B3 B3

Alternate:

  • D3 D2•A3 A2•D3 D3•A3 A3
Hamburg, Germany Geyerleier.jpg
Grajappi 4 strings

2 courses

F2 F2 • B2 B2 Krachappi, Krachap pi Thailand
Guitalele 6 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

A2 D3 G3 C4 E4 A4

Alternate:

  • B2 E3 A3 D4 F#4 B4
US, Japan Tuned a 4th or a 5th higher than the standard guitar. Guitalele.jpg
Guitar 6 strings

6 courses

Standard:

E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4

Common Alternates:

  • Drop D: D2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4
  • Open D: D2 A2 D3 F#3 A3 D4
  • Open G: D2 G2 D2 G2 B3 D4
  • Open A: E2 A2 E3 A3 C#4 E4
  • Lute: E2 A2 D3 F#3 B3 E4
  • Irish: D2 A2 D3 G3 A3 D4
Arch-top,

Axe, Classical Guitar, Flamenco Guitar, Flat-top, Guit-box, Guit-fiddle, Nylon String Guitar, 6-string Guitar, Spanish Guitar, Steel-string Guitar

Spain "6-string" / "steel" = guitar with metal strings;

"classical" / "nylon" = guitar with nylon or other synthetic strings;

"flamenco" may have gut or nylon strings.

Open G AKA "bottleneck," "taro patch";

Open A AKA "Spanish";

"Lute tuing" is usually capoed on 3rd fret to give G2 C3 F3 A3 D4 G4, and E2 is often dropped to D2 (F2 with capo).

There are hundreds of alternate guitar tunings; whole books have been written on the subject.[11]

Spanish classical acoustic guitar3.jpg
Guitar, Alto 11 strings

11 courses

Bb1 C2 D2 Eb2 F2 G2 C3 F3 Bb3 D4 G4 Archguitar, altgitarren, Bolin guitar Sweden
Guitar, Alto 13 strings

13 courses

A1 Bb1 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 A2 D3 F3 A3 D4 F4 Archguitar, altgitarren, Bolin guitar Sweden This instrument is very rare.
Guitar, Alto (Niibori) 6 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

B2 E3 A3 D4 F#4 B4

G Guitar Japan Transposing guitar in the key of G, developed for the Niibori Guitar Orchestra
Guitar, 7 string 7 strings

7 courses

Standard/Common:

B1 E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4

Alternate:

  • Van Eps: A1 E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4
US 6-string alternates may be adapted for the 7-string Seven-string-guitar.jpg
Guitar, 8 string (low/high) 8 strings

8 courses

B1 E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4 A4 8 string classical guitar Spain AKA "Galbraith tuning"
Guitar, 8 string (added basses) 8 strings

8 courses

[B1 D2] E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4 8 string classical guitar Spain Tuning of two lowest strings varies with player and music
Guitar, 9 string 9 strings

6 courses

E3 E2•A3 A2•D4 D3•G3 B3 E4 US 12-string guitar variant with doubled bases
Guitar, 9 string 9 strings

6 courses

E2• A2• D3• G4 G3•B3 B3•E4 E4 US 12-string guitar variant with doubled trebles
Guitar, 10 string 10 strings

10 courses

F#1 G#1 A#1 C2 E3 A2 D3 G3 B3 E4 10 String classical guitar Spain Standard tuning JME ten string guitar.jpg
Guitar, 12 string 12 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

E3 E2•A3 A2•D4 D3•G4 G3•B3 B3•E4 E4

Alternates:

  • Variant: E4 E2•A3 A2•D4 D3•G4 G3•B3 B3•E4 E4

All 6-string alternates may be adapted to 12-string.

Twelve-stringed Guitar US? Some players tune the third course to unison G3's to minimize breakage of the high G string. 12 String Guitar.JPG
Guitar, baritone 6 strings

6 courses

Common tunings:
  • 4th lower: B1 E2 A2 D3 F#3 B3
  • 5th lower: A1 D2 G2 C3 E3 A3
  • Octave lower: E1 A1 D2 G2 B2 E3
US There really is no "standard" tuning for baritone guitar; choice of tuning depends on instrument, stringing, and player's preferences. Jaguar-Bariton-Custom.jpg
Guitar, bass 4 strings

4 courses

  • E1 A1 D2 G2
  • D1 G1 C2 F2
  • B0 E1 A1 D2
  • A0 D1 G1 C2
Bass, electric bass, 4-string bass 70's Fender Jazz Bass.jpg
Guitar, bass (5-string) 5 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:
  • B0 E1 A1 D2 G2
  • E1 A1 D2 G2 C3
  • A0 D1 G1 C2 F2
Bass, electric bass, 5-string bass Essentially a 4-string bass with one added high or low string. Choice of tuning depends whether the added string is low or high. Warwick Streamer Stage I 5-string bass.jpg
Guitar, bass (6-string) 6 strings

6 courses

B0 E1 A1 D2 G2 C3

E1 A1 D2 G2 B2 E3

Bass, electric bass, 6-string bass, Contrabass Guitar Essentially a 4-string bass with either added high and low strings.
Guitar, bass (8-string) 8 strings

4 courses

E2 E1•A2 A1•D3 D2•G3 G2 Eight-string bass guitar, 8-string bass US Essentially a 4-string bass with each string doubled at the upper octave.
Guitar, octave 6 strings

6 courses

E3•A3•D4•G4•B4•E5 Piccolo Guitar, Soprano Guitar Germany One octave higher than the standard guitar.
Guitarra De Golpe 5 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

D3•G3•C4•E3•A3

Alternates:

  • Tecalitan: D3•G3•B4•E3•A3
  • Urbana: G3•C4•E4•A3•D4
  • Urbana alt.: G3•C4•E3•A3•D4
Guitarra Colorada, Quinta De Golpe, Mariachera Mexico
Guitarrenlaute 6 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

E2•A2•D3•G3•B3•E4

Alternates are the same as the Guitar

Guitarren laute, Guitar-lute, Lute-guitar Germany Basically this is a lute-shaped guitar; a guitar neck on a lute body. Gitarrenlaute.jpg
Guitarro 6 strings

6 courses

B4 F#4 D5 A5 E5 Guitarrico, Spanish Tiple Spain Tiple menorquí3.jpg
Guitarrón 6 strings

6 courses

A1 D2 G2 C3 E3 A2 Guitarrón de Toloche Mexico Gitarron.jpg
Guitarron Argentino 6 strings

6courses

B1 E2 A2 D3 G3 B3 Argentina A 6-string scoustic bass guitar.
Guitarrón Chileno 24 or 25 strings total

5 courses + 4 resonating strings

D4 D4 D3 D3 D2•G4 G4 G4 G3 G3•

(C4) C4 C4 C3 C2•E4 E4 E4•A4 A4 A4

res. strings: F#5 A4 G4 B4

Chile Resonating strings are known as diablos (devils). Guitarronero001.jpg
Guitar, tenor 4 strings

4 courses

C3 • G3 • D4 • A4 US Same tuning as tenor banjo, mandola. Item-tenor-guitar-503 lg.jpg
Guqin 7 strings

7 courses

sol la do re mi sol la China Guqin music uses no absolute pitch so tuning varies.

The common Zheng Diao tuning set "do" to approx. "F3" and tunes other strings relative to that to give C3 D3 F3 G3 A3 C4 D4

Jiu Xiao Huan Pei.jpg
Gusli 9 strings

9 courses

Standard/Common:

E3 A3 B3 C4 D4 E4 F4 G4 A4

Крыловидные гусли Russia Tuning varies; this is a common traditional tuning

H[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Halszither 9 strings

5 courses

G2 • D3 D3 • G3 G3 • B3 B3 • D4 D4 Krienser Halszither Switzerland
Hardingfele 4 strings

4 courses

plus 4-5 resonating strings

Standard/Common:

A3 D4 A4 E5

res. strings: (B3) D4 E4 F#4 A4


Common alternates:

  • Kolagutstille: A3 C4 A4 E5

res.: (A3) D4 E4 G4 A4

  • Seljekvatstille: A3 D4 F#4 E5

res.: (B3) D4 E4 F#4 A4

  • Trollstilt: A3 E4 A4 C#5

res.: (A3) C#4 E4 F#4 A4

  • Forstemt: A3 E4 A4 E5

res.: (A3) C#4 E4 F#4 A4

  • Gorrlaus: F3 D4 A4 E5

res.: (F3) B3 D4 G4 A4

  • Bas: G3 D4 A4 E5

res.: (B3) D4 E4 G4 A4

Hardanger violin, Hardanger fiddle Norway
  • Standard AKA "Oppstilt bas" : More than 80% of music written for this instrument uses this tuning.
  • Trollstilt AKA

"Devil's Tuning"

  • Bas AKA "Violin tuning"


There are many other variant tunings, most of them uncommon.

FeleHel (2).jpg
Harp, Concert 47 strings

47 courses

Cb1 Db1 Eb1 Fb1 Gb1 Ab1 Bb1

[ . . . ] * Cb7 Db7 Eb7 Fb7 Gb7

Pedal Harp, Double-action Harp, Diatonic Double-action Harp France * Only lowest and highest octaves shown. Tuning proceeds through 6-1/2 octaves using the Cb diatonic scale PSM V40 D816 Modern double pedal harp.jpg
Harp, Celtic 34 strings

34 courses[*]

C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 A2 B2

[ . . . ] * C6 D6 E6 F6 G6 A6

Clàrsach, Folk Harp, Lever Harp British Isles * Number of strings varies, generally between 19-40; 34 strings is typical. Not all models have levers. Only lowest and highest octaves shown. Tuning proceeds through 4-1/2 octaves using the C diatonic scale. Harpe celtique moderne (Camac).jpg
Harpsichord Varies[*] [*]Typical:

C2 C#2 D2 D#2 E2 F2 F#2 G2 G#2 A2 A#2 B2 [...] * C#6 D6 D#6 E6 F6 F#6 G6 G#6 A6 A#6 B6 C7

Virginal, Spinet, Clavicytherium, Ottavino, Pedal Harpsichord, et al Europe (Belgium?) Many variants exist having differing number of keys, multiple keyboards, pedal boards, choirs of strings, etc., and they may have anywhere from about 120 to many hundreds of strings. Tuning is given for a typical single-keyboard, 5-octave instrument, for the main choir of strings. Only lowest and highest octaves are shown; intervening notes are tuned chromatically. Often tuning is in some musical temperament other than 12-tone equal temperament (common on modern pianos). Harpsichord VitalJulianFrey.jpg
Harzither 8 strings

4 courses

GG • CC • EE • GG Bergzither Germany
Huapanguera 8 strings

5 courses

G2 •D3 D4•G3 G3•B3 B3•E3 Mexico Huapanguera.jpg
Huobosi 4 strings

4 courses

E2 A2 D3 G3 Hubo, Sugudu China Huobosi.jpg
Hurdy Gurdy 5 or 6 strings

5 courses

Traditional:

(G4)G4 C4 G3 C3 C2

Alternates:

  • Altered Traditional:

(G4)G4 C4 G3 C3 G2

  • Bourbonnais:

(D5)D4 D4 G3 D3 D2

  • Altered Bourbonnais:

(D5)D4 D4 A3 D3 G2

  • Vendée:

(A5)A5 D4 A3 D3 D2

Beggar’s lyre, Crank lyre, Cymphan, Forgolant, Organistrum, Symphonia, Wheel fiddle France Stringing is given in reverse order, owing to the orientation of the instrument while playing. The first one (or two) strings are melody strings; others are drone strings. Other regional tuning variants exist. Louvet Drehleier.JPG

I[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Ichigenkin 1 string

1 course

no standard [*] Japan [*]

string is tuned to any note convenient for the vocalist

YamadIchigenkinaside.jpg
Igil 2 strings

2 courses

(E • B) Ikili Tuva, Mongolia Pitch varies depending what other instruments the Igil is playing with, but the two strings are always tuned a 5th apart. Igil oktober saya front view.gif
Irish bouzouki 8 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

G3 G2•D4 D3•A3 A3•E4 E4

Alternates:

  • Mandolin:

G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•E4 E4

  • Irish:

G3 G2•D4 D3•A3 A3•D4 D4

  • Modal D:

A3 A2•D4 D3•A3 A3•D4 D4

Bouzouki, Octave Mandolin, Zouk Ireland Irish bouzouki is basically an octave mandolin with the two lowest courses tuned in octaves instead of unisons. "Modal D" octaves can also be tuned in unisons. Irish Bouzouki.jpg

J[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Jarana huasteca 5 strings

5 courses

G3 • B3 • D4 • F#4 • A4 Mexico Jarana huasteca.jpg
Jarana jarocha 8 strings

5 courses

  • Modern or "Commercial"

A3 • D4 D4 • G3 G4 • B3 B3 • E4

  • Traditional

G3•C4 C4•E3 E3•A3 A3•G4

Mexico Part of their name usually describes their size, for example:

Jarana Chaquiste, Jarana Primera, Jarana Segunda, Jarana Tercera, Jarana Tercerola

Where octave doublings occur will often differ depending on the size of the instrument. The larger instruments commonly double the middle courses at the octave.

Jarana de frente.JPG
Jarana Jarocha Requinto 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

G2•A2•D2•G3

Alternates:

  • C2•D2•G2•C3
  • C2•D2•G3•C3
  • A2•D3•G3•C3
Jarocha Requinto, Requinto Jarocha, Guitarra De Son Mexico
Jarana Leona 4 strings

4 courses

G2•A2•D3•G3 Mexico Jarana leona.jpg
Jouhikko 3 strings

3 courses

D A E Jouhikannel Finland Absolute pitch is not fixed on this instrument Chadwickjouhikko.jpg

K[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Kabosy 6 strings

4 courses

G • G • B B • D D Madagascar Kabosy.png
Kacapi 6 strings

3 courses

A#• B •C# •F• F# Indonesia Uses a gamelan pelog scale. Tuning is approximated to western notation. Kacapi.jpg
Kamancheh 4 strings

4 courses

D5•A5•D4•A4 Iran,
Armenia,
Azerbaijan,
Uzbekistan,
Turkmenistan
Kamanche.jpg
Khonkhota 8 strings

5 courses [*]

G4 G3•C4•D4 D3•A3•D4 D4 Qonqhota, Ponputu, Mokholos, Machus South America Strings/courses are usually 8/5 but 7/5, 9/5, 10/5 or 11/5 variations exist. Khonkhota.png
Kithara Sarda 6 strings

6 courses

B2 E2 A2 D3 F3 B3 Sardinia, Italy.
Kobza 8 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

GG • DD • GG • CC

Alternate:

  • DD • AA • DD • GG
Kobuz, Kobsa Moldavia, Romania, Hungary Kobza 001.jpg
Komuz 3 strings

3 courses

A E A Qomuz, Gopuz, Kopuz, Kopus Kyrgyzstan Kopuz.jpg
Kora 21 strings

21 courses

Traditional Tunings:
  • Tomora Ba/Silaba: F2 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 A3 B3 C4 D4 E4 F4 G4 A4 B4 C5 D5 E5 F5 G5 A5
  • Tomora Mesengo: F2 C3 +D3 +Eb3 F3 G3 +A3 +Bb3 C4 +D4 +Eb4 F4 G4 +A4 +Bb4 C5 +D5 +Eb5 F5 G5 +A5
  • Hardino: F2 C3 -D3 +E3 F3 G3 -A3 +B3 C4 -D4 +E4 F4 G4 -A4 +B4 C5 -D5 +E5 F5 G5 -A5
  • Sauta: F#2 C3 D3 E3 F#3 G3 A3 B3 C4 D4 E4 F#4 G4 A4 B4 C5 D5 E5 F#5 G5 A5
West Africa Scales roughly correspond to Western major, minor, and lydian scales, but are not in equal temperament. Any of the scales may be considered "standard". Kora DSC 0355.JPG
Koto 13 strings

13 courses

Traditional tunings:
  • Itsikotchu-chô:

D4 D4 A3 B3 D4 E4 F#4 A4 B4 D5 E5 F#5 A5

  • Oshiki-chô:

E4 A3 B3 D4 E3 F#3 A3 B3 C#4 E4 F#4 A4 B4

  • Sui-chô:

E4 A3 B3 C#4 E3 F#3 A3 B3 C#4 E4 F#4 A4 B4

  • Hyô-jô:

B3 E3 F#3 A3 B3 C#4/D4 E4 F#4 A4 B4 C#5/D5 E5 F#5

  • Taishiki-chô:

B3 E3 F#3 G#3 B3 C#4 E4 F#4 G#4 B4 C#4 E4 F#4

  • Banskiki-chô:

F#3 B3 C#3 E3 F#3 G#3/A3 B3 C#4 E4 F#4 G#4/A4 B4 C#5

  • Sôjô:

G3 G3 D3 E3 G3 A3 B3 D4 E4 G4 A4 B4 D5

箏, 琴 Japan
  • Tuning depends on the piece being played.
  • A4 is closer to 430Hz than to the western standard (440 Hz), and intervals are in just intonation and not equal temperament.
  • In some tunings alternate choices are available for strings 6 and 11 (indicated with a slash); whatever note is chosen these strings are always tuned one octave apart.
Japanese Koto.jpg
Kwitra 8 strings

4 courses

GG • EE • AA • DD Kuitra, Kouitra, Quwaytara Algeria

L[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Laouto 8 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

C2 C3•G2 G3•D2 D3•A3 A3

Alternate:

  • Cretan: G2 G3•D2 D3•A2 A3•E3 E3
Laghouto Greece Standard aka "Mainland"
Laúd, Philippine ( See Octavina ) (See Octavina )
Laúd 12 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

G#1 G#1•C#2 C#2•F#2 F#2•B2 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3

Alternates:

  • Cuban:

D1 D1•A1 A1•E2 E2•B2 B2•F#3 F#3•C#4 C#4

  • Alt. Cuban:

D1 D1•A1 A1•E2 E2•B2 B2•F#3 F#3•D4 D4

Spanish laud Spain Standard AKA Spanish Tuning;

one octave lower than the Spanish Bandurria

Laúd español.jpg
Laud, Cuban 12 strings

6 courses

D3 D3•F#3 F#3•B3 B3•E4 E4•A4 A4•D5 D5 Laud Cubano Cuba
Lili'u 6 strings

4 courses

G3 • C3 C4 • E4 • A4 A4 Li'liu, Taropatch, Tenor Ukulele Hawaii C6 tuning Tenor Ukulele tuning with courses 1 and 3 doubled.
Lili'u 8 strings

4 courses

G3 G4 • C3 C4 • E4 E4 • A4 A4 Li'liu, Taropatch, Tenor Ukulele Hawaii Double-strung tenor ukulele. Taropatch.jpg
Liuqin 4 strings

4 courses

G3 • D4 • G4 • D5

Alternate

  • G3 • D4 • A4 • E5
liuyeqin, willow leaf instrument China Liuqin.jpg
Liuto cantabile 10 strings

5 courses

C2 C2•G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•E4 E4 Liuto moderno Naples, Italy Some courses are occasionally single-strung
Luc huyen cam 5 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

C3 • F3 • C4 • G4 • C5

Alternate:

  • Hu ai Cam: G2 • D3 • G3 • B4 • D5

(aka "slide guitar tuning")

Đàn Ghita, Ghita, Phím Lõm,

Vietnamese guitar

Vietnam Originally a 4- or 5-string instrument; today often nearly identical to a 6-string western guitar, except for having a scalloped fingerboard and one less string.

(See below.)

Luc huyen cam 6 strings

6 courses

Standard/Common:

E2 • A2 • D3 • G3 • B4 • E4

Alternates:

  • Day Rach-Gia: E2 • A2 • D3 • G3 • D4 • G4
  • Day Lai: D2 • A2 • D3 • G3 • D4 • G4
  • Day Sai Gon: D2 • G2 • D3 • G3 • D4 • G4
Đàn Ghita, Ghita, Phím Lõm,

Vietnamese guitar

Vietnam
  • "Standard" identical with the common western guitar.
  • Day Lai aka "aculturated tuning"
  • Day Sai Gon aka "Saigon Tuning"
Lute [ * ]
  • Medieval 12 string/6 course:

G2 G2 • C3 C3 • F3 F3 • A3 A3 • D4 D4 • G4 G4

  • Medieval 13 string/7 course:

D2 D3•G2 G3•C3 C4•F3 F3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4

  • Renaissance 15 string/8 course

D2 D3•F2 F3•G2 G3•C3 C4•F3 F3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4

  • Renaissance 19 string/10 course

C2 C3•D2 D3•E♭2 E♭3•F2 F3•G2 G3•C3 C4•F3 F3•A3 A3•D4 D4•G4

  • Baroque 24 string/13 course

A1 A2•B1 B2•C2 C3•D2 D3•E2 E3•F2 F3•G2 G3•A2 A2•D3 D3•F3 F3•A3 A3•d4•f4

Europe [ * ] The number of strings and courses on a lute can vary widely depending on period and geographical region. Among the more common forms are 6, 7, 8, 10, and 13 courses. (Pictured: 8 course Renaissance Lute.) Renaissance laute, Lautenbau (by blackbiird, 2006-08-08).jpg
Lyra 3 strings

3 courses

D3 • A3 • E5 Crete, Greece Stag diki.jpg

M[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Mandobass 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

E1 A1 D2 G2

Alternate: G1 D2 A2 E3

Europe The alternate tuning (2 octaves below the mandolin) is usually applied to a smaller-scale instrument (see 'Mandobass').
Mandobass 8 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

G1 G1•D2 D2•A2 A2•E3 E3

Alternate:

  • "Mandola": C1 C1•G1 G1•D2 D2•A2 A2
Tremolo-bass Europe Relatively rare; larger than the standard mandobass.

Standard tuning is 2 octaves below the mandolin.

Mandocello 8 strings

4 courses

C2 C2•G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3 mandolincello, mandoloncello Standard tuning is 1 octave below the mandola.
Mandola 8 strings

4 courses

C3 C3•G3 G3•D4 D4•A4 A4 Tenor mandola (Europe) A 5th below mandolin tuning. Mandola.jpg
Mandolin 8 strings

4 courses

G3 G3•D4 D4•A4 A4•E5 E5 Mando Standard instrument of the mandolin family. Levin Mandolin.jpg
Mandolinetto 8 strings

4 courses

G3 G3•D4 D4•A4 A4•E5 E5 USA and Canada A guitar-shaped mandolin, or mandolin neck on ukulele body.
Mandolin (Octave) 8 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•E4 E4

Alternate:

  • Irish Bouzouki:

G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•D4 D4

Tenor Mandolin, Irish Bouzouki, Octave mandola (Europe) Pitched 1 octave below the mandolin. Octave2edit.JPG
Mandolin (Piccolo) 8 strings

4 courses

C4 C4•G4 G4•D5 D5•A5 A5 Brilliant tone mandolin Tuned a 4th above the mandolin; 1 octave above the mandola. Piccolomando.jpg
Mandriola 12 strings

4 courses

G3 G3 G3•D4 D4 D4•A4 A4 A4•E5 E5 E5

Tricordia Europe Tricordia is also a similar instrument tuned differently; both instruments are known by both names. (see Trichordia) Mandriola.jpg
Manguerito 7 strings

5 courses

D4•G4•B4 B3•E4•B4 B4 La Paz, Bolivia
Mejorana 5 strings

5 courses

  • "Por veinticinco":

D4•A4•A3•B3•E4

  • "Por seis":

D4•G4•G3•B3•E4

Mejorana, Rumbo Panama Either tuning may be considered "standard." Mejorana.jpg

N[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Nevoud 11 strings

6 courses

C#2•F#2 F#2•B2 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3•D4 D4 Nevud, New Oud Turkey
Nigenkin 2 strings

2 courses

No standard [*] Japan [*] Strings are tuned in unison, to any pitch convenient for vocalist.
Nyckelharpa 4 strings

4 courses + 12 resonating strings

C3 • G3 • C4 • A4

res.strings: G#3 A3 Bb3 B3 C4 C#4 D4 Eb4 E4 F4 F#4 G4

Key-harp,

Chromatic Nyckelharpa

Sweden Number of sympathetic strings may vary. Nyckelharpa built by Eric Sahlstrom.jpg
Nyckelharpa, Tenor 4 strings

4 courses + 12 resonating strings

G2 • D3 • G3 • E4

res.strings: G#2 A2 Bb2 B2 C3 C#3 D3 Eb3 E3 F3 F#3 G3

Sweden This instrument is of very recent invention.

O[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Octavina 14 strings

6 courses

F#1•B1 B1•E2 E2•A2 A2 A2•D3 D3 D3•G3 G3 G3

Philippine Laúd Philippines One octave lower than the Philippine Bandurria Octavina.jpg
Octobass 3 strings

3 courses

C0 G0 D1 Subcontrabass, triple bass France Extremely rare. Tuning is that supplied by the inventor, Jean Baptiste Vuillaume (1798-1875), 2 octaves below the modern cello. Octobasse.jpg
Octofone 8 strings

4 courses

* C2 C2•G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3
  • G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3•E4 E4
  • D2 D2•G2 G2•B2 B2•E3 E3
USA Any of the tunings may be considered "standard".
Oud 11 strings

6 courses

  • Standard/Common:

C2 F2 A2 D3 G3 C4

  • Alt. Arabic:

F2 A2 D3 G3 C4 F4

  • Alternate bass:

D2 G2 A2 D3 G3 C4

  • Turkish/Armenian:

E2 A2 B2 E3 A3 D4

  • New Turkish Classical:

C#2 F#2 B2 E3 A3 D4

  • Alt. New Turkish Classical:

D2 F#2 B2 E3 A3 D4

Ud, Al-Ud, Oud Arbi Middle East Standard AKA "Arabic tuning"; notated a 4th higher in ME notation; one octave higher in western notation. Turkishoud.jpg

P[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Palida 4 strings

4 courses

D3 • A3 • E4 • B4 Europe
Panduri 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

G3 • A3 • C4

Alternate:

  • E3 • B3 • A4
Georgia (Asia)
Pedal Steel Guitar [ * ]

10 strings 10 courses

Standard/Common:
  • E9th: B2 D3 E3 F#3 G#3 B3 E4 G#4 D#4 F#4
  • C6th: C2 F2 A2 C3 E3 G3 A3 C4 E4 D4

Alternates:

  • A7th: A1 E2 G2 A2 C#3 E3 G3 A3 C#4 E4
  • C Diatonic: G2 A2 C3 E3 F3 G3 A3 B3 C4 E4
Steel guitar United States [ * ] 10 strings is more or less standard now, but instruments with 6, 8, 12, and other numbers of strings, and 2, 3, or 4 necks exist. A different tuning is usually applied to each neck, but setups vary from player to player. 2-Neck Pedal Steel Guitar

Zumsteel.jpg

Phin 3 strings

3 courses

A3 E4 A4 Thailand
Piano 230 strings[*]

88 courses

A0 A#0 B0 C1 C#1 D1 D#1 E1 F1 F#1 G1 G#1

[...] *C#7 D7 D#7 E7 F7 F#7 G7 G#7 A7 A#7 B7 C8

Pianoforte, Grand, Grand Piano, Concert Grand, Upright, Upright Piano, Spinet Europe (Italy) * About 2/3 of courses are triple strung; some lower courses are double strung; the remaining bases are single strung. All multi-strung courses are tuned to unisons. Exact number of strings varies by manufacturer and model, 220 - 240 is typical.[12] Only lowest and highest octaves are shown; tuning of the intervening notes is chromatic. Upright Piano:

1977 Knight Upright Piano Mahogany Satin (3169879709).jpg

Grand Piano: Steinway & Sons concert grand piano, model D-274, manufactured at Steinway's factory in Hamburg, Germany cropped.jpg

Piano, Imperial Grand 249 strings[*]

97 courses

C0 C#0 D0 D#0 E0 F0 F#0 G0 G#0 A0 A#0 B0

[...] *C#7 D7 D#7 E7 F7 F#7 G7 G#7 A7 A#7 B7 C8

Imperial Grand, 290, Bösendorfer Austria * About 2/3 of courses are triple strung; some lower courses are double strung; the remaining bases are single strung. All multi-strung courses are tuned to unisons. Only lowest and highest octaves are shown; tuning of the intervening notes is chromatic. These extended-range pianos are very expensive and uncommon.
Pipa 4 strings

4 courses

A2 D3 E3 A3 Pi p'a China Бива.jpg
Portuguese guitar 12 strings

6 courses

  • Lisbon / Lisboa tuning:

D3 D2•A3 A2•B3 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3•B3 B3

  • Coimbra tuning:

C3 C2 • G3 G2 • A3 A2 • D3 D3 • G3 G3 • A3 A3

Guitarra Portuguesa Portugal Either tuning may be considered "standard". Portugueseguitarlisbon.jpg

Q[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Qinqin 3 strings

3 courses

G3 D4 A5 China Qinqinplayer.jpg

R[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Rajao 6 strings

5 courses

D4•G4•C4•E4•A4 (A4) Rajão Portugal Sometimes the top course is not doubled, so there are only 5 strings
Ramkie 4 strings

4 courses

C3 F3 A3 C4 Afri-can, Kitaar South Africa Typically these are homemade, and therefore quite variable. Ramkie.jpg
Rebab 2 strings

2 courses

D3 A3 Java Tuning given is approximate: does not follow western equal temperament COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een rebabspeler TMnr 60052115.jpg
Requinto 6 strings

6 courses

A2 D3 G3 C4 E4 A4 Requinto guitar Mexico 4th above the standard guitar
Ronroco 10 strings

5 courses

  • Argentine (G6/Em7):

D3 D3•G4 G4•B2 B3•E4 E4•B4 B4

  • Argentine Variant:

C3 C3•F4 F4•A2 A3•D4 D4•A4 A4

  • Bolivian (C6/Am7):

G3 G3•C4 C4•E4 E3•A3 A3•E4 E4

Ronrroco Andean Region In effect, a baritone charango. Bolivian tuning is one octave below the charango. Either tuning may be considered "standard".
Ruan 4 strings

4 courses

G2 D3 G3 D4 Ruanqin China
Russian guitar 7 strings

7 courses

Standard/Common:

D2 G2 B2 D3 G3 B3 D4

Alternate:

  • Gypsy: D2 G2 B2 G3 D3 C3 D4
semistrunnaya gitara, semistrunka Russia There are many variant tunings, mostly idiosyncratic to individual performers. Russian guitar front.jpg

S[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Sanshin 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

C3 • F3 • C4

Alternates:

  • Ichi-agi chōshi: E♭3 • F3 • C4
  • Ni-agi chōshi: C3 • G3 • C4
  • Ichi, ni-agi chōshi: D3 • G3 • C4
  • San-sage chōshi: C3 • F3 • B♭3
Okinawa shamisen, jabisen Ryukyu Islands, Japan Standard AKA Hon chōshi Sanshin.jpg
Santur 72 strings

18 courses 18 bridges 27 notes 25identical

Common (for Dastgāh-e Šur)

Golden strings (right)
EÞ3•F3•G3•AÞ3•B♭3•C4•D4•E♭4•F4
Silver strings (left)
EÞ4•F4•G4•AÞ4•B♭4•C5•D5•E♭5•F5
Silver strings (behind bridges)
EÞ5•F5•G5•AÞ5•B♭5•C6•D6•E♭6•F6

Iran,
Turkey
Santur1.jpg
Sanxian 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

A2 • D3 • A3

Alternate: D3 A3 D4

Sanhsien, Small Sanxian, Xianzi, Quxian, Shuxian, Chinese Banjo China Sanxian.gif
Sanxian, Large 3 strings

3 courses

G2 • D3 • G3

Sanhsien, Large Sanxian, Xianzi, Quxian, Shuxian, Chinese Banjo China Other size variants exist, but are uncommon.
Sarangi, Nepalese 4 strings

4 courses

G4•C5•C5•G5 Nepal Nepali sarangi.jpg
Sargija 6 strings

3 courses

C3 C3 • G3 G3 • D3 D3 Sharkia, Sharki, Shargija Albania
Seis Cinco 6 strings

5 courses

E3•A4 A3•D3•F#4•B4

Seis Cinco North-western Venezuela
Setar 4 strings

3 courses

C3 C4 • G3 • C4 Iran Setar.jpg
Shamisen 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

D G D

Alternates:

  • San sagari: D G C
  • Ni agari: D A D
Samisen, Sangen Japan Standard = "Honchoshi" tuning Shamisen.jpg
Sitar 7 strings

(3 are drones)


plus 13 sympathetic strings

C2 G4 C3 F3

drones: C5 C4 G5

North India 4th string can be tuned to C. Sympathetic (resonating) strings are tuned to the raga being played. Sitar full.jpg
Socavon 4 strings

4 courses

G3 D4 A4 B2 Bocona Panama
Strumstick 3 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

G3 D4 G4

Alternate:

  • F3 C4 F4
Dulcitar, Dulcimer stick, Strumbly, Standard Strumstick US Other sizes exist. General tuning is Root-5th-Octave, but the variations used are endless.

T[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Tambura 8 strings

4 courses

D3 D3 • G3 G3 • B3 B3 • E4 E4

Tamboura Bulgaria Tambura.jpg
Tambura 4 strings

4 courses

sol do' do' do*

Tanpura, Tampuri, Tamboura, Taanpura India *Classical Indian music has no absolute pitch. "Do" is tuned to a convenient note for any singers, or for the Raga being played, and the other strings are tuned relative to that reference. Tampuri.jpg
Tambura 4 strings

2 courses

D D • A A

Tamboura Macedonia
Tar 6 strings

2 courses

Common (for Dastgāh-e Šur)

C4 C4 • G3 G3 • C4 • C3

Iran Iranian tar.jpg
Tarica 5 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

C2 • G2 G2 • C3 C3

Alternate:

  • Ionian: D2 • A2 A2 • D3 D3
Tarika, Tricord, Trichord Europe Tarica1.jpg
Taropatch ( See Lili'u ) ( See Lili'u )
Tembor 5 strings

3 courses

A A•D•G G China
Terzin Kitarra 6 strings

6 courses

G#2 B2 E3 A3 C#4 E4

Malta
Timple 5 strings

5 courses

G4 C5 E4 A4 D5

Canary Island Tiple Canary Islands, Spain Timple Front.png
Tiple, American 10 strings

4 courses

A4 A3 • D4 D3 D4 • F#4 F#3 F#4 • B3 B3

Tiple ukulele, Martin Tiple US The D and F# are triple-strung; the other strings are paired. Martin tiple.jpg
Tiple, Colombian 12 strings

4 courses

Standard/Traditional:

C4 C3 C4 • E4 E3 E4 • A4 A3 A4 • D4 D4 D4

Alternate:

  • 'Guitar'/Modern G6: D4 D3 D4 • G4 G3 G4 • B4 B3 B4 • E4 E4 E4
Tiple Colombiano Colombia Triple strung Tiple.jpg
Tiple de Menorca 5 strings

5 courses

D4•G4•C5•E5•A5 Menorca, Spain
Tiple, Puerto Rican 5 strings

5 courses

E3 • A3 • D4 • G4 C5

Tiple Doliente Puerto Rico TipleDoliente.jpg
Tiple Requinto 12 strings

4 courses

Standard/Traditional:

C4 C4 C4 • E4 E4 E4 • A4 A4 A4 • D4 D4 D4

Alternate:

  • 'Guitar'/Modern G6: D4 D4 D4 • G4 G4 G4 • B4 B4 B4 • E4 E4 E4
Tiple Requinto Colombiano Colombia Triple strung: smaller than Tiple Colombiano, and central lower octave strings are replaced with unisons. Nicetiple.jpg
Trembulo 6 strings

4 courses

B3•E3•A4 A4•D4 D4 Fusao, Fusao Trembulo, Fusion Trembulo Portugal
Trembulo 8 strings

4 courses

* A4 A3•D4 D3•B4 B3•E4 E3
  • D4 D3•G4 G3•E4 E3•A4 A3
  • A4 A4•D4 D3•B4 B3•E4 E4
Portugal Any of the tunings may be considered "standard".
Tres,

Cuban

6 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

G4 G3• C4 C4• E3 E4

Alternate:

  • New D major:

A4 A3• D4 D4 • F#3 F#4

Tres, Tres Cubano Cuba Trescubano.jpg
Tres,

Puerto Rican

9 strings

3 courses

Standard/Common:

G4 G3 G4 • C4 C4 C4 • E4 E3 E4

Alternates:

  • G3 G4 G4 • C4 C4 C4 • E4 E4 E3
  • G4 G4 G3 • C4 C4 C4 • E3 E4 E4
Tres, Tres Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Note that alternates simply change the location of the octave doublings. Tres puertorriqueno.png
Tricordia 12 strings

4 courses

G2 G3 G3 • D3 D4 D4 • A3 A4 A4 • E4 E5 E5

Mandriola Mexico Although tuned differently from the mandriola, both instruments are known by both names Tricordia.jpg
Tzouras 6 strings

3 courses

D3 D4 • A3 A3 • D4 D4

6 strings/3 courses Tzouras Greece Tzouras.jpg

U[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Ukulele (Baritone) 4 strings

4 courses

D3 G3 B3 E4

Baritone Uke, Bari Uke Hawaii Same as 4 highest-pitched guitar strings.
Ukulele (Bass) 4 strings

4 courses

E1 A1 D2 G2

Bass Uke, Travel Bass, Rubber Bass, U-Bass US Same as bass guitar. A relatively new instrument that has to be amplified to be heard; tone is much like a double bass.
Ukulele, Concert 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

G4 C4 E4 A4

Alternate:

  • D6 or "soprano": A4 D4 F#4 B4
Uke Hawaii Often just a soprano uke with a slightly longer neck -- 15, 16 or 18 frets, as opposed to 12 or 13 frets.
Ukulele, Soprano 4 strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

A4 D4 F#4 B4

Alternate:

  • C6 or "concert": G4 C4 E4 A4
Uke Hawaii The standard, basic ukulele. Ukulele1.png
Ukulele, Tahitian 8 strings

4 courses

G4 G4 • C5 C5 • E5 E5 • A4 A4

Tahitian banjo, Tahitian Ukulele, Ukulélé Tahitien, Youke Tahiti Tahitian ukulele 1.jpg
Ukulele (Tenor) 4 strings

4 courses

G3 C4 E4 A4

Uke, Tenor Uke Hawaii 6- and 8- string versions exist. 6-string has the first (highest) and third courses doubled; paired strings are tuned in unison. For 8-string, see Taro Patch Mya-Moe mahogany ukulele rotated 90 degrees.jpg

V[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Veena 7 strings

7 courses

C3 • D3 • E3 • F3 • G3 • A3 • B3

Vina, Saraswati Veena; Sawaswati Vina South India Pitches are approximate: does not use the western equal tempered tuning system. Veena.png
Vihuela 5 strings

5 courses

A3 • D4 • G4 • B3 • E4

Mexico This is the modern Mariachi instrument. Vihuela also refers to many historic antecedents of the guitar, in various configurations, most of them currently obsolete. Vihuela Mexicana 001.JPG
Viol, alto 6 strings

6 courses

A2 D3 G3 B3 E4 A4

Europe
Viol, bass 6 strings

6 courses

D2 G2 C3 E3 A3 D4

Europe Gasparo da Salo bass viol.jpg
Viol, bass 7 strings

7 courses

A1 D2 G2 C3 E3 A3 D4

Europe Viola da gamba basso 7.jpg
Viol, contrabass 6 strings

6 courses

D1 G1 C2 E2 A2 D3

violone, D'violone Europe octave lower than the 6-string bass viol Violone.jpg
Viol, Tenor 6 strings

6 courses

G2 C3 F3 A3 D4 G4

Viol da Gamba, Viola da Gamba Europe
Viol, Treble 6 strings

6 courses

D3 G3 C4 E4 A4 D5

Europe
Viola 4 strings

4 courses

C3 G3 D4 A4

Europe Pitched a 5th below the violin. Viola.JPG
Viola Amarantina 10 strings

5 courses

D3 D2•A3 A2•B3 B2•E3 E3•A3 A3 Viola Aramante, Viola de dois coracois Amarante, Portugal Amarantina.png
Viola Beiroa 12 strings

7 courses

D3•D3•A3 A2•D3 D2•G3 G2•B3 B3•D3 D3 Portugal
Viola Braguesa 10 strings

5 courses

C4 C3•G4 G3•A4 A3•D4 D4•G4 G4

Viola Da Braga Portugal
Viola caipira 10 strings

5 courses

A3 A2 • D4 D2 • F#4 F#3 • A3 A3 • D4 D4

Viola de dez cordes, Viola sertaneja Brazil Brazdaviola.jpg
Viola Campaniça 10 strings

5 courses

C3 C2 • F3 F2 • C3 C3 • E3 E3 • G3 G3

Viola de Beja Portugal
Viola da Gamba See Viol, Tenor See Viol, Tenor
Viola Da Terra 12 strings

5 courses

A4 A4 A3•D4 D4 D3•G3 G3•B3 B3•D4 D4

Azores (Portugal)
Viola De Arame 9 strings

5 courses

G3 G2•D3 D2•G3 G3•B3•D3 D3

Viola de Madeira Madeira, Portugal
Viola de cocho 5 strings

5 courses

G3 • D3 • E3 • A3 • D4

Mato Grosso, South-western Brazil Veekola de cosho fon paraseela.jpg
Violao De Sete Cordas 7 strings

7 courses

Standard/Common:

C2•E2•A2•D3•G3•B3•E4

Alternate:

  • B2•E2•A2•D3•G3•B3•E4
Brazil
Viola Sertaneja 10 strings

5 courses

[*]

A3 A2•D4 D2•F#4 F#3•B3•A3 A3

A3•D4•G4 G4•B3•B3 B3 B3•E4 E4 E4

Viola Nordestina Brazil Two different arrangements are employed for the courses:

2-2-2-2-2 (1st tuning) or 1-1-2-3-3 (2nd tuning)

Viola Terceira 15 strings

6 courses

E3 E3 E2•A3 A3 A2•D3 D3 D2•G3 G2•B3 B3•E3 E3

Viola Da Terceira, Viola Terceirense Azores (Portugal)
Viola Toeira 12 strings

5 courses

A3 A3 A2 • D3 D3 D2 • G3 G2 • B3 B3 • E3 E3

Portugal
Violin 4 Strings

4 courses

G3 D4 A4 E5

Fiddle (colloquial) Lombardy For other tunings see fiddle Old violin.jpg
Violin, Tenor 4 Strings

4 courses

Standard/Common:

G2 D3 A3 E4

Alternate:

  • F2 C3 G3 D4
Tenor violin, baritone violin, violotta US Standard is one octave below the violin;

4th below the viola.

Rare.

W[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Walaycho 10 strings

5 courses

*Bolivian (F6):

C4 C4•F4 F4•A5 A4•D5 D5•A5 A5

  • Argentine (G6):

D4 D4•G4 G4•B5 B4•E5 E5•B5 B5

Waylacho, hualaycho, maulincho Andean region A soprano charango

F6 = 4th higher than the charango

G6 = 5th higher than the charango

Walaycho.jpg
Waldzither 9 strings

5 courses

Standard/Common:

C3•G3 G3•C4 C4•E4 E4•G4 G4

Alternate:

  • Open G major: G2•D3 D3•G3 G3•B3 B3•D4 D4
Forest zither Germany Hamburger waldzither.jpg

X[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Xenorphica 73 strings

73 courses

F1 F#2 G1 G#1 A1 A#1 B1 C2 C#2 D2 D#2 E2[...] *

F#6 G6 G#6 A6 A#6 B6 C7 C#7 D7 D#7 E7 F7

claviharp, harp piano,

keyed harp

Austria Only lowest and highest octaves are shown; tuning of the intervening notes is chromatic.

Rare.

Claviharp.png

Y[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Yayli Tambur 6 strings

3 courses

D2 D2•A2 A2•D3 D3

Yayli Tanbur Turkey
Yueqin 4 strings

4 courses

G3•D4•G4•D5

Yueh qin,

Yueh chin, Moon guitar

China Moon guitar.jpg
Yueqin,

Taiwanese

2 strings

2 courses

D3•A4

Yueh qin,

Yueh chin, Moon guitar

Taiwan

Z[edit]

Instrument Strings & Courses Tuning(s) Alternative Names Origin Notes Picture
Zheng 18 strings

18 courses

Common:

C2 D2 E2 G2 A2 C3 D4 E4 G4 A4 C4 D4 E4 G4 A4 C5 D5 E5

Guzheng, Gu Zheng, Pinyin China Tuning is not absolute, and is not limited by Western equal temperament.

Zhengs also come with varying numbers of strings, typically from 16-26; the pentatonic tuning is extended to accommodate these extra (high and low) strings.

Guzheng 02.jpg
Zhonghu 2 strings

2 courses

  • G3 D4
  • A3 E4
China Either tuning may be considered "standard".
Zither Alpine 5 fretted strings[*]

5 courses

plus

37 open accompaniment & bass strings

Fretted Strings Standard/Common:

A4 A4 D4 G3 C3

Alternate:

  • Vienna: A4 D4 G3 G3 C3

[See ZITHER TUNING CHART, below, for unfretted string tunings]

Alpine Zither, Harp Zither Austria, Germany, elsewhere. Standard Tuning AKA "Munich"

[*]

  • 5 fretted melody strings
  • 12 unfretted accompaniment strings
  • 12 unfretted bass strings
  • 13 unfretted contrabass strings
Alpine Zither 001.jpg
Zither, Concert 5 fretted strings[*]

5 courses

plus

29 - 30 open accompaniment & bass strings

Fretted Strings Standard/Common:

A4 A4 D4 G3 C3

Alternate:

  • Vienna: A4 D4 G3 G3 C3

[See ZITHER TUNING CHART, below, for unfretted string tunings]

Concert Zither, Fretted Zither America, Germany, elsewhere. Standard AKA "Munich"

[*]

  • 5 fretted melody strings
  • 12 unfretted accompaniment strings
  • 12 unfretted bass strings
  • up to 13 unfretted contrabass strings (5 or 6 is the most common)
2012-03-04-Trachselwald (Foto Dietrich Michael Weidmann) 002.JPG
Zither Guitar Varies Varied open string chord sets and chromatic or diatonic tuning of additional open strings. The string tuning is often printed on the instrument itself. See the picture. No frets nor fingerboard. Guitar zither, Chord zither, Fretless Zither Austria, Germany, elsewhere. May have from 12 to 50 strings, or more, depending on design
  • See also Autoharp which has diatonic and chromatic open strings, and a stop mechanism to produce chords.
Zither1 David Dupplaw.jpg

Zither Tuning Chart[edit]

Zither Tuning Chart
Fretted Accompaniment Basses Countrabasses
String 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
Pitch A4 A4 D4 G3 C3 Eb4 Bb3 F4 C4 G3 D4 A3 E4 B3 F#3 C#4 G#3 Eb4 Bb3 F4 C4 G3 D4 A3 E4 B3 F#3 C#4 G#3 F3 E3 Eb3 D3 C#3 C3 B2 Bb2 A2 G#2 G2 F#2 F2
A4 D4 G3 G3 C3 NOTE: Unfretted string #6 is closest to fretted string #5. Concert Alpine

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Marcuse, Sibyl; Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary; W. W. Norton & Company (1975).
  2. ^ Randel, Don Michael, Ed.; The New Harvard Dictionary of Music; Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1986). p. 211.
  3. ^ Backus, John; The Acoustical Foundations of Music; New York: W. W. Norton & Company (1975).
  4. ^ Ibid. p. 60-61.
  5. ^ http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lmcpvhDYxr1qb1o6yo1_400.jpg
  6. ^ http://api.ning.com/files/rKOLpnVd66P9W54bZUwf8KBJlcpNm4aYsDHWu847NEtLkctOqUmQ8hIL27uPmVDwaiJPsWe9jtLliYuroZRVYrDfkj74E0yc/bassbanjo3001.JPG
  7. ^ http://www.cuatro-pr.org/node/70
  8. ^ Ibid.
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ Ibid.
  11. ^ See for Example: Hanson, Mark; The Complete Book of Alternate Tunings; West Linn, Oregon: Accent of Music. (1995)
  12. ^ Smith, Eric; Piano Care & Restoration; Blue Ridge Summit, Penn.: TAB Books, Inc. (1981). p. 60.

References[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]