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Student nations or simply nations (Latin: natio meaning "being born") are regional corporations of students at a university. Once widespread across Europe in medieval times, they are now largely restricted to the ancient universities of Sweden and Finland. The students, who were all born within the same region, usually spoke the same language, and expected to be ruled by their own familiar law. The most similar comparison in the Anglo-world to the nation system is in the collegiate system of older British universities or fraternities at American universities; however, both of these comparisons are imperfect. In Portugal and Brazil, there are fraternities called Repúblicas, but this has nothing to do with the natio original concept of nations (they are created for lodgement purposes).
Examples in medieval universities
University of Paris
In the University of Paris there were the French, Normans, Picards, and the English, and later the Alemannian nation. Jean Gerson was twice elected procurator for the French natio (i.e. the French-born students at the University) in 1383 and 1384, while studying theology at Paris. Also at Paris, Germanic speakers were grouped into a single nation.
University of Leipzig
There were also smaller subdivisions, even cities, like Natio Misnensium for students from Meissen at the University of Leipzig, established in 1409, where other nationes were those of the Saxonum, Bavarorum, and Polonorum.
University of Prague
A similar division of students had been adopted at the Charles University in Prague, where from its opening in 1347 the studium generale was divided among Bohemian, Bavarian, Saxon, and Polish nations. When there was not a "natio" of a given nationality, students were assigned to another nation.
University of Bologna
At the University of Bologna, Nicolaus Copernicus in 1496 enrolled into the Natio Germanorum (Natio of the Germans). a privileged university organization that included German-speaking students from many regions of Europe.
University of Padua
Students in the University of Padua were divided in 22 nations, which referred to the different territories ruled by the Republic of Venice, to the biggest states of Italy, and to the main states of Europe. Nations were: German (also called Alemannian), Bohemian, Hungarian, Provençal, Burgundian, Spanish, Polish, English, Scottish, Venetian, Overseas (Venetian Greek Islands), Lombard (East Lombardy and West Veneto), Trevisan (North and East Veneto), Friulian, Dalmatian, Milanese, Roman, Sicilian, Anconitan, Tuscan, Piedmontese and Genoan.
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In Finland, student nations (Finnish: osakunnat) exist at the University of Helsinki and Aalto University School of Science and Technology, where they are legally-sanctioned and established in the mid-1600s and 1800s, respectively. Named after regions in Finland, students had to join according to their own geographical roots before membership became voluntary in 1937. Today, students can usually choose to join any nation. Both, Finnish and Swedish speaking nations exist. Organizations termed nations exist also at other universities, although they are legally considered associations. In Finland, student nations co-exist with a wide range of other student organizations, such as Student Unions.
Nations exist in some of the ancient universities in Scotland, although their significance has largely been forgotten. Nations never existed at the University of Edinburgh, and were abolished at St Andrews following discussions at the Royal Commission on the Universities of Scotland, which later led to the Universities (Scotland) Acts. Student nations continued into modern times at the University of Aberdeen and the University of Glasgow for the specific purpose of electing a Rector of the university.
At the Swedish universities of Uppsala and Lund, a system of student nations (nationer) remains, and until the summer of 2010 each student at the university were forced to enroll in a nation. It is now voluntary, but still most of the students choose to remain members. The nations are named on regional lines, where the nations in Lund take their names from provinces and areas in southern Sweden, and those in Uppsala take their names from all over Sweden, except for the Scanian lands, the traditional catchment area for Lund, which was founded in 1666 to provide higher education for the youth in the newly conquered areas. (Until 2010, there was a "Skånelandens nation" in Uppsala, but it had no activity, and only existed as a legal fiction for those students who did not wish to take part in the activities of the other nations.)
Traditionally, students were required to be members of the nations whose area one came from, but with one exception (Södermanland-Nerikes nation at Uppsala, though international students are an exception to this), this requirement is now voided. The nations are in charge of the kinds of social activities which are at other universities normally handled by the student unions, such as bars, clubs, theatre companies, orchestras, sports societies, and also some housing.
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- Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, (1879). A Latin Dictionary. Entry for natio. Online at 
- Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Nation". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Miscellanea Scotica.: A Collection of Tracts Relating to the History
- Historical Tales of the Wars of Scotland, and of the Border Raids
- Abhandlungen der sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
- "Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig ... - Google Books". Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- Nicolaus Copernicus et al.: "Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Documenta Copernicana I.: Briefe, Texte und Übersetzungen", 1996, p. 39
- Arthur Koestler, "The Sleepwalkers", 1968, p. 129
- Pierre Gassendi, Oliver Thill: "The Life of Copernicus (1473-1543)", 2002, p. 37
- "Although great importance has frequently been ascribed to this fact, it does not by any means imply that Copernicus ever considered himself to be a German. The 'nationes' of a medieval university had nothing in common with nations in the modern sense of the word. Students who were natives of Prussia and Silesia were automatically described as belonging to the Natio Germanorum. Furthmore, at Bologna, this was the 'privileged' nation" Alexandre Koyre: Astronomical Revolution, Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli. Cornell University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-486-27095-5, 21 pp. ()
- "It is important to recognize, however, that the medieval Latin concept of natio, or "nation," referred to the community of feudal lords both in Germany and elsewhere, not to "the people" in the nineteenth-century democratic or nationalistic sense of the word." Lonnie Johnson: Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends. Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-19-510071-9, 23 pp. ()
- Università degli Studi di Padova - Archivio Generale di Ateneo - ARCHIVIO ANTICO - Nationes
- "Full text of "Officers of the Marischal College and University of Aberdeen, 1593-1860"". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-10-14.