Stupor is the lack of critical cognitive function and a level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain. A person is also rigid and mute and only appears to be conscious as the eyes are open and follow surrounding objects. The word derives from the [1 ] Latin stupor, meaning insensible. Being characterised by impairments of reactions to [2 ] external stimuli, it usually appears in infectious diseases, complicated toxic states, severe hypothermia, mental illnesses (e.g. schizophrenia, severe clinical depression), vascular illnesses (e.g. hypertensive encephalopathy), shock (e.g. learning of a death or surviving a car accident), neoplasms (e.g. brain tumors), vitamin D deficiency and so on. [3 ]
Symptoms [ edit ]
If not stimulated externally, a patient with stupor will be in a
sleepy state most of the time. In some extreme cases of severe depressive disorders the patient can become motionless, lose their appetite and become mute. Short periods of restricted [1 ] responsivity can be achieved by intense stimulation (e.g. pain, bright light, loud noise, shock).
Localization of brain lesions [ edit ]
Lesions of the
Ascending Reticular Activation System on height of the pons and metencephalon have been shown to cause stupor. The incidence is higher after left-sided lesions.
See also [ edit ]
^ a b Gelder, M, Mayou, R. and Geddes, J. 2005. Psychiatry. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford.
^ Berrios G E (1981) Stupor: A Conceptual History. Psychological Medicine 11: 677-688
^ Berrios G E (1981) Stupor Revisited. Comprehensive Psychiatry 22: 466-478
References [ edit ]