Sturgeon Point Light

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Sturgeon Point Light
Sturgeon Point Light - Michigan - 2003.11.jpg
The light in winter.
Sturgeon Point Light is located in Michigan
Sturgeon Point Light
Location Haynes Township, Alcona County, Michigan, USA
Coordinates 44°42′45.7″N 83°16′21.8″W / 44.712694°N 83.272722°W / 44.712694; -83.272722Coordinates: 44°42′45.7″N 83°16′21.8″W / 44.712694°N 83.272722°W / 44.712694; -83.272722
Year first constructed 1869
Year first lit 1869
Automated 1939
Foundation Limestone
Construction Brick
Tower shape Frustum of a cone
Markings / pattern white daymark with red trim
Height 71 feet (22 m)[1][2]
Focal height 69 feet (21 m)[3]
Original lens Sixth order Fresnel Lens[4]
Current lens 3½-order Fresnel Lens
Range 9 nautical miles (17 km; 10 mi)[5]
Characteristic flash every six seconds
ARLHS number USA-943[6][7]
USCG number 7-11345
Sturgeon Point Light Station
Nearest city Harrisville, Michigan
Area 1 acre (0.40 ha)
Built 1869
Architect United States Lighthouse Board
Architectural style Cape Cod style
Governing body Michigan Department of Natural Resources with lease to Alcona County Historical Society and access by to optic by U.S. Coast Guard/ State of Michigan.[9]
MPS U.S. Coast Guard Lighthouses and Light Stations on the Great Lakes TR
NRHP Reference # 84001370[8]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP July 19, 1984
Designated MSHS February 18, 1982[10]

The Sturgeon Point Light Station is a lighthouse on Lake Huron in Haynes Township, Alcona County, northeastern lower Michigan. Established to ward mariners off a reef that extends 1.5 miles (2.4 km) lakeward from Sturgeon Point,[1] it is today regarded as a historic example of a Cape Cod style Great Lakes lighthouse.[11]

History[edit]

The light station was built in 1869 by the United States Lighthouse Board. The Board was in the midst of a lighthouse building boom on the Great Lakes due to increased maritime traffic, and in response to a large number of lost ships and men: Congress approved 70 lights on the western Great Lakes in thirty years: 28 in the 1850s, and 21 in each of the following decades.[12][13] The location is roughly halfway between Alpena's Thunder Bay Island and the northern entry to Saginaw Bay. Importantly, this point sits atop a formidable reef that is an imminent hazard to navigation. Moreover, the area north of Sturgeon Point and south of Alcona, Michigan is a bay that can provide shelter from northerly and southerly winds and waves. Historically, this area is locally known as "Sanctuary Bay," which is in distinct contrast to "Misery Bay", the area to the north, between Alpena and Thunder Bay Island. The Lighthouse Board further recognized that being able to navigate close to (but not over) the reef and the point would aid transport into and out of Saginaw Bay.[11]

It is made of brick masonry on an ashlar limestone foundation.[14] The tower stands 70 feet 9 inches (21.56 m) in height, with a diameter of 16 feet (4.9 m) at the base.[1] The focal plane is listed by the Coast Guard at 69 feet (21 m), which would be the height from the "mean high water mark," That figure is important, in that it could be used by mariners to chart their location, using a method of triangulation to give them the distance to the light.[15] The adjoining, two-story Lighthouse keeper’s quarters was designed in the Cape Cod style and built of the same materials.[14] At the time, the Board was often using this architectural motif. In fact, Poverty Island Light, built in 1874, is considered to be a "sibling" as it is a direct copy of Sturgeon Point.[16][17]

The light was set to begin its service with a sixth-order Fresnel lens /frˈnɛl/ which was upgraded to a 3½-order lens (that was originally installed at Oswego, New York).[14][18] It was one of only a dozen used around the country, most of which were on the Great Lakes. The other Great Lakes 3½-order lenses were at (in alphabetical order): DeTour Reef (two 3½-order lenses, after the bivalve lens broke), Eagle Bluff, Grays Reef, Huron Island, Michigan Island, St. Helena Island, and Toledo Harbor.[19]

The lens at Sturgeon Point is without a doubt a third-and-a-half order lens. As Terry Pepper, Executive Director of the Great Lakes Lighthouse Keeper Association, wrote on August 6, 2012: "I have measured it personally."[20]

As further proof, on July 22, 1870, the District Lampist visited the Station and made the following entry in his inspection journal:

"Sturgeon Point, No. 449 – This is a new station first lighted to the opening of navigation this spring. The illuminating apparatus consists of a 3 ½ Order Fresnel lens of 270°, Henry Lepaute maker, and is fitted with Funck’s hydraulic float lamps, showing a fixed white light. The illuminating apparatus was in excellent condition with the exception of one of the spare burners which had been damaged. It was taken on board for repairs. A spirit lamp to aid in heating the oil in severe cold weather is required."[18]

However, for reasons unknown, there are conflicting reports as to the size of the present lens, with some reporting it as a third order, and orders as a 3½-order Fresnel lens.

The 3½-order Fresnel lens is still in place and was in use as of July 31, 2012. This is one of only 70 such Fresnel lenses that are still operational in the United States, sixteen of which are use on the Great Lakes of which eight are in Michigan.[A]

In 1876, the light station was joined in its service by an adjacent United States Life-Saving Service station.[1][21][22]

There is no question that the presence of this light on this highly dangerous reef has forestalled "countless accidents."[23]

In 1875, a U.S. Life-Saving Service station was opened. The first light keeper became the first captain of the surf team.[24]

In 1915, this station became part of the U.S. Coast Guard.

In 1939 the U.S. Lighthouse Service also merged under the control of the U.S. Coast Guard. In the same year the station was electrified and automated.[1][11]

By the 1940s, the light was fully automated, and the Coast Guard withdrew all personnel in 1941 and thereafter dismantled the life-saving station.[1] One source claims (erroneously) that the lifesaving saving station and the lighthouse were "abandoned" in the 1940s; in point of fact personnel were withdrawn, but the light remains an active aid to navigation to this day.[25][26]

The lifesaving bell was purloined in 1951, and was "anonymously returned" in 2002 to the custody of the Alcona County Historical Society (according to a plaque at the light). The fog horn building was torn down.[11] The brick outhouse, built in 1869, remains, however.[14]

The Life Saving station's foundation is still visible.[24] The lifesaving watch tower also was torn down.[27]

In 1982 the Alcona Historical Society leased the light and began a three-years restoration project.[26]

The keeper's house itself fell into disrepair until it was taken over by the Alcona Historical Society in 1982.

Historic context[edit]

The light and United States Life-Saving Service station in approximately 1900-1910.

Contemporary status[edit]

Undated aerial image by USCG

Ownership was transferred from the Coast Guard to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources under the terms of the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act, and operations are maintained by the Alcona Historical Society.[14][31]

During the planning stages of the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, the Sturgeon Point Light was proposed to mark the southernmost extent of the sanctuary,[21] although the final sanctuary boundary was drawn short of the light.[32] Nevertheless, 15 historic shipwrecks have been identified with place of loss listed as "Sturgeon Point".[21] Indeed, the question of expanding the National Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve continues to be a subject of inquiry and discussion.[33]

Although the United States Coast Guard continues to operate the light,[1] the property has been transferred to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources under the terms of the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act.[14] The transfer from the Department of the interior was effective May 2005.[34] The Alcona Historical Society operates a museum in the restored historic buildings.[1][21] The Sturgeon Point Light was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.[35] Sturgeon Point, on which the lighthouse is built, is a Michigan Scenic Site overseen by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.[36] It is listed as part of the National Maritime Heritage Program with the National Park Service.[37] The station structure is also listed as a state historic site in February 1982.[38]

Additionally, it is on the National Register of Historic Places, Reference #84001370, Name of Listing: STURGEON POINT LIGHT STATION (U.S. COAST GUARD/GREAT LAKES TR) and is also on the state inventory, being listed in 1969.[14][14][39]

In 2006, the U.S. Coast Guard sought to forever darken the light, and in fact shut it off for a short time. Resistance to the initiative developed, and over five thousand signatures were collected on petitions to "Save Our Light."[40] Numerous public comments were submitted as part of the regulatory process. In due course, an arrangement was made whereby the light was left on (albeit with its operating expenses to be paid by the Alcona County Historical Society) and it was designated as an official "seasonal private aid to navigation." from April 1 through November 1.[41] The Coast Guard reversed course after the public pressure, and after the intervention of Senator Debbie Stabenow and the fresnel lens and the light remained on through July 2012.[1][42]

A transfer of ownership of the light itself, from the Coast Guard to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, is still languishing as of 2012 under the terms of the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act. The Alcona County Historical Society is a lessee at this time.[43]

Because of its picturesque form and location, it is often the subject of photographs, paintings,[44] drawings,[45] and even of needlepoint illustrations.[46] In fact, it is also the setting of an illustrated children's storybook.[47]

The site supports sea grasses in many forms, goldenrod, Queen-Anne's Lace, yarrow, and wild strawberry. Gulls, cormorant, killdeer, loons are frequent visitors, along with bald eagles that make their home on the bay.[31]

The following contact information may be of use to travelers: Sturgeon Point Lighthouse & Maritime Museum Sturgeon Point Road Harrisville, MI 48740 (989) 724-5107[1]

Current events at the lighthouse and museum[edit]

  • The lighthouse is located in Sturgeon Point Scenic Site, a Michigan state park.
  • The lighthouse is maintained and operated by the Alcona Historical Society, a private organization that funds the maintenance and operation with few public funds. The Society is in the process of raising contributions to renovate and paint the lighthouse.[1]
  • The tower is regularly open during the summer for climbing by the public (for a small fee to cover insurance costs). The museum is open to the public, and is supported by donations.[1]
  • On the grounds is the Old Bailey School, a 1907 One-room school house, which was moved there from Mikado, Michigan in 1998.[1][31]
  • A strawberry social is held at the at Bailey School on the last Sunday of June (adjacent to the lighthouse) which has as its purpose fund raising for the Alcona Historical Society.[1]
  • The annual Sturgeon Point Light Station Sanctuary Bay sail boat race, which also has a local picnic, is also a fundraiser for the Alcona County Historical Society. It is regularly held on the first Saturday in August, and is a handicapped race for day sailors of all classes. The course is two times around a triangular 6 mile (9.2 kilometer) course in Sanctuary Bay, the area between Sturgeon Point Light and Alcona.[1]
  • Michigan is the only state that supports lighthouse preservation with a program that includes annual grants from the state to local preservation groups. Consequently, there are many organizations and their volunteers working hard to save and restore lighthouses. The Michigan Lighthouse Conservancy is a state preservation society, and the Great Lakes Lighthouse Keepers Association is based in the state.[48] The Alcona County Historical Society is in the process of collecting $70,000.00 for renovation (particularly brick work and painting) of its light, half of which is being funded by the state of Michigan. The White Shoal light is the prominent design element—used by the State of Michigan as an icon to generate revenue—on its Save Our Lights, Michigan License Plate.[49]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Fresnel Lenses Still in Operation" (pdf). United States Coast Guard. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  which reports that Sturgeon Point is the larger third order lens, not the somewhat smaller (and more rare) 3½-order See also, "Grosse Point Light study". Maritime Light Inventory. National Park Service. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  which disregards Sturgeon Point and Bete Grise Light (which has its original lens), and proffers a count of "four remaining lenses" -- it lists them -- on the Great Lakes. However, it appears to may be that the article is only intending to list lights that have "their original lens in situ"— "For example, on the Great Lakes, only three others besides Grosse Point have retained their Fresnel lenses in place since being installed: a fourth-order lens at Little Traverse Harbor, Michigan (1884), a third-order lens at Split Rock, Minnesota (1910), and a third-order lens at Presque Isle Light, Michigan (1871) {footnotes omitted.]"— and by that definition, Sturgeon Point is not on that list, as it has a the larger replacement lens. According to the Life Saving Service's District Lampist, the upgrade occurred within the first year of operation, not in 1889 as indicated by some sources.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Alcona Historical Society. "Sturgeon Point Lighthouse & Museum". Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  2. ^ Pepper, Terry. "Database of Tower Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  3. ^ Pepper, Terry. "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  4. ^ But see Pepper, Terry. "Database of Original Lenses". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  5. ^ Light List, Volume VII, Great Lakes (PDF). Light List. United States Coast Guard. 
  6. ^ "Sturgeon Point (Lake Huron) Light ARLHS USA-823". Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  7. ^ "World List of Lights (WLOL)". Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  8. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  9. ^ "Sturgeon Point Light". Michigan Lighthouse Conservancy. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  10. ^ State of Michigan (2009). "Sturgeon Point Light Station". Retrieved August 1, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c d Pepper, Terry. "Sturgeon Point Light Station". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  12. ^ Pepper, Terry. "Establishment years of western Great Lakes Lights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  13. ^ See also the chronology at Wagner, John L. "Beacons Shining in the Night: The Lighthouses of Michigan". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h National Park Service (2005). "Sturgeon Point Light". Inventory of Historic Light Stations. Marine Heritage Program. Retrieved 2007-03-31. 
  15. ^ Pepper, Terry. "List of heights (with sources) of western Great Lakes lights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  16. ^ Pepper, Terry. "Poverty Island Light". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  17. ^ Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 
  18. ^ a b District Lampist Inspection Journal, July 22, 1870. The Journal may be found in the National Archives in Washington.
  19. ^ Pepper, Terry. "3½-order Fresnel lens". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012.  which mistakenly does not list this among the Great Lakes 3½-order lights.
  20. ^ E-mail from Terry Pepper dated August 6, 2012
  21. ^ a b c d e f National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1999). Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Final Environmental Impact Statement/Management Plan (PDF). Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  22. ^ Peterson, Cheryl. "More Sturgeon Point Lighthouse". Alcona County Review. Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  23. ^ Roberts, Bruce; Jones, Ray (September 2002). American Lighthouses:A Definitive Guide (2nd ed.). Globe Pequot Press. p. 304. ISBN 1-59223-102-0.  ISBN 978-1-59223-102-7; ISBN 978-0-7627-2269-3.
  24. ^ a b Wobser, David. "Sturgeon Point Light". Boatnerd.com. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  25. ^ Roach, Jerry (July 2006). "Lighthouse Central, Sturgeon Point light". The Ultimate Guide to East Michigan Lighthouses (Bugs Publishing LLC). ISBN 0-9747977-1-5. Retrieved August 7, 2012.  ISBN 978-0-9747977-1-7.
  26. ^ a b Thunderbay National Marine Sanctuary, Sturgeon Point Light.
  27. ^ Photograph of life saving watch tower, Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light.
  28. ^ Thumb Shipwreck Preserve, John A. McGean.
  29. ^ a b Northeast dive news, Isaac M. Scott.
  30. ^ The Lakeshore Guardian :: December 2003 :: Sunken History
  31. ^ a b c Petersen, Cheryl. "Sturgeon Point Lighthouse". Alcona Review. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  32. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "About the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve". Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Official Site. Retrieved 2007-03-31. 
  33. ^ Testimony by Jefferson Gray, Superintendent of Thunder Bay Marine Sanctuary concerning its expansion, May 6, 2008.
  34. ^ Department of Interior News Release.
  35. ^ National Park Service. "National Register Information System". Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  36. ^ Michigan Department of Natural Resources. "Sturgeon Point Scenic Site". Retrieved 2007-07-22. 
  37. ^ National Park Service Maritime Heritage Sites
  38. ^ Sturgeon Point Light Station, Historic Sites Online, Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries
  39. ^ National Park Service, Inventory of historic light stations, Sturgeon Point.
  40. ^ Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Michigan's Eastern Lower Peninsula". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 
  41. ^ Archive of LNM announcements District 9, week 1/2009, (file lnm09012009.pdf)
  42. ^ "Sturgeon Point to remain on". Lighthouse Depot. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Sturgeon Point". Michigan lighthouse fund. Retrieved August 8, 2012. 
  44. ^ Nicki Thompson, Painting of Sturgeon Point Light.
  45. ^ Mulgrew, Marilyn, Drawing of Sturgeon Point Light.
  46. ^ "Needlepoint of Sturgeon Point Light.". [dead link]
  47. ^ Briggs-Bunting, Jane, and Jon Buechel, llustrator. Laddie of the Light. (Black River Trading Co., 1997). ISBN 978-0-9649083-1-4 ISBN 0-9649083-1-X.
  48. ^ Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Michigan's Western Lower Peninsula". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 
  49. ^ White Shoal Light on "Save Our Lights" license plate. Lighthouses of the North.

Further reading[edit]

  • Alcona Historical Society, A Pictorial of Sturgeon Point (1987)
  • Harrison, Tim (editor of Lighthouse Digest and President of the American Lighthouse Foundation), (September 2009) Ghost Lights of Michigan (Rare historic images and text on Michigan's lost and obscure lighthouse, including bonus chapters on lightships and lighthouse tenders.) East Machias, Maine: Foghorn Publishing, ISBN 978-0-9778293-3-0.
  • Oleszewski, Wes, Great Lakes Lighthouses, American and Canadian: A Comprehensive Directory/Guide to Great Lakes Lighthouses, (Gwinn, Michigan: Avery Color Studios, Inc., 1998) ISBN 0-932212-98-0.
  • Sapulski, Wayne S., (2001) Lighthouses of Lake Michigan: Past and Present (Paperback) (Fowlerville: Wilderness Adventure Books) ISBN 0-923568-47-6; ISBN 978-0-923568-47-4.
  • Splake, T. Kilgore. Superior Land Lights. Battle Creek, MI: Angst Productions, 1984.
  • Swenson, Helen. "Sturgeon Point Coast Guard Station." Central Michigan University Term Paper, Clarke Historical Library, 1967.
  • Wargin, Ed, Legends of Light: A Michigan Lighthouse Portfolio. Ann Arbor Media Group, 2006. ISBN 978-1-58726-251-7.
  • Wright, Larry and Wright, Patricia, Great Lakes Lighthouses Encyclopedia Boston Mills Press, 2006. ISBN 1-55046-399-3.

External links[edit]