|Pedagogy of the Oppressed|
Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centered education, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student. In original usage, student-centered learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence  by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students. Student-centered instruction focuses on skills and practices that enable lifelong learning and independent problem-solving. Student-centered learning theory and practice are based on the constructivist learning theory that emphasizes the learner's critical role in constructing meaning from new information and prior experience.
Student-centered learning puts students' interests first, acknowledging student voice as central to the learning experience. In a student-centered classroom, students choose what they will learn, how they will learn, and how they will assess their own learning. This is in contrast to traditional education, also dubbed "teacher-centered learning", which situates the teacher as the primarily "active" role while students take a more "passive", receptive role. In a teacher-centered classroom, teachers choose what the students will learn, how the students will learn, and how the students will be assessed on their learning. In contrast, student-centered learning requires students to be active, responsible participants in their own learning and with their own pace of learning.
Usage of the term "student-centered learning" may also simply refer to educational mindsets or instructional methods that recognize individual differences in learners. In this sense, student-centered learning emphasizes each student's interests, abilities, and learning styles, placing the teacher as a facilitator of learning for individuals rather than for the class as a whole.
Theorists like John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky, whose collective work focused on how students learn, have informed the move to student-centered learning. Carl Rogers' ideas about the formation of the individual also contributed to student-centered learning. Rogers wrote that "the only learning which significantly influences behavior [and education] is self discovered". Maria Montessori was also a forerunner of student-centered learning, where preschool children learn through independent self-directed interaction with previously presented activities.
Self-determination theory focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behavior is self-motivated and 'self-determined'. When students are given the opportunity to gauge their learning, learning becomes an incentive.
Student-centered learning means inverting the traditional teacher-centered understanding of the learning process and putting students at the centre of the learning process. In the teacher-centered classroom, teachers are the primary source for knowledge. On the other hand, in student-centered classrooms, active learning is strongly encouraged. Armstrong (2012) claimed that "traditional education ignores or suppresses learner responsibility".
A further distinction from a teacher-centered classroom to that of a student-centered classroom is when the teacher acts as a facilitator, as opposed to instructor. In essence, the teacher’s goal in the learning process is to guide students into making new interpretations of the learning material, thereby 'experiencing' content, reaffirming Rogers' notion that "significant learning is acquired through doing".
Through peer-to-peer interaction, collaborative thinking can lead to an abundance of knowledge. In placing a teacher closer to a peer level, knowledge and learning is enhanced, benefitting the student and classroom overall. According to Lev Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) theory, students typically learn vicariously through one another. Scaffolding is important when fostering independent thinking skills. Vygotsky proclaims, "Learning which is oriented toward developmental levels that have already been reached is ineffective from the view point of the child's overall development. It does not aim for a new stage of the developmental process but rather lags behind this process."
One of the most critical differences between student-centered learning and teacher-centered learning is in assessment. Student-centered learning typically involves more formative assessment and less summative assessment than teacher-centered learning. In student-centered learning, students participate in the evaluation of their learning. This means that students are involved in deciding how to demonstrate their learning. Developing assessment that supports learning and motivation is essential to the success of student-centered approaches.
Application to higher education
The student-centered learning environment has been shown to be effective in higher education.
- Analysis of good practice by award-winning teachers, in all faculties, to show that, they made use of active forms of student learning.
- Subsequent use the analysis to promote wider use of good practice.
- A compulsory teacher training course for new junior teachers, which encouraged student-centered learning.
- Projects funded through teaching development grants, of which 16 were concerned with the introduction of active learning experiences.
- A program-level quality enhancement initiative which utilized a student survey to identify strengths and potential areas for improvement.
- Development of a model of a broadly based teaching and learning environment inﬂuencing the development of generic capabilities, to provide evidence of the need for an interactive learning environment.
- The introduction of program reviews as a quality assurance measure.
The success of this initiative was evaluated by surveying the students. After two years the mean ratings indicating the students' perception of the quality of the teaching and learning environment at the university all rose significantly. The study is one of many examining the process of implementing student-centered pedagogies in large institutions of higher education.
- Constructivism (learning theory)
- Educational progressivism
- Experiential education
- Project-based learning
- Philosophy of education
- Public sphere pedagogy
- Purpose-centered education
- Reggio Emilia approach
- Standards based education reform
- Student voice
- Sudbury model of democratic education
- Traditional education
- Jones, Leo. (2007). The Student-Centered Classroom. Cambridge University Press.
- Rogers, C. R. (1983). Freedom to Learn for the 80's. New York: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, A Bell & Howell Company.
- Pedersen, S., & Liu, M. (2003). Teachers’ beliefs about issues in the implementation of a student-centered learning environment. Educational Technology Research and Development, 51(2), 57-76.
- Hannafin, M. J., & Hannafin, K. M. (2010). Cognition and student-centered, web-based learning: Issues and implications for research and theory. In Learning and instruction in the digital age (pp. 11-23). Springer US.
- Young, Lynne E.; Paterson, Barbara L. (2007). Teaching Nursing: Developing a Student-centered Learning Environment. p. 5. ISBN 078175772X.
- Johnson, Eli (2013). The Student Centered Classroom: Vol 1: Social Studies and History. p. 19. ISBN 1317919491.
- Student-Centered Learning. (2014). Education Reform Glossary. http://edglossary.org/student-centered-learning/
- Kraft, R. G. (1994). Bike riding and the art of learning. In L. B. Barnes, C. Roland Christensen, & A. J. Hansen (Eds.), Teaching and the case method. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, Pg. 41
- Armstrong 2012, p. 2.
- Vygotsky, L.S. (1980). Mind in Society. p. 89. ISBN 0674076699.
- Crumly, Cari (2014). Pedagogies for Student-Centered Learning: Online and On-Ground. p. 26. ISBN 1451489536.
- Crumly 2014, p. 26.
- Jahnke, Isa (2012). "A Way Out of the Information Jungle". In Coakes, Elayne. Technological Change and Societal Growth: Analyzing the Future. p. 182. ISBN 1466602015.
- Wright, Gloria Brown (2011). "Student-Centered Learning in Higher Education". International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 23 (3): 93–94. ISSN 1812-9129.
- Kember 2009, pp. 10,12.
- Kember 2009, p. 12.
- Geven, K.; Attard, A. (2012). "Time for Student-Centred Learning?". In Curaj, Adrian; Scott, Peter; Vlasceanu, Laz?r. European Higher Education at the Crossroads. ISBN 9400739370.
- J.S., Armstrong (2012). "Natural Learning in Higher Education". Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Heidelberg: Springer.
- Kember, David (2009). "Promoting student-centred forms of learning across an entire university". Higher Education 58 (1): 1–13.
- A paper from the Teaching and Learning Forum 2000 titled: "Student-centred learning: Is it possible?"
- "Student-Centered Learning Environments: How and Why"