Struthio

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Struthio
Temporal range: Miocene-Holocene, 23–0Ma
Ostriches cape point cropped.jpg
Common ostrich (Struthio camelus), male and female
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Superorder: Palaeognathae
Order: Struthioniformes
Family: Struthionidae
Genus: Struthio
Linnaeus, 1758[1]
Type species
Struthio camelus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

Struthio coppensi
Struthio linxiaensis
Struthio orlovi
Struthio wimani
Struthio brachydactylus
Struthio asiaticus Asian ostrich
Struthio dmanisensis
Struthio oldawayi
Struthio molybdophanes Somali ostrich
Struthio camelus Common ostrich

Struthio is a genus of bird in the order Struthioniformes.

Species[edit]

There are ten known species from this genus, of which eight are extinct. There are five more possible species of which trace fossils have been found. They are:

Fossil records and egg shell fragments show that the ancestors of this genus originated about 40-58 million years ago (mya) in the Asiatic steppes as small flightless birds. The earliest fossils from this genus are from the early Miocene (20-25mya), and are from Africa, so it is proposed that they originated there. Then by the middle to late Miocene (5-13mya) they had spread to Eurasia.[3] By about 12 mya they had evolved into the larger size of which we are familiar. By this time they had spread to Mongolia and, later, South Africa.[4]

Evolution[edit]

The genus Struthio used to include the Emu, Rhea, and also the Cassowary, until they each were placed in their own genera.[1] The Somali ostrich, Struthio molybdophanes, has recently become recognized as a separate species by some authorities, while others are still reviewing the information.[5][6]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gray, G.R. (1855)
  2. ^ Lisa Janz et al, Dating North Asian surface assemblages with ostrich eggshell: implications for palaeoecology and extirpation. Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 2009, Pages 1982–1989; also J. G. Andersson, Essays on the cenozoic of northern China. In: Memoirs of the Geological Survey of China (Peking), Series A, No. 3 (1923), pp. 1-152, especially pp. 53-77: "On the occurrence of fossil remains of Struthionidae in China."; and J. G. Andersson, Research into the prehistory of the Chinese. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 15 (1943), 1-300, plus 200 plates.
  3. ^ Hou, L. et al. (2005)
  4. ^ Davies, S.J.J.F. (2003)
  5. ^ Gil, F. & Donsker D. (2012)
  6. ^ Birdlife International (2012)

References[edit]

  • Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003). "Ostriches". In Hutchins, Michael. Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia 8 (2nd ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. p. 99. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0. 
  • Gill, F.; Donsker, D (2012). "Ratites". IOC World Bird List. WorldBirdNames.org. Retrieved 13 Jun 2012. 
  • Hou, L.; Zhou, Z.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Z. (Aug 2005). "A Miocene ostrich fossil from Gansu Province, northwest China". Chinese Science Bulletin 50 (16): 1808–1810. doi:10.1360/982005-575. ISSN 1861-9541. 
  • Janz, Lisa, et al. Dating North Asian surface assemblages with ostrich eggshell: Implications for palaeoecology and extirpation. Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 2009, Pages 1982–1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.05.012