Student affairs

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Headquarters of the Japan Student Services Organization in Tokyo.

Student affairs, student support, or student services is the department or division of services and support for students at institutions of higher education to enhance student growth and development in the United States and abroad.[1] People who work in this field are known as student affairs practitioners or student affairs professionals. These student affairs practitioners work to provide services and support for students at institutions of higher education.[1]

The size and organization of a student affairs division or department may vary based on the size, type, and location of an institution. The title of the head of student affairs also varies widely; traditionally in the United States, this position has been known as the "dean of students", as distinguished from the academic dean or the deans of individual schools with in a university. In some institutions today, student affairs departments are led by a vice president or vice chancellor who then reports directly to the president/chancellor of the institution. In other cases the head of student affairs may report to the provost or academic dean.

History of student affairs[edit]

Although institutions of higher education have had to deal with student affairs in some way for as long as they have existed, student affairs as a distinct professional field emerged first in the Anglo-American context in the late 19th century.[2] There it developed from the originally distinct positions of "dean of women" and "dean of men". The field developed much later in continental Europe, where development first began in the 1950s[3] but was greatly spurred when the Bologna Process in the 1990s created a surge in international students with greater needs for student support.[4] Similarly in many other countries where student affairs is still a largely inchoate profession, such as Uruguay, professional activity in the field has emerged in relation to the needs of international students.[5]

South Africa[edit]

Student affairs did not become a unitary profession in South Africa until the end of apartheid in 1994.[6] As in other countries of sub-Saharan Africa, South African universities have broadly followed an American model of student affairs administration.[7] Difficulties in the implementation of student affairs principles from developed countries has been characterized as due to South Africa's status as a developing country.[8]

United Kingdom[edit]

Student affairs draws its origins on the Oxbridge model and the Anglo-American concept that schools stand in loco parentis, creating a greater legal obligation for the university to govern student life.[9] However, professional student affairs administration in the United Kingdom is of relatively recent date: student affairs departments became a feature of all United Kingdom universities in 1992, having previously been widespread only in the new universities.[10]

United States[edit]

Idealized depiction of student life from a 1960 Shimer College handbook.

The profession of student affairs "grew from the campus up, not from theory down".[11] Early higher education in the United States was based on the Oxbridge model of education; thus, most early institutions were residential and the tutors lived in the halls with the students. These men were the precursor to student affairs professionals in the United States. Typically, they served as dean of disclipline and in loco parentis (in place of the parent). These early student affairs practitioners focus was on control of the student as opposed to modern philosophy which focuses on the development of the student as a whole, but has always connected those interested in the welfare of students with students needing assistance.[11]

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as the number of land-grant institutions increased, enrollment expanded, student populations began to include women, the idea of vocationalism began to influence academics and the institution's president began to be viewed as "the chief moral front".[12] With these changes it became apparent that additional staff members were needed to allow the president to respond to the issues of finance and faculty recruitment.

These first student affairs professionals were the dean of women, dean of men and personnel workers. Many of the early deans came from "teaching roles in the liberal arts".[13] Cowley (1937) identified the first Dean of Men as LeBaron Russell Briggs at Harvard University in 1890, with the first dean of women being Adelia Johnston in 1869 at the Oberlin College as lady principal and later named Dean of Women in 1894.[14] Alice Freeman Palmer in 1892 at the University of Chicago was the first to hold the title of Dean of Women.

The Dean of Men's position typically included discipline, but could vary depending on the institution's overall philosophy. The position description might have read, "that officer in the administration who undertakes to assist the men students [to] achieve the utmost of which they are individually capable, through personal effort on their behalf, and through mobilizing in their behalf all the forces within the University which can be made to serve this end".[15] The one thing that remained consistent was the responsibility to deal with men and help them develop to their potential.[16]

Deans of Women were trail blazers as women in positions of authority. Not only were women at colleges and universities a new development, but women as staff members even more new. The institutional leadership was dominated by men, but still they persevered including the founding of what is now the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1903.

In December 1918 Robert Rienow, the dean of men at the University of Iowa, wrote a letter to Thomas Arkle Clark, dean of men at the University of Illinois, suggesting a meeting that is now recognized as the founding of the organization now known as NASPA - Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education.[17]

In 1924, May L. Cheney, who organized a teacher placement office at the University of California, Berkeley helped form the National Association of Appointment Secretaries (NAAS). That year, NAAS met for the first time and came as guests of the National Association of Deans of Women (NADW) to a convention sponsored by the Department Superintendence of the National Education Association. In 1929, forty-six NAAS members registered for the Sixth Annual Convention. NAAS became the National Association of Personnel and Placement Officers (NAPPO). The name American College Personnel Association (ACPA) was adopted in 1931. Association communication consisted of one mailed newsletter, the Personnel-O-Gram (P-O-G). In 1937, the Student Personnel Point of View statement was developed by leaders of the American Council on Education (ACE) and ACPA.

The Student Personnel Points of View, written in 1937 and 1949, further developed the area of student affairs.

In the 1960s the student development movement, the study of the student as a whole - physical, mental and emotional, was introduced.

In the 1970s the landscape of student affairs began to change when the voting age was lowered and 18 year olds were granted adult status in the eyes of the law. [18][19][20]

In the United States as early as 1992, student affairs began to see a change in the reporting structure (Barr, Desler, & Associates, p. 125). Chief student affairs officers began to shift to the Provost, the chief academic officer.

Student affairs professionals[edit]

People who work in the field of student affairs may be known as student affairs practitioners, student affairs staff, or university administrators. These practitioners work provide services and support for students at institutions of higher education.[1][21]

Student affairs professionals are charged with the tasks of working in the various areas or in specific services for students. Sometimes given the goal of developing programming, advising student organizations and student leaders and conducting research to meet the needs of the whole student – physical, emotional and mental. Challenges in meeting this goal include the budget, staffing of students at colleges and universities.[1][22]

Preparation for student affairs[edit]

Main article: Graduate assistant

Some student affairs practitioners and college student personnel have completed graduate work with a complementary assistantship. An assistantship can be an entry level position, but is usually a part-time paraprofessional position with compensation including tuition waiver, professional development and a stipend. These are sometimes called graduate assistant positions. The graduate program is usually two academic years of full-time study with opportunities for internship and abroad opportunities. Universities offer graduate programs sometimes called College Student Personnel, Higher Education Student Affairs, or Educational Leadership which lead to a Master of Education (M.Ed) or Master of Arts (M.A) degree, or Master of Science (M.S.) degree. Doctoral programs also exist for student affairs professionals, leading to a Ed.D. or Ph.D..[23][24]

Student Affairs Personnel or College Student Personnel (CSP) graduate programs may include classes in psychology, business, law, communication, inter and intra-personal counseling, higher education, and group dynamics. These help to form a foundation for creating relationships with students, faculty, staff and parents. CSP programs tend to be found in departments of leadership, counseling, psychology and education. Traditionally these programs have an emphasis in administration, student development theory or counseling. [18][25]

Developmental theories used in college student personnel programs include

  • Chickering's Seven Vectors
  • Astin's Theory of Involvement
  • Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella and Osteen's Leadership Identity Development
  • Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
  • Erikson's Developmental Theory of Gay Development
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  • Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Erikson's Theory of Human Development
  • Tinto's Model of Student Retention

Areas[edit]

The Handbook of Student Affairs Administration and professional associations, NASPA and ACPA, identify typical departments within a division of Student Affairs. Departments may overlap or combined into one office, especially at smaller institutions.[26] Some departments can include:

  • Academic services
  • Academic advising the office or department providing student academic services related to course selection, finding a major, study skills, and referrals to tutoring and academic success skills[26]
  • Academic success skills/tutoring the office providing intensive tutoring and academic success skill interventions with math, science, writing, and other academic subjects
  • Assessment and research focused on assessment, program evaluation, and research implementation in student services and other academic departments for both accreditation and continual improvement of student services and academic departments
  • Higher Education Opportunity Programs (HEOP)/Summer Bridge are programs designed to support low-income, first-generation students, including students of color, in intensive academic advising and support either in the summer prior to enrollment and during the regular school year to increase graduation rates and close the attainment gap for poor/working class students and students of color.
  • Admissions, enrollment, financial aid, orientation
  • Admissions Recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students (often separate offices) from first point-of-contact such as high school visits or college fairs to answering student and family admissions questions, to monitoring submission of applications, to reading applications and making admissions decision recommendations in collaboration with faculty,[26]
  • Enrollment management may include Financial Aid, Bursar and Registrar.[26] It can also relate to all aspects of incoming students and services provided to them
  • Financial aid assists students in college affordability including the difference between grants, scholarships, work-study, and loans; processing federal and state aid, payment plans; minimizing debt and understanding how student loans cannot be discharged; the benefits of federal versus private loans; loan repayment plans and employers/careers that will reimburse tuition and/or pay off student loans[26]
  • Orientation and First-Year Experience provides support and programming for first-year and transfer students, usually includes orientation and may include family relations[26]
  • Alumni and advancement/development
  • Alumni services focuses on graduated students' interests, needs, activities, and information, as well as fundraising [26]
  • Development/Advancement services Development or advancement of the college/university mission through fund-raising including capital campaigns and lobbying work with legislatures in public colleges and universities to provide greater support for public education [26]
  • Campus life
  • Campus safety may be law enforcement officers who provide intervention and prevention for campus crime including annual campus crime reporting and campus programs for public safety [26]
  • Community Service engage students in on- and off-campus community service and experiential learning opportunitiesService Learning[26]
  • Commuter/Off-campus student services provides services for students living off-campus including social programs, transitions, transportation, housing, and dining options,[26]
  • Greek affairs includes advising governing councils and recruitment and leadership programs for new and initiated members[26]
  • Judicial affairs or student conduct office enforces community standards and campus codes of conduct, may include ethical and legal programs/education and mediation for academic and behavioral student concerns and referrals and collaboration with outside police agencies [26]
  • Leadership programs provide leadership opportunities including Student Government[26]
  • Student activities provides co-curricular programming and advises student organizations and student government. It may include Student Activity Board, student government, and student activity fee disbursement.[26]
  • Union/Student center operates the student activities center/facility and may include food services/catering or other auxiliary services.
  • Veteran's affairs provides programs and support for Armed Forces members who have returned to college.
  • Counseling, health, and wellness
  • Career development or Career Services includes career education, career development, career counseling, job fairs, resume and cover letter workshops, mock interviews, interview placement, internships with employers, and coursework advising needed for graduate/professional programs [26]
  • Counseling center provides individual, group and sometimes couple/family counseling, consultation, crisis, and prevention/intervention services for academic, career, and social/emotional/mental health issues by licensed mental health counselors, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists counseling staff
  • Health services provides medical and/or mental health care, counseling, and consultation, and public health education for individuals and groups [26]
  • Wellness education provides services and information on personal wellness including anti-violence education, alcohol and other drug abuse and prevention, nutrition, and finances.
  • Diversity and inclusion
  • Disability support services includes providing accommodations and advocacy for students with developmental, emotional, intellectual, learning, and physical disabilities. This office advocates for policies and services relating to accessibility and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990[26]
  • International student services/study abroad programs assist and support international students who are not citizens with visas, homesickness, linguistic and cultural transitions, and can include programs for citizens who seek Study or Education Abroad programs [26]
  • Multicultural services provides support and programs to create an environment of respect and affirmation for students and staff of multiple cultural identities. Offices may include African and African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/a, Native American Indian, and Multiracial Student services, programs, and supports; a Women’s Center, programs, and supports, and a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Center, programs, and supports.
  • Spirituality, faith-based and religious services provide a variety of supports for a range of belief systems at both public and independent institutions
  • Residence life
  • Residence life provides housing, programs, and academic and personal/social support including resident assistants/hall directors for on-campus undergraduate and graduate residents living in traditional residence halls, suites, or apartments, and may include food services[26]
  • Dining and food services may be auxiliary or part of the student Union and includes meal plans, meal plan options, campus restaurants, and catering services for student events [26]
  • Sports and recreation
  • Athletics includes student services for student athletes in four-year college and university Division I, II, II athletics and Community College athletics including advising, monitoring, and support of student scholarships and student academic, career, and personal-social development [26]
  • Recreation and fitness programs or Campus Recreation, provides recreational activities such as campus fitness centers that include noncompetitive recreation (weight rooms, pools, exercise equipment and noncredit classes) as well as intramural sports, club sports, and outdoor activities for promoting wellness[26]

Professional organizations[edit]

There are numerous professional organizations for student affairs at the national, regional, and international levels. In addition, many student affairs professionals participate in associations that are either more general (embracing higher education administrators generally) or specific to a particular sub-field such as residence life or student health. At the international level, professional organizations for student affairs include the International Association of Student Affairs and Services, which was established in 2010.[27]

In Europe, international cooperation among student affairs professionals is facilitated by the European Council for Student Affairs (ECStA), based in Brussels. Founded in 1999, ECStA traces it origins to a series of conferences of student affairs professionals held in the 1990s.[28] ECStA deals with a number of issues that are unique to European higher education, such as ensuring international student mobility within Europe under the Bologna Process.[28]

In the Asia-Pacific region, the major international student affairs organization is the Asia Pacific Student Services Association (APSSA), based in Hong Kong. APSSA was established in 1988, and holds regular staff and student conferences.[29] Countries represented among APSSA member institutions include Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and the United States.[30]

In the United States, large organizations include National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA).[31] NASPA members are committed to serving college students by embracing the core values of diversity, learning, integrity, collaboration, access, service, fellowship, and the spirit of inquiry.[31] As well, there are publications that relate to the Student Affairs field such as the Journal of College Student Development and The Chronicle of Higher Education.[32] While large organizations exists there are smaller organizations and publications that represent various smaller departments or divisions in Student Affairs. For example in Residence life, university departments have a national organization association called the Association of College and University Housing Officers - International (ACUHO-I).[33] ACUHO-I also publishes a peer-reviewed journal (The Journal of College and University Student Housing) twice a year and publishes a magazine (Talking Stick).

Criticism[edit]

The field of student affairs has been criticized for its emphasis on formal, professional training, calling into question whether the field is theoretical or practical.[citation needed] Complicating this criticism is the question of the role of student development theories in student affairs practice. It is claimed that student development theories are used to “proactively identify and address student needs, design programs, develop policies, and create healthy...environments that encourage positive growth in students.”[34] Yet, student affairs practices often bear little resemblance or connection to student development theories. As Paul Bloland (1979) wrote in an article in the NASPA Journal, “We have cultivated an expertise that was not requested, is not sought out, and for which there is little recognition or demand. Many entry-level and (many) seasoned professionals know little of student development theory and practice and, in fact, do not really need such expertise to meet the role expectations of their supervisors or, in too many instances, their institutions.” [35]

Another debate has centered on the degree to which available postgraduate programs actually represent a distinct discipline. While the field bears a resemblance to psychology, counseling, and other general concentrations, debate and criticism of the field's major foundations are virtually nonexistent in theoretical discourse, calling into question the academic credibility of the field. As Bloland, Stamatakos, and Russell wrote, while student development theory “...has been widely distributed through the literature, in preparation programs, at workshops and conventions,” academics and professionals in the field have, “...failed to exercise their critical faculties to raise questions about student development, to slow down the head-long pace of its engulfment of the field of student affairs, and to examine alternatives and opinions as they presented themselves.”[36]

See also[edit]

Works cited[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "NASPA Career in student affairs". NASPA Career in student affairs. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  2. ^ Deardorff, Darla K.; de Wit, Hans; Heyl, John D. (2012). The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education. p. 237. ISBN 9781412999212. 
  3. ^ Schreiber 2014, p. 13.
  4. ^ Deardorff 2012, p. 237-238.
  5. ^ Ludeman 2009, p. 297.
  6. ^ Speckman, McGlory; Mandew, Martin, eds. (2014). "Introduction". Perspectives on Student Affairs in South Africa. p. 1. ISBN 1920677445. 
  7. ^ Schreiber, Birgit (2014). "Key challenges facing Student Affairs: An international perspective". In Speckman et al. Perspectives on Student Affairs in South Africa. ISBN 1920677445. 
  8. ^ Schreiber 2014, p. 11.
  9. ^ Deardorff 2010, p. 237.
  10. ^ Ludeman 2009, p. 288.
  11. ^ a b Cowley, p. 4.
  12. ^ Cowley, p. 6.
  13. ^ Cowley, p. 8.
  14. ^ http://www.oberlin.edu/library/art/exhibits/johnston/struggle.html
  15. ^ Secretarial Notes, 1928, p. 37
  16. ^ Cowley, p. 9.
  17. ^ NASPA History. NASPA. Retrieved on 2008-6-26.
  18. ^ a b Rhatigan, James J. (2000). The Handbook of Student Affairs Administration, The History and Philosophy of Student Affairs (2 ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 3–13. 
  19. ^ Cowley, W.J. (1934a). The History of Student Residential Housing, School and Society (40 (1040) ed.). pp. 705–712, 758–764. 
  20. ^ Lucas, Christopher J. (March 2006). American Higher Education, Second Edition: A History (2 ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. 
  21. ^ "Student Affairs professionals". Student Affairs professionals. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  22. ^ "ACPA Student affairs professional goals". Student affairs professional goals. 
  23. ^ "Student affairs educational degrees". Student affairs educational degrees. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  24. ^ "careers in student affairs". careers in student affairs. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  25. ^ Evans, Nancy J.; Forney, Deanna S.; Guido, Florence M.; Patton, Lori D.; Renn, Kristen A. (December 2009). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice (2 ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Dungy, Gwendolyn Jordan; Komives, Susan R; Woodard, Dudley B, Jr. (2003). Student Services: A Handbook for the Profession, chapter: Organizations and Functions of Student Affairs (4 ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 339–357. ISBN 978-0-7879-6050-6. 
  27. ^ "History". International Association of Student Affairs and Services. Retrieved 2015-01-16. 
  28. ^ a b "About Us". European Council for Student Affairs. Retrieved 2015-01-16. 
  29. ^ "About Us". Asia Pacific Student Services Association. Retrieved 2015-01-16. 
  30. ^ "Membership" (PDF) (PDF). 2014. Retrieved 2015-01-16. 
  31. ^ a b "About NASPA". NASPA. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  32. ^ "Education: The Candid Chronicle". Time. May 13, 1974. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  33. ^ "ACUHO-I". ACUHO-I. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  34. ^ Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., and Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998) Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp 5.
  35. ^ Bloland, P.A. (1979) “Student personnel training for the chief student affairs officer: Essential or unnecessary?” NASPA Journal, 17(2), 57-62.
  36. ^ Bloland, Paul, Stamatakos, Louis, Rogers, Russell, & Clearinghouse, ERIC. (1994). Reform in student affairs. Caps Press. pp 14, 11.

External links[edit]