Studholme Hodgson

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Studholme Hodgson
Studholme Hodgson-cropped.jpg
Engraving by William Bond after a painting by George Romney
Born 1708
Died 20 October 1798 (aged 89 or 90)
Old Burlington Street, London
Place of burial St James's Church, Piccadilly
Allegiance  Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch  British Army
Years of service 1728–1798
Rank Field Marshal
Battles/wars War of the Austrian Succession
Jacobite Rebellion
French and Indian War
Seven Years' War

Field Marshal Studholme Hodgson (1708 – 20 October 1798) was a British Army officer who served during the 18th century. After serving as an Aide-de-Camp to the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Fontenoy during the War of the Austrian Succession and at the Battle of Culloden during the Jacobite Rebellion, he became correspondent to William Barrington, the Secretary at War, during the French and Indian War. He went on to command the British expedition which captured Belle Île in June 1761 during the Seven Years' War so enabling the British Government to use the island as a bargaining piece during the negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Paris in 1763.

Military career[edit]

Born the son of John Hodgson, a merchant from Carlisle, and educated at Carlisle Grammar School,[1] Hodgson was commissioned as an ensign in the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards and lieutenant in the Army on 2 January 1728.[2] He was promoted to captain in his regiment and lieutenant in the Army on 3 February 1741.[2]

Hodgson was appointed Aide-de-Camp to the Duke of Cumberland in early 1745 and fought under Cumberland at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745 during the War of the Austrian Succession.[3] He also fought under Cumberland at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the Jacobite Rebellion.[3] Promoted to captain in his regiment and lieutenant colonel in the Army on 18 May 1847, he became correspondent to William Barrington, the Secretary at War, in 1755 during the French and Indian War.[4]

Hodgson raised a new regiment (later the 50th Regiment of Foot) in 1756 and served under Sir John Mordaunt, as a brigade commander, during the unsuccessful Raid on Rochefort in September 1757 during the Seven Years' War.[5] Promoted to major-general on 15 September 1759,[6] he became colonel of the 5th Regiment of Foot in October 1759.[5]

Hodgson led a British raid on Belle Île, off the coast of France. After the initial British attack was repulsed a second attempt forced a beachhead. A second landing was made and, after a six-week siege, the island's main citadel at Le Palais was stormed, consolidating British control of the island in June 1761.[3] He was much congratulated by both the King and William Pitt, Secretary of State for the Southern Department, as this "important and critical operation" enabled the British Government to use Belle Île as a bargaining piece during the negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Paris in 1763.[3] Promoted to lieutenant general on 23 March 1765,[7] he became Governor of Fort George and Fort Augustus in September 1765.[8]

Hodgson became colonel of the 4th Regiment of Foot in November 1768 and, having been promoted to full general on 2 April 1778,[9] he became colonel of the 7th Dragoon Guards in June 1782[10] and colonel of the 11th Light Dragoons in March 1789.[5]

Hodgson was promoted to field marshal on 30 July 1796.[11] He died at his home in Old Burlington Street in London on 20 October 1798 and was buried at St James's Church, Piccadilly.[5]

Family[edit]

The attack on Belle Île in 1761

In July 1756 Hodgson married Catherine Howard, sister of Field Marshal Sir George Howard; they had three sons and two daughters.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Studholme Hodgson". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Heathcote, p. 178
  3. ^ a b c d Cannon, p. 149
  4. ^ "Studholme Hodgson". The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d Heathcote, p. 179
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 9930. p. 1. 11 September 1759. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10507. p. 1. 23 March 1765. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10558. p. 1. 17 September 1765. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 11865. p. 1. 11 April 1778. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  10. ^ The London Gazette: no. 12317. p. 1. 27 July 1782. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13918. p. 743. 2 August 1796. Retrieved 5 July 2014.

Sources[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
James Abercromby
Colonel of the 50th Regiment of Foot
1756–1759
Succeeded by
John Griffin Griffin
Preceded by
Lord George Bentinck
Colonel of the 5th Regiment of Foot
1759–1768
Succeeded by
Earl Percy
Preceded by
Hon. Robert Brudenell
Colonel of the 4th (The King's Own) Regiment of Foot
1768–1782
Succeeded by
Sir John Burgoyne
Preceded by
Philip Honywood
Colonel of the 7th (The Princess Royal's) Dragoon Guards
1782–1789
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Grey
Preceded by
The Lord Dover
Colonel of the 11th Regiment of (Light) Dragoons
1789–1798
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Lothian